Gene Symbol: tnnt2a
Description: troponin T type 2a (cardiac)
Alias: cTnT, tnnt2, troponin T, cardiac muscle, sih, silent heart, troponin T2, cardiac, troponin T2a, cardiac
Species: zebrafish
Products:     tnnt2a

Top Publications

  1. Iida A, Sakaguchi K, Sato K, Sakurai H, Nishimura D, Iwaki A, et al. Metalloprotease-dependent onset of blood circulation in zebrafish. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that the first erythroid cells require both flow-dependent passive and proteolysis-dependent active processes to enter the circulation. ..
  2. Chou C, Hsu H, Quek S, Chan W, Liu Y. Arterial and venous vessels are required for modulating developmental relocalization and laterality of the interrenal tissue in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1995-2004 pubmed publisher
  3. Herbert S, Huisken J, Kim T, Feldman M, Houseman B, Wang R, et al. Arterial-venous segregation by selective cell sprouting: an alternative mode of blood vessel formation. Science. 2009;326:294-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, directional control of progenitor migration drives arterial-venous segregation and generation of separate parallel vessels from a single precursor vessel, a process essential for vascular development. ..
  4. North T, Goessling W, Peeters M, Li P, Ceol C, Lord A, et al. Hematopoietic stem cell development is dependent on blood flow. Cell. 2009;137:736-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In zebrafish, chemical blood flow modulators regulated HSC development, and silent heart (sih) embryos, lacking a heartbeat and blood circulation, exhibited severely reduced HSCs...
  5. Hsiao C, Tsai W, Horng L, Tsai H. Molecular structure and developmental expression of three muscle-type troponin T genes in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:266-79 pubmed
    ..evolution and developmental regulation of Tnnt gene (Tnnt) in lower vertebrates, zebrafish Tnnt1 (slow Tnnt), Tnnt2 (cardiac Tnnt), and Tnnt3b (fast Tnnt isoform b) were characterized...
  6. Liu Y, Guo L. Endothelium is required for the promotion of interrenal morphogenetic movement during early zebrafish development. Dev Biol. 2006;297:44-58 pubmed
    ..We thus conclude that endothelial signaling is involved in the morphogenetic movement of early interrenal tissue. ..
  7. Sehnert A, Huq A, Weinstein B, Walker C, Fishman M, Stainier D. Cardiac troponin T is essential in sarcomere assembly and cardiac contractility. Nat Genet. 2002;31:106-10 pubmed
    ..We show that the zebrafish silent heart (sih) mutation affects the gene tnnt2...
  8. Chen J, Haffter P, Odenthal J, Vogelsang E, Brand M, van Eeden F, et al. Mutations affecting the cardiovascular system and other internal organs in zebrafish. Development. 1996;123:293-302 pubmed
    ..The mutations presented here could serve as an entry point to the establishment of a genetic hierarchy underlying organogenesis. ..
  9. Korzh S, Pan X, Garcia Lecea M, Winata C, Pan X, Wohland T, et al. Requirement of vasculogenesis and blood circulation in late stages of liver growth in zebrafish. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:84 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the roles of ECs and blood circulation in liver development, both cloche mutants (lacking ECs) and Tnnt2 morphants (no blood circulation) were employed...

More Information


  1. Packham I, Gray C, Heath P, Hellewell P, Ingham P, Crossman D, et al. Microarray profiling reveals CXCR4a is downregulated by blood flow in vivo and mediates collateral formation in zebrafish embryos. Physiol Genomics. 2009;38:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Morpholino antisense knock-down of cardiac troponin T2 (tnnt2) prevented cardiac contraction without affecting vascular development...
  2. Huang W, Zhang R, Xu X. Myofibrillogenesis in the developing zebrafish heart: A functional study of tnnt2. Dev Biol. 2009;331:237-49 pubmed publisher
    ..myofibrillogenesis in a developing zebrafish heart and went on to examine the functions of cardiac troponin T (tnnt2)...
  3. Vogel B, Meder B, Just S, Laufer C, Berger I, Weber S, et al. In-vivo characterization of human dilated cardiomyopathy genes in zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:516-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the zebrafish is a suitable model organism to rapidly evaluate novel DCM disease genes in-vivo. ..
  4. Lam E, Hall C, Crosier P, Crosier K, Flores M. Live imaging of Runx1 expression in the dorsal aorta tracks the emergence of blood progenitors from endothelial cells. Blood. 2010;116:909-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study captures the earliest events of the transition of endothelial cells to a hemogenic endothelium and demonstrates that embryonic hematopoietic progenitors directly differentiate from endothelial cells within a living organism. ..
  5. Grimes A, Erwin K, Stadt H, Hunter G, Gefroh H, Tsai H, et al. PCB126 exposure disrupts zebrafish ventricular and branchial but not early neural crest development. Toxicol Sci. 2008;106:193-205 pubmed publisher
    ..HLHS is a severe congenital cardiovascular malformation that has previously been linked to industrial releases of dioxins and PCBs. ..
  6. Gomes R, Skroblin P, Munster A, Tomlins H, Langley S, Zampetaki A, et al. "Young at heart": Regenerative potential linked to immature cardiac phenotypes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016;92:105-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The immature myofilament composition of the fish heart may explain why adult mouse and human cardiomyocytes lack this endogenous repair mechanism. ..
  7. Folkerts E, Blewett T, He Y, Goss G. Cardio-respirometry disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water. Environ Pollut. 2017;231:1477-1487 pubmed publisher
  8. Maves L, Tyler A, Moens C, Tapscott S. Pbx acts with Hand2 in early myocardial differentiation. Dev Biol. 2009;333:409-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate new roles for Pbx proteins in vertebrate cardiac development and also provide new insight into connections between the transcriptional regulation of skeletal and cardiac muscle differentiation programs. ..
  9. Donat S, Lourenço M, Paolini A, Otten C, Renz M, Abdelilah Seyfried S. Heg1 and Ccm1/2 proteins control endocardial mechanosensitivity during zebrafish valvulogenesis. elife. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the correct balance of blood-flow-dependent induction and Krit1 protein-mediated repression of klf2a and notch1b ultimately shapes cardiac valve leaflet morphology. ..
  10. Ferrante M, Kiff R, Goulding D, Stemple D. Troponin T is essential for sarcomere assembly in zebrafish skeletal muscle. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:565-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also indicate that sarcomere assembly can occur in the absence of normal thin filaments. ..
  11. Cha Y, Weinstein B. Use of PCR template-derived probes prevents off-target whole mount in situ hybridization in transgenic zebrafish. Zebrafish. 2012;9:85-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we also show that this problem is easily avoided by performing in situ hybridization using probes synthesized from PCR templates lacking vector sequences. ..
  12. Umemoto N, Nishimura Y, Shimada Y, Yamanaka Y, Kishi S, Ito S, et al. Fluorescent-based methods for gene knockdown and functional cardiac imaging in zebrafish. Mol Biotechnol. 2013;55:131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..By applying this method for knockdown of cardiac troponin T (tnnt2a) in zebrafish, we could efficiently select the partial tnnt2a-depleted zebrafish with a decreased heart rate and ..
  13. Mleynek T, Chan A, Redd M, Gibson C, Davis C, Shi D, et al. Lack of CCM1 induces hypersprouting and impairs response to flow. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:6223-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The vascular defects seen with loss of Ccm1 suggest a defect in endothelial flow response. Taken together, these results suggest new mechanisms of early CCM disease pathogenesis and provide a framework for further study. ..
  14. Arnaout R, Ferrer T, Huisken J, SPITZER K, Stainier D, Tristani Firouzi M, et al. Zebrafish model for human long QT syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11316-21 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide insight into the pathogenesis of homozygous kcnh2 mutations and expand the use of zebrafish mutants as a model system to study human arrhythmias. ..
  15. Verma A, Parnaik V. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish. Cell Biol Int. 2017;41:809-819 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. ..
  16. Xiao Y, Gao M, Gao L, Zhao Y, Hong Q, Li Z, et al. Directed Differentiation of Zebrafish Pluripotent Embryonic Cells to Functional Cardiomyocytes. Stem Cell Reports. 2016;7:370-382 pubmed publisher
    ..The technology provides a new platform for the study of heart development and regeneration, in addition to drug discovery, disease modeling, and assessment of cardiotoxic agents. ..
  17. Schier A, Neuhauss S, Harvey M, Malicki J, Solnica Krezel L, Stainier D, et al. Mutations affecting the development of the embryonic zebrafish brain. Development. 1996;123:165-78 pubmed
    ..The identified loci establish the genetic foundation for a further analysis of the development of the zebrafish embryonic brain. ..
  18. Mathews C, Sjoberg B, Karlsson M. Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs encoding ribonucleotide reductase from zebrafish Danio rerio. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol. 1996;5:284-7 pubmed
    ..The zebrafish R1 shows 94% similarity and R2 shows 91% similarity to the human R1 and R2, respectively. The similarity extends to intron positions, of which the equivalent of mouse R2 intron 3 has been studied. ..
  19. Winata C, Korzh S, Kondrychyn I, Korzh V, Gong Z. The role of vasculature and blood circulation in zebrafish swimbladder development. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:3 pubmed publisher
    ..As the swimbladder is lined with an intricate network of blood capillaries, it is of interest to investigate the role of the vascular system during early development of swimbladder...
  20. Wu M, Zuo Z, Li B, Huang L, Chen M, Wang C. Effects of low-level hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) exposure on cardiac development in zebrafish embryos. Ecotoxicology. 2013;22:1200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, HBCD exposure did not significantly change the expression of Actc1l, Tnnt2, and Myh6, which are mainly muscle contractile genes that play key roles in the formation of cardiac structure...
  21. Helker C, Schuermann A, Karpanen T, Zeuschner D, Belting H, Affolter M, et al. The zebrafish common cardinal veins develop by a novel mechanism: lumen ensheathment. Development. 2013;140:2776-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings not only identify a novel mechanism of vascular lumen formation, but also suggest a new form of developmental crosstalk between hematopoietic and endothelial cell lineages...
  22. Nicoli S, Standley C, Walker P, Hurlstone A, Fogarty K, Lawson N. MicroRNA-mediated integration of haemodynamics and Vegf signalling during angiogenesis. Nature. 2010;464:1196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our work describes a novel genetic mechanism in which a microRNA facilitates integration of a physiological stimulus with growth factor signalling in endothelial cells to guide angiogenesis. ..
  23. Kawasaki T, Maeno A, Shiroishi T, Sakai N. Development and growth of organs in living whole embryo and larval grafts in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:16508 pubmed publisher
    ..This unique transplantation system will lead to new insights into the age-related systemic environments that are crucial for organogenesis in vertebrates. ..
  24. Hogan B, Bussmann J, Wolburg H, Schulte Merker S. ccm1 cell autonomously regulates endothelial cellular morphogenesis and vascular tubulogenesis in zebrafish. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that ccm1 function is cell autonomous, suggesting that it is endothelial cellular morphogenesis that is regulated by CCM proteins during development and pathogenesis. ..
  25. Noël E, Verhoeven M, Lagendijk A, Tessadori F, Smith K, Choorapoikayil S, et al. A Nodal-independent and tissue-intrinsic mechanism controls heart-looping chirality. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2754 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that Nodal signalling regulates actin gene expression, supporting a model in which Nodal signalling amplifies this tissue-intrinsic mechanism of heart looping. ..
  26. Jin H, Sood R, Xu J, Zhen F, English M, Liu P, et al. Definitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells manifest distinct differentiation output in the zebrafish VDA and PBI. Development. 2009;136:647-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the importance of niche in shaping the differentiation output of developing HSPCs. ..
  27. Palpant N, Hofsteen P, Pabon L, Reinecke H, Murry C. Cardiac development in zebrafish and human embryonic stem cells is inhibited by exposure to tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0126259 pubmed publisher
    ..Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than E-cigarettes and exhibit a broader spectrum of cardiac developmental defects. ..
  28. Montero Balaguer M, Swirsding K, Orsenigo F, Cotelli F, Mione M, Dejana E. Stable vascular connections and remodeling require full expression of VE-cadherin in zebrafish embryos. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5772 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that partial internalization or change of function of this protein may strongly affect vascular stability and organization. ..
  29. White R, Collins J, Sealy I, Wali N, Dooley C, Digby Z, et al. A high-resolution mRNA expression time course of embryonic development in zebrafish. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..To make this dataset a useful baseline reference, the data can be browsed and downloaded at Expression Atlas and Ensembl. ..
  30. Kao R, Rurik J, Farr G, Dong X, Majesky M, Maves L. Pbx4 is Required for the Temporal Onset of Zebrafish Myocardial Differentiation. J Dev Biol. 2015;3:93-111 pubmed
    ..i>pbx4 mutant embryos exhibit delayed onset of myocardial differentiation, such as delayed activation of tnnt2a expression in early cardiomyocytes in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm...
  31. Weiss O, Kaufman R, Michaeli N, Inbal A. Abnormal vasculature interferes with optic fissure closure in lmo2 mutant zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 2012;369:191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, reducing vessel size leads to rescue of optic fissure phenotype. Our results reveal a new mechanism leading to coloboma, whereby malformed blood vessels interfere with eye morphogenesis. ..
  32. Lucas J, Perrichon P, Nouhaud M, Audras A, Leguen I, Lefrançois C. Aerobic metabolism and cardiac activity in the descendants of zebrafish exposed to pyrolytic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21:13888-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Even if cardiac development genes cmlc1 and tnnt2a were not affected at early life stages tested, complementary work on cardiac structure could be interesting to ..
  33. Roberts J, Miguel Escalada I, Slovik K, Walsh K, Hadzhiev Y, Sanges R, et al. Targeted transgene integration overcomes variability of position effects in zebrafish. Development. 2014;141:715-24 pubmed publisher
  34. Hess I, Boehm T. Intravital imaging of thymopoiesis reveals dynamic lympho-epithelial interactions. Immunity. 2012;36:298-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Thymocyte development appears to be completed in less than 4 days. Our work establishes a versatile model for the in vivo observation and manipulation of thymopoiesis. ..
  35. Becker J, Deo R, Werdich A, Panàkovà D, Coy S, Macrae C. Human cardiomyopathy mutations induce myocyte hyperplasia and activate hypertrophic pathways during cardiogenesis in zebrafish. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:400-10 pubmed publisher
    ..morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting the exon 13 splice donor site in the zebrafish cardiac troponin T (tnnt2) gene, in order to precisely recapitulate a human TNNT2 mutation that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)...
  36. Wang Y, Kaiser M, Larson J, Nasevicius A, Clark K, Wadman S, et al. Moesin1 and Ve-cadherin are required in endothelial cells during in vivo tubulogenesis. Development. 2010;137:3119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of silent heart mutant embryos shows that initial lumen formation in the ISVs is not dependent on blood flow; however, ..
  37. Cvejic A, Serbanovic Canic J, Stemple D, Ouwehand W. The role of meis1 in primitive and definitive hematopoiesis during zebrafish development. Haematologica. 2011;96:190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that meis1, jointly with pbx1, regulates primitive hematopoiesis as well as vascular development. ..
  38. Machuca Tzili L, Buxton S, Thorpe A, Timson C, Wigmore P, Luther P, et al. Zebrafish deficient for Muscleblind-like 2 exhibit features of myotonic dystrophy. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:381-92 pubmed publisher
    ..included altered splicing patterns of two transcripts whose expression is also altered in DM patients: clcn1 and tnnt2. The studies described herein provide broader insight into the functions of MBNL2...
  39. Laux D, Young S, Donovan J, Mansfield C, Upton P, Roman B. Circulating Bmp10 acts through endothelial Alk1 to mediate flow-dependent arterial quiescence. Development. 2013;140:3403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Because mutations in ALK1 cause arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), our findings suggest that an impaired flow response initiates AVM development. ..
  40. Just S, Meder B, Berger I, Etard C, Trano N, Patzel E, et al. The myosin-interacting protein SMYD1 is essential for sarcomere organization. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, ectopic expression of myosin-binding-deficient SMYD1 does not rescue fla mutants, implicating an essential role for the SMYD1-myosin interaction in cardiac and fast-twitch skeletal muscle thick filament assembly...
  41. Serbanovic Canic J, De Luca A, Warboys C, Ferreira P, Luong L, Hsiao S, et al. Zebrafish Model for Functional Screening of Flow-Responsive Genes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:130-143 pubmed publisher
  42. Wang L, Zhang P, Wei Y, Gao Y, Patient R, Liu F. A blood flow-dependent klf2a-NO signaling cascade is required for stabilization of hematopoietic stem cell programming in zebrafish embryos. Blood. 2011;118:4102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of klf2a mimics the silent heart (sih/tnnt2a) phenotype while overexpression of klf2a in tnnt2a morphant embryos can rescue HSC defects, ..
  43. Ellertsdottir E, Berthold P, Bouzaffour M, Dufourcq P, Trayer V, Gauron C, et al. Developmental role of zebrafish protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in the cardio-vascular system. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42131 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether our results demonstrate a high degree of conservation of PAR1 proteins in the vertebrate lineage in respect to amino acid sequence as well as protein function. ..
  44. Nesan D, Vijayan M. Embryo exposure to elevated cortisol level leads to cardiac performance dysfunction in zebrafish. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;363:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, high cortisol content during embryogenesis, mimicking increased deposition due to maternal stress, decreases cardiac performance and may reduce zebrafish offspring survival. ..
  45. Yang J, Xu X. ?-Actinin2 is required for the lateral alignment of Z discs and ventricular chamber enlargement during zebrafish cardiogenesis. FASEB J. 2012;26:4230-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In actn2 morphant fish, the Z-disc defect sequentially affects cardiac function, which leads to morphological changes in the ventricle through a mechanical force-dependent mechanism. ..
  46. Rasouli S, Stainier D. Regulation of cardiomyocyte behavior in zebrafish trabeculation by Neuregulin 2a signaling. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15281 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we find that blood flow/contractility is required for Nrg2a expression, and that while non-contractile hearts fail to trabeculate, non-contractile cardiomyocytes are also competent to respond to Nrg2a/Erbb2 signalling. ..
  47. Wang Y, Qian L, Dong Y, Jiang Q, Gui Y, Zhong T, et al. Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A is essential for zebrafish posterior somite development. Mech Dev. 2006;123:783-91 pubmed
    ..Microarray studies reveal a number of genes that are differentially expressed in the MEF2A morphants. Our studies suggest that MEF2A is essential for zebrafish posterior somite development. ..
  48. Serluca F. Development of the proepicardial organ in the zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2008;315:18-27 pubmed publisher
  49. Ny A, Autiero M, Carmeliet P. Zebrafish and Xenopus tadpoles: small animal models to study angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:684-93 pubmed
    ..The advantages of these two models will be discussed in the present review. ..
  50. Chiu C, Chou C, Takada S, Liu Y. Development and fibronectin signaling requirements of the zebrafish interrenal vessel. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43040 pubmed publisher
    ..In the context of other developmental endocrinology studies, our results indicate a highly dynamic interrenal-vessel interaction immediately before the onset of stress response in the zebrafish embryo. ..
  51. Chi N, Bussen M, Brand Arzamendi K, Ding C, Olgin J, Shaw R, et al. Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14662-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these in vivo studies indicate that cardiac electrical forces are required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology and may act as a key epigenetic factor in cardiac remodeling...
  52. Bertrand J, Kim A, Teng S, Traver D. CD41+ cmyb+ precursors colonize the zebrafish pronephros by a novel migration route to initiate adult hematopoiesis. Development. 2008;135:1853-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies suggest that expression of CD41 and cmyb marks nascent HSCs in the zebrafish AGM, and provide the means to further dissect HSC generation and function in the early vertebrate embryo. ..
  53. Zeng W, Beh S, Bryson Richardson R, Doran P. Production of zebrafish cardiospheres and cardiac progenitor cells in vitro and three-dimensional culture of adult zebrafish cardiac tissue in scaffolds. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:2142-2148 pubmed publisher
    ..Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2142-2148. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  54. Poon K, Tan K, Wei Y, Ng C, Colman A, Korzh V, et al. RNA-binding protein RBM24 is required for sarcomere assembly and heart contractility. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94:418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers a potential novel pathway to cardiomyopathy through down-regulation of the RBP Rbm24. ..
  55. Völkers M, Dolatabadi N, Gude N, Most P, Sussman M, Hassel D. Orai1 deficiency leads to heart failure and skeletal myopathy in zebrafish. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify ORAI1 as an important regulator of cardiac and skeletal muscle function and provide evidence linking ORAI1-mediated calcium signaling to sarcomere integrity and cardiomyocyte function. ..
  56. Grosskurth S, Bhattacharya D, Wang Q, Lin J. Emergence of Xin demarcates a key innovation in heart evolution. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2857 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that the emergence of the Xin paralogs and their functional differentiation may have played a key role in the evolutionary development of the heart. ..
  57. Panàkovà D, Werdich A, Macrae C. Wnt11 patterns a myocardial electrical gradient through regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel. Nature. 2010;466:874-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of cellular coupling through such mechanisms may be a general property of non-canonical Wnt signals. ..