Gene Symbol: tph2
Description: tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tryptophan 5-monooxygenase)
Alias: tphR, wu:fq15a04, tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 2, tph2a, tryptophan hydroxylase R
Species: zebrafish
Products:     tph2

Top Publications

  1. Teraoka H, Russell C, Regan J, Chandrasekhar A, Concha M, Yokoyama R, et al. Hedgehog and Fgf signaling pathways regulate the development of tphR-expressing serotonergic raphe neurons in zebrafish embryos. J Neurobiol. 2004;60:275-88 pubmed
    ..As part of this study, we cloned and analyzed a novel zebrafish tph gene named tphR. Unlike two other zebrafish tph genes (tphD1 and tphD2), tphR is expressed in serotonergic raphe neurons, similar ..
  2. Lillesaar C, Tannhäuser B, Stigloher C, Kremmer E, Bally Cuif L. The serotonergic phenotype is acquired by converging genetic mechanisms within the zebrafish central nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1072-84 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, by combining expression analyses of pet1 and the raphe tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph2) with rhombomere identity markers, we show that anterior and posterior hindbrain clusters of serotonergic ..
  3. Yokogawa T, Hannan M, Burgess H. The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context. ..
  4. Norton W, Mangoli M, Lele Z, Pogoda H, Diamond B, Mercurio S, et al. Monorail/Foxa2 regulates floorplate differentiation and specification of oligodendrocytes, serotonergic raphé neurones and cranial motoneurones. Development. 2005;132:645-58 pubmed
  5. Jacob J, Ribes V, Moore S, Constable S, Sasai N, Gerety S, et al. Valproic acid silencing of ascl1b/Ascl1 results in the failure of serotonergic differentiation in a zebrafish model of fetal valproate syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide a molecular explanation for serotonergic defects in FVS and highlight an epigenetic mechanism for genome-environment interaction in disease. ..
  6. Ogawa S, Ng K, Ramadasan P, Nathan F, Parhar I. Habenular Kiss1 neurons modulate the serotonergic system in the brain of zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..3- and 2.2-fold, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that the autocrine-regulated habenular Kiss1 neurons indirectly regulate the serotonergic system in the raphe nuclei through the IPN in the zebrafish. ..
  7. Donizetti A, Grossi M, Pariante P, D Aniello E, Izzo G, Minucci S, et al. Two neuron clusters in the stem of postembryonic zebrafish brain specifically express relaxin-3 gene: first evidence of nucleus incertus in fish. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3864-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This pattern indicates both conserved and divergent expression features of the relaxin-3 gene among developing zebrafish and rat brains, where only scattered cells express the gene in the periaqueductal gray. ..
  8. Lillesaar C, Stigloher C, Tannhäuser B, Wullimann M, Bally Cuif L. Axonal projections originating from raphe serotonergic neurons in the developing and adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, using transgenics to visualize raphe-specific pet1 expression. J Comp Neurol. 2009;512:158-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results reveal for the first time the specific innervation pattern of the zebrafish raphe and, thus, provide a new model and various tools to investigate further the role of raphe serotonergic neurons in vertebrates. ..
  9. Bräutigam L, Hillmer J, Söll I, Hauptmann G. Localized expression of urocortin genes in the developing zebrafish brain. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:2978-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The prominent expression of uts1 and ucn3 in brainstem is consistent with proposed roles of CRH-related peptides in stress-induced modulation of locomotor activity through monoaminergic brainstem neuromodulatory systems. ..

More Information


  1. Agetsuma M, Aizawa H, Aoki T, Nakayama R, Takahoko M, Goto M, et al. The habenula is crucial for experience-dependent modification of fear responses in zebrafish. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1354-6 pubmed publisher
  2. Borrelli L, Aceto S, Agnisola C, De Paolo S, Dipineto L, Stilling R, et al. Probiotic modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and behaviour in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30046 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, in microbiota we found a significant increase of Firmicutes and a trending reduction of Proteobacteria. This study demonstrates that selected microbes can be used to modulate endogenous neuroactive molecules in zebrafish. ..
  3. Wang Y, Takai R, Yoshioka H, Shirabe K. Characterization and expression of serotonin transporter genes in zebrafish. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2006;208:267-74 pubmed
    ..These information might be useful to evaluate the effect of those chemicals on serotonin neuron development and behavior of the animal. ..
  4. Puttonen H, Semenova S, Sundvik M, Panula P. Storage of neural histamine and histaminergic neurotransmission is VMAT2 dependent in the zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3060 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also reveal potential new insights about the roles of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in the regulation of locomotion increase during adaptation to darkness. ..
  5. Yokogawa T, Marin W, Faraco J, Pezeron G, Appelbaum L, Zhang J, et al. Characterization of sleep in zebrafish and insomnia in hypocretin receptor mutants. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e277 pubmed
    ..Our study validates the use of zebrafish for the study of sleep and indicates molecular diversity in sleep regulatory networks across vertebrates. ..
  6. Cheng C, Yan C, Choy S, Hui M, Hui C, Cheng S. Zebrafish homologue irx1a is required for the differentiation of serotonergic neurons. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2661-7 pubmed
    ..However, irx1a morphants do not show a reduction of the progenitors of 5HT neurons. Hence, irx1a is not required for the initial specification but it is required for the complete differentiation of 5HT neurons. ..
  7. Xing L, Son J, Stevenson T, Lillesaar C, Bally Cuif L, Dahl T, et al. A Serotonin Circuit Acts as an Environmental Sensor to Mediate Midline Axon Crossing through EphrinB2. J Neurosci. 2015;35:14794-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this work demonstrates that the vertebrate CNS can modulate its connectivity in response to the external environment. ..
  8. Ogawa S, Nathan F, Parhar I. Habenular kisspeptin modulates fear in the zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:3841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, 3 d after Kiss1-SAP injection, the fish had a significantly reduced AS-evoked fear response. These findings provide an insight into the role of the habenular kisspeptin system in inhibiting fear. ..
  9. Herculano A, Maximino C. Serotonergic modulation of zebrafish behavior: towards a paradox. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014;55:50-66 pubmed publisher
  10. Prasad P, Ogawa S, Parhar I. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram inhibits GnRH synthesis and spermatogenesis in the male zebrafish. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:102 pubmed publisher
    ..of citalopram significantly decreased mRNA levels of gnrh3, gonadotropins (lhb and fshb) and 5-HT-related genes (tph2 and sert) in the male zebrafish...
  11. Candy J, Collet C. Two tyrosine hydroxylase genes in teleosts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1727:35-44 pubmed
    ..Preservation of two apparently functional TH genes in phylogenetically distant teleost species is consistent with the notion of partitioning of function between duplicate genes. ..
  12. Kawashima T, Zwart M, Yang C, Mensh B, Ahrens M. The Serotonergic System Tracks the Outcomes of Actions to Mediate Short-Term Motor Learning. Cell. 2016;167:933-946.e20 pubmed publisher
    ..The DRN's ability to track the effectiveness of motor intent may constitute a computational building block for the broader functions of the serotonergic system. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  13. Montgomery J, Wiggin T, Rivera Perez L, Lillesaar C, Masino M. Intraspinal serotonergic neurons consist of two, temporally distinct populations in developing zebrafish. Dev Neurobiol. 2016;76:673-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the pet1 and tph2 promoters drive transgene expression in the spinal cord, we hypothesized that tph2 is expressed in spinal cords of ..
  14. Chen S, Oikonomou G, Chiu C, Niles B, Liu J, Lee D, et al. A large-scale in vivo analysis reveals that TALENs are significantly more mutagenic than ZFNs generated using context-dependent assembly. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:2769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher mutation rates and ability to target essentially any sequence make TALENs the superior technology for targeted mutagenesis in zebrafish, and likely other animal models. ..
  15. Elbaz I, Yelin Bekerman L, Nicenboim J, Vatine G, Appelbaum L. Genetic ablation of hypocretin neurons alters behavioral state transitions in zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2012;32:12961-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further suggest a key role of HCRT neurons in mediating behavioral state transitions in response to external stimuli. ..
  16. Norton W, Folchert A, Bally Cuif L. Comparative analysis of serotonin receptor (HTR1A/HTR1B families) and transporter (slc6a4a/b) gene expression in the zebrafish brain. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:521-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In cells in which 5-HT is synthesized by tph1, slc6a4b is used for re-uptake, whereas tph2-positive cells utilize slc6a4a...
  17. Uusi Heikkilä S, Whiteley A, Kuparinen A, Matsumura S, Venturelli P, Wolter C, et al. The evolutionary legacy of size-selective harvesting extends from genes to populations. Evol Appl. 2015;8:597-620 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the evolutionary legacy of size-selective harvesting includes populations that are productive under exploited conditions, but selectively disadvantaged to cope with natural selection pressures that often favor large body size. ..
  18. Li J, Zhang B, Ren Y, Gu S, Xiang Y, Du J. Intron targeting-mediated and endogenous gene integrity-maintaining knockin in zebrafish using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Cell Res. 2015;25:634-7 pubmed publisher
  19. Cheng R, Krishnan S, Jesuthasan S. Activation and inhibition of tph2 serotonergic neurons operate in tandem to influence larval zebrafish preference for light over darkness. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20788 pubmed publisher
    ..Calcium imaging of tph2-expressing cells demonstrates that a rostral subset of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons fire continuously while ..
  20. Fernandes A, Fero K, Arrenberg A, Bergeron S, Driever W, Burgess H. Deep brain photoreceptors control light-seeking behavior in zebrafish larvae. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2042-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed light on the identity and function of deep brain photoreceptors and suggest that otpa specifies an ancient population of sensory neurons that mediate behavioral responses to light. ..