Gene Symbol: ttr
Description: transthyretin (prealbumin, amyloidosis type I)
Alias: zgc:103583, transthyretin
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Wang Q, Liang K, Liu J, Yang L, Guo Y, Liu C, et al. Exposure of zebrafish embryos/larvae to TDCPP alters concentrations of thyroid hormones and transcriptions of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Aquat Toxicol. 2013;126:207-13 pubmed publisher
  2. Yu L, Deng J, Shi X, Liu C, Yu K, Zhou B. Exposure to DE-71 alters thyroid hormone levels and gene transcription in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis of zebrafish larvae. Aquat Toxicol. 2010;97:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, DE-71 exposure resulted in the downregulation of transthyretin (TTR) gene transcription and did not affect the transcription of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs)...
  3. Tu W, Xu C, Lu B, Lin C, Wu Y, Liu W. Acute exposure to synthetic pyrethroids causes bioconcentration and disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryos. Sci Total Environ. 2016;542:876-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the majority of the HPT axis-related genes examined, including CRH, TSHβ, TTR, UGT1ab, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα, were significantly upregulated in the presence of BF...
  4. Zhu B, Wang Q, Wang X, Zhou B. Impact of co-exposure with lead and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on thyroid function in zebrafish larvae. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;157:186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..e., expression of the mRNA or proteins of transthyretin)...
  5. Wagner K, Ying Y, Leong W, Jiang J, Hu X, Chen Y, et al. The differential spatiotemporal expression pattern of shelterin genes throughout lifespan. Aging (Albany NY). 2017;9:1219-1232 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this work shows that the shelterin subunits exhibit distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, suggesting important tissue-specific functions during development and aging. ..
  6. Yu L, Chen M, Liu Y, Gui W, Zhu G. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae following exposure to hexaconazole and tebuconazole. Aquat Toxicol. 2013;138-139:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..e., corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH?), sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), transthyretin (TTR), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1ab), thyronine deiodinase (Dio1 and Dio2), thyroid ..
  7. Chen Q, Yu L, Yang L, Zhou B. Bioconcentration and metabolism of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) result in thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae. Aquat Toxicol. 2012;110-111:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the genes encoding proteins involved in TH transport (transthyretin, TTR) and metabolism (uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase, UGT1ab) were transcriptionally ..
  8. Mesquita S, van Drooge B, Dall Osto M, Grimalt J, Barata C, Vieira N, et al. Toxic potential of organic constituents of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in an urban road site (Barcelona). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:15406-15415 pubmed publisher
    ..emissions, whereas expression of gene markers related to antioxidant defence and endocrine effects (gstal, hao1, ttr) was strongly reduced in samples with strong contribution from regional air masses with aged secondary organic ..
  9. Yu L, Lam J, Guo Y, Wu R, Lam P, Zhou B. Parental transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:10652-9 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, we demonstrated that parental exposure to low concentrations of PBDEs could affect THs in the offspring and the transgenerational PBDE-induced toxicity in subsequent nonexposed generations. ..

More Information


  1. Zhu Y, Su G, Yang D, Zhang Y, Yu L, Li Y, et al. Time-dependent inhibitory effects of Tris(1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate on growth and transcription of genes involved in the GH/IGF axis, but not the HPT axis, in female zebrafish. Environ Pollut. 2017;229:470-478 pubmed publisher
  2. Yu L, Zhao G, Feng M, Wen W, Li K, Zhang P, et al. Chronic exposure to pentachlorophenol alters thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone pathway mRNAs in zebrafish. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..including changes in mRNA levels for deiodinase 2 (dio2), cytosolic sulfotransferase (sult1 st5), and transthyretin (ttr) genes in the liver...
  3. Cao C, Wang Q, Jiao F, Zhu G. Impact of co-exposure with butachlor and triadimefon on thyroid endocrine system in larval zebrafish. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2016;68:463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, gene data showed BTL up-regulated the mRNA expression of tpo, tsh?, tg, ttr, dio2, TDF up-regulated the mRNA expression of tpo, tr?, ttr, dio2 and down-regulated tr? gene...
  4. Cheng Y, Ekker M, Chan H. Relative developmental toxicities of pentachloroanisole and pentachlorophenol in a zebrafish model (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015;112:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results on the relative developmental toxicities of PCA and PCP and the possible underlying mechanisms will be useful to support interpretation of envrionmental concentrations and body burden levels observed in human populations. ..
  5. Mesquita S, Dachs J, van Drooge B, Castro Jiménez J, Navarro Martín L, Barata C, et al. Toxicity assessment of atmospheric particulate matter in the Mediterranean and Black Seas open waters. Sci Total Environ. 2016;545-546:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study emphasizes the need for more in-depth studies into the toxic burden of atmospheric PM on aquatic ecosystems, in order to improve future regulatory guidelines. ..
  6. Huang G, Tian X, Fang X, Ji F. Waterborne exposure to bisphenol F causes thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae. Chemosphere. 2016;147:188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the gene encoding protein involved in TH transport (ttr) was transcriptionally significantly down-regulated after exposure to BPF...
  7. Yang J, Chan K. Evaluation of the toxic effects of brominated compounds (BDE-47, 99, 209, TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;159:138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..BPA and the brominated compounds tested were able to disrupt the TH system at the gene expression level, probably through the deiodination pathways. ..
  8. Liang X, Yu L, Gui W, Zhu G. Exposure to difenoconazole causes changes of thyroid hormone and gene expression levels in zebrafish larvae. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;40:983-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the mRNA transcription of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tshβ), transthyretin (ttr), thyronine deiodinase (dio1 and dio2), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (ugt1ab) in the HPT ..
  9. Liu L, Li Y, Coelhan M, Chan H, Ma W, Liu L. Relative developmental toxicity of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Environ Pollut. 2016;219:1122-1130 pubmed publisher
    ..Only C10H18Cl4 significantly decreased the mRNA expression of tyr, ttr, dio2 and dio3 at a dose-dependent manner suggesting that the specific mode of actions differ with different ..
  10. Zhao X, Wang S, Li D, You H, Ren X. Effects of perchlorate on BDE-47-induced alteration thyroid hormone and gene expression of in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish larvae. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;36:1176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of TG at the gene and protein levels was significantly up-regulated, but the expression of TTR was significantly down-regulated in the co-exposures relative to BDE-47 treated alone...
  11. Jia P, Ma Y, Lu C, Mirza Z, Zhang W, Jia Y, et al. The Effects of Disturbance on Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid (HPT) Axis in Zebrafish Larvae after Exposure to DEHP. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0155762 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the transcript of transthyretin (ttr) was up-regulated, while the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors (trα and trβ) remained unchanged...
  12. Zhao X, Ren X, Ren B, Luo Z, Zhu R. Life-cycle exposure to BDE-47 results in thyroid endocrine disruption to adults and offsprings of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;48:157-167 pubmed publisher
    ..All exposures significantly up-regulated expression of tshß, pa8, ugt1 and tg and down-regulated ttr. Significant up-regulation of dio2 and crh was observed in the 10?g/L BDE-47 group...
  13. Cheng H, Yan W, Wu Q, Liu C, Gong X, Hung T, et al. Parental exposure to microcystin-LR induced thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish offspring, a transgenerational toxicity. Environ Pollut. 2017;230:981-988 pubmed publisher
    ..We regard these adverse effects as a parental transgenerational toxicity of MCLR. ..
  14. Zhou Z, Yang J, Chan K. Toxic effects of triclosan on a zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cell line, ZFL. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;191:175-188 pubmed publisher
    ..The impairment of Cyp1a mRNA expression could be due to stimulation by other stressors such as oxidative stress, warranting further investigation into the underlying mechanism in zebrafish. ..
  15. Shi X, Liu C, Wu G, Zhou B. Waterborne exposure to PFOS causes disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish larvae. Chemosphere. 2009;77:1010-8 pubmed publisher
    ..hormone (TSH), sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), transthyretin (TTR), iodothyronine deiodinases (Dio1 and Dio2) and thyroid receptor (TRalpha and TRbeta), was quantitatively ..
  16. Kasai K, Nishiyama N, Yamauchi K. Characterization of Oncorhynchus mykiss 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase/transthyretin superfamily: evolutionary and functional analyses. Gene. 2013;531:326-36 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Transthyretin (TTR), an extracellular thyroid hormone (TH) binding protein, is thought to have evolved from an ancestral 5-..
  17. Tu W, Xu C, Jin Y, Lu B, Lin C, Wu Y, et al. Permethrin is a potential thyroid-disrupting chemical: In vivo and in silico envidence. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;175:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Further Western blot analysis indicated that transthyretin (TTR) protein was significantly increased...
  18. Kim S, Jung J, Lee I, Jung D, Youn H, Choi K. Thyroid disruption by triphenyl phosphate, an organophosphate flame retardant, in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos/larvae, and in GH3 and FRTL-5 cell lines. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;160:188-96 pubmed publisher TPP also significantly up-regulated the expression of the genes related to the metabolism (dio1), transport (ttr), and elimination (ugt1ab) of thyroid hormones...
  19. Tang T, Yang Y, Chen Y, Tang W, Wang F, Diao X. Thyroid Disruption in Zebrafish Larvae by Short-Term Exposure to Bisphenol AF. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:13069-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of thyronine deiodinases type 1, type 2 and transthyretin mRNAs were also significantly up-regulated, which were possibly associated with a deterioration of thyroid ..
  20. Zhai W, Huang Z, Chen L, Feng C, Li B, Li T. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae after exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92465 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the genes encoding proteins involved in TH transport (transthyretin, TTR) was transcriptionally significantly down-regulated after exposure to MEHP...
  21. Zanotti G, Cendron L, Ramazzina I, Folli C, Percudani R, Berni R. Structure of zebra fish HIUase: insights into evolution of an enzyme to a hormone transporter. J Mol Biol. 2006;363:1-9 pubmed
    ..encoding 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase (HIUase), a widely distributed enzyme of purine metabolism, gave rise to transthyretin (TTR), a thyroid hormone transporter...
  22. Liu Y, Wang J, Fang X, Zhang H, Dai J. The thyroid-disrupting effects of long-term perfluorononanoate exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In the liver, the abundance of gene transcript encoding the protein transthyretin (TTR) was significantly induced, while the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in F(0) adult males was ..
  23. Liu Z, Li D, Hu Q, Tang R, Li L. Effects of exposure to microcystin-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicon. 2016;124:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh), transthyretin (ttr), thyroid hormone receptors (trs) genes, and the activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) were ..
  24. Guo Y, Zhou B. Thyroid endocrine system disruption by pentachlorophenol: an in vitro and in vivo assay. Aquat Toxicol. 2013;142-143:138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..PCP exposure did not influence the transcription of the transthyretin (TTR) gene...
  25. Du J, Wang S, You H, Liu Z. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles on perfluorooctane sulfonate induced thyroid-disrupting on zebrafish larvae. J Environ Sci (China). 2016;47:153-164 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors and significantly down-regulated the expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin (TG), transthyretin (TTR) and thyroid receptors...
  26. Sun H, Li H, Xiang P, Zhang X, Ma L. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish. Environ Pollut. 2015;205:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..3-1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish. ..
  27. Zhang D, Zhou E, Yang Z. Waterborne exposure to BPS causes thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176927 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the transcript of transthyretin (ttr) was significantly down-regulated at ? 3 ?g/L of BPS, while the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors (..
  28. Han Z, Li Y, Zhang S, Song N, Xu H, Dang Y, et al. Prenatal transfer of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) results in disruption of the thyroid system and developmental toxicity in zebrafish offspring. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;190:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..down-regulated in F1 individuals, while expressions of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (tshr) and transthyretin (ttr) were significantly up-regulated...
  29. Kim S, Sohn J, Ha S, Kang H, Yim U, Shim W, et al. Thyroid Hormone Disruption by Water-Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil and Sediments Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Zebrafish and GH3 Cells. Environ Sci Technol. 2016;50:5972-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Sediment samples also showed thyroid disrupting potentials in the GH3 cell, even several years after the oil spill. Long-term ecosystem consequences of thyroid hormone disruption due to oil spill deserve further investigation. ..
  30. Lau M, Kwong E, Lai K, Li J, Ho J, Chan T, et al. Pathogenesis of POLR1C-dependent Type 3 Treacher Collins Syndrome revealed by a zebrafish model. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1862:1147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we partially rescued the TCS facial phenotype in the background of p53 mutants, which supported the hypothesis that POLR1C-dependent type 3 TCS is associated with the p53 pathway. ..
  31. Zheng X, Zhu Y, Liu C, Liu H, Giesy J, Hecker M, et al. Accumulation and biotransformation of BDE-47 by zebrafish larvae and teratogenicity and expression of genes along the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:12943-51 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptors (TRs, including TR? and TR?), sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), and transthyretin (TTR) while up-regulating expression of thyroglobulin (TG) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)...
  32. Mesquita S, van Drooge B, Oliveira E, Grimalt J, Barata C, Vieira N, et al. Differential embryotoxicity of the organic pollutants in rural and urban air particles. Environ Pollut. 2015;206:535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed effects can be directly related to air pollution-related human disorders, suggesting different potential adverse outcomes for human populations exposed to air pollution from specific sources. ..
  33. Chen T, Cheng Y, Cheng J, Chou C, Hsiao Y, Ko F. Growth and transcriptional effect of dietary 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47) exposure in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..At 38 dph, half of the fish were sampled for body size measurements and gene expression analyzes (CYP1A1, VTG, TTR, D1, and TSH-beta). At 60 dph, body size was measured again for all fish remaining...
  34. Jianjie C, Wenjuan X, Jinling C, Jie S, Ruhui J, Meiyan L. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2016;171:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ)...