Gene Symbol: tnfb
Description: tumor necrosis factor b (TNF superfamily, member 2)
Alias: Tnf-alpha, tnf, tnfa-like, tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2), TNF alpha, TNF-alpha 2, TNF2, lta, tumor necrosis factor alpha
Species: zebrafish
Products:     tnfb

Top Publications

  1. Roca F, Mulero I, López Muñoz A, Sepulcre M, Renshaw S, Meseguer J, et al. Evolution of the inflammatory response in vertebrates: fish TNF-alpha is a powerful activator of endothelial cells but hardly activates phagocytes. J Immunol. 2008;181:5071-81 pubmed
    b>TNF-alpha is conserved in all vertebrate classes and has been identified in all taxonomic groups of teleost fish. However, its biological activities and its role in infection are largely unknown...
  2. Sepulcre M, Alcaraz Pérez F, López Muñoz A, Roca F, Meseguer J, Cayuela M, et al. Evolution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) recognition and signaling: fish TLR4 does not recognize LPS and negatively regulates NF-kappaB activation. J Immunol. 2009;182:1836-45 pubmed publisher
  3. Gratacap R, Rawls J, Wheeler R. Mucosal candidiasis elicits NF-?B activation, proinflammatory gene expression and localized neutrophilia in zebrafish. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first system to model host response to mucosal infection in the juvenile zebrafish, and offers unique opportunities to investigate the tripartite interactions of C. albicans, epithelium and immune cells in an intact host. ..
  4. Espín R, Roca F, Candel S, Sepulcre M, González Rosa J, Alcaraz Pérez F, et al. TNF receptors regulate vascular homeostasis in zebrafish through a caspase-8, caspase-2 and P53 apoptotic program that bypasses caspase-3. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:383-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, TNF? promotes the apoptosis of human endothelial cells through TNFRSF1A and triggers caspase-2 and P53 activation...
  5. Zhu Z, Chen J, Xiong J, Peng J. Haploinsufficiency of Def activates p53-dependent TGF? signalling and causes scar formation after partial hepatectomy. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96576 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the novel Def- p53 nucleolar pathway functions specifically to prevent a scar formation at the amputation site in a normal amputated liver. ..
  6. Zhou F, Zhang X, van Dam H, Ten Dijke P, Huang H, Zhang L. Ubiquitin-specific protease 4 mitigates Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor signaling and regulates innate immune activation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11002-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that USP4 plays an essential role in negative regulation of the TLR/IL-1R signaling-mediated innate immune response. ..
  7. Oehlers S, Flores M, Hall C, O Toole R, Swift S, Crosier K, et al. Expression of zebrafish cxcl8 (interleukin-8) and its receptors during development and in response to immune stimulation. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:352-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of cxcr1 and cxcr2 is robust within the developing gut. This work provides a model for the study of Cxcl8 signalling during gut inflammation. ..
  8. Hall C, Boyle R, Astin J, Flores M, Oehlers S, Sanderson L, et al. Immunoresponsive gene 1 augments bactericidal activity of macrophage-lineage cells by regulating ?-oxidation-dependent mitochondrial ROS production. Cell Metab. 2013;18:265-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal IRG1 as a key component of the immunometabolism axis, connecting infection, cellular metabolism, and macrophage effector function...
  9. Clay H, Volkman H, Ramakrishnan L. Tumor necrosis factor signaling mediates resistance to mycobacteria by inhibiting bacterial growth and macrophage death. Immunity. 2008;29:283-94 pubmed publisher
    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a key effector in controlling tuberculosis, is thought to exert protection by directing formation of granulomas, organized aggregates of macrophages and other immune cells...

More Information


  1. Kenyon A, Gavriouchkina D, Zorman J, Napolitani G, Cerundolo V, Sauka Spengler T. Active nuclear transcriptome analysis reveals inflammasome-dependent mechanism for early neutrophil response to Mycobacterium marinum. Sci Rep. 2017;7:6505 pubmed publisher
    ..Further perturbation of the IEGs exposes egr3 as a key transcriptional regulator controlling il1β transcription. ..
  2. Liu X, Cai X, Zhang D, Xu C, Xiao W. Zebrafish foxo3b Negatively Regulates Antiviral Response through Suppressing the Transactivity of irf3 and irf7. J Immunol. 2016;197:4736-4749 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that by suppressing irf3/irf7 activity, zebrafish foxo3b negatively regulates the antiviral response, implicating the vital role of the FOXO gene family in innate immunity. ..
  3. Hartig E, Zhu S, King B, Coffman J. Cortisol-treated zebrafish embryos develop into pro-inflammatory adults with aberrant immune gene regulation. Biol Open. 2016;5:1134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that chronically elevated glucocorticoid signaling early in life directs development of a pro-inflammatory adult phenotype, at the expense of immunoregulation and somatic regenerative capacity. ..
  4. Savan R, Kono T, Igawa D, Sakai M. A novel tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene present in tandem with theTNF-alpha gene on the same chromosome in teleosts. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:140-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the TNF/lymphotoxin (LT) locus is present in the MHC region of the chromosome in mammals, no such locus has been described ..
  5. Watkins B, Joshi S, Ball D, Leggett H, Park S, Kim J, et al. Mycobacterium marinum SecA2 promotes stable granulomas and induces tumor necrosis factor alpha in vivo. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3512-20 pubmed publisher
    ..for virulence in both host species and SecA2 was needed for normal granuloma numbers and for optimal tumor necrosis factor alpha response in both zebrafish and mice. M...
  6. Goodale B, Tilton S, Corvi M, Wilson G, Janszen D, Anderson K, et al. Structurally distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce differential transcriptional responses in developing zebrafish. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;272:656-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures. ..
  7. Wiens G, Glenney G. Origin and evolution of TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:1324-35 pubmed publisher
    The tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) and the TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) have an ancient evolutionary origin that can be traced back to single copy genes within Arthropods...
  8. Hasegawa T, Hall C, Crosier P, Abe G, Kawakami K, Kudo A, et al. Transient inflammatory response mediated by interleukin-1? is required for proper regeneration in zebrafish fin fold. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that proper levels of Il1b signaling and tissue inflammation, which are tuned by macrophages, play a crucial role in tissue regeneration. ..
  9. Dios S, Balseiro P, Costa M, Romero A, Boltaña S, Roher N, et al. The involvement of cholesterol in sepsis and tolerance to lipopolysaccharide highlighted by the transcriptome analysis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish. 2014;11:421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is possible that the use of the whole animal could provide some clues to enhance the understanding of the inflammatory/tolerance response and to guide drug discovery. ..
  10. Nguyen Chi M, Laplace Builhe B, Travnickova J, Luz Crawford P, Tejedor G, Phan Q, et al. Identification of polarized macrophage subsets in zebrafish. elife. 2015;4:e07288 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal the diversity and plasticity of zebrafish macrophage subsets and underline the similarities with mammalian macrophages proposing a new system to study macrophage functional dynamic. ..
  11. Progatzky F, Cook H, Lamb J, Bugeon L, Dallman M. Mucosal inflammation at the respiratory interface: a zebrafish model. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;310:L551-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to cigarette smoke extracts resulted in an increase in transcripts of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP9 in the gill tissue, which was at least in part mediated via NF-κB activation...
  12. Nelson C, Ackerman K, O Hayer P, Bailey T, Gorsuch R, Hyde D. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is produced by dying retinal neurons and is required for Muller glia proliferation during zebrafish retinal regeneration. J Neurosci. 2013;33:6524-39 pubmed publisher
    ..glia proliferation when injected into an undamaged eye, revealed increased expression of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) signaling proteins relative to undamaged retinal homogenates...
  13. López Muñoz A, Roca F, Meseguer J, Mulero V. New insights into the evolution of IFNs: zebrafish group II IFNs induce a rapid and transient expression of IFN-dependent genes and display powerful antiviral activities. J Immunol. 2009;182:3440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest nonredundant, complementary roles of type I zfIFNs in viral infections and provide evidence for a pivotal role of the recently identified group II IFN of fish in the early stages of viral infections. ..
  14. Yi Y, Qi H, Yuan J, Wang R, Weng S, He J, et al. Functional characterization of viral tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) genome. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45:757-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Although we failed to identify any interaction between the two vTNFRs and their potential ligands in zebrafish TNF superfamily by yeast two-hybrid system, the expression of some genes in TNF superfamily or TNFR superfamily were ..
  15. Wang Y, Wu S, Chen J, Zhang C, Xu Z, Li G, et al. Single and joint toxicity assessment of four currently used pesticides to zebrafish (Danio rerio) using traditional and molecular endpoints. Chemosphere. 2018;192:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of P53, Tnf, TR?, Tsh and Cyp19a exhibited greater changes upon exposure to combined pesticides compared with individual ..
  16. Qi F, Song J, Yang H, Gao W, Liu N, Zhang B, et al. Mmp23b promotes liver development and hepatocyte proliferation through the tumor necrosis factor pathway in zebrafish. Hepatology. 2010;52:2158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Antisense knockdown of tnfa or tnfb in zebrafish caused similar reductions of liver size, whereas overexpression of tnfa or tnfb rescued liver defects ..
  17. Knogler L, Liao M, Drapeau P. Synaptic scaling and the development of a motor network. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8871-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show, for the first time, that scaling of glutamatergic synapses can be induced in vivo in the zebrafish and that synaptic patterning is less plastic than synaptic strength during development. ..
  18. Lebert D, Squirrell J, Rindy J, Broadbridge E, Lui Y, Zakrzewska A, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 modulates collagen matrices and wound repair. Development. 2015;142:2136-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Mmp9 regulates both acute and chronic tissue damage and plays an essential role in collagen reorganization during wound repair. ..
  19. Zhang Y, Liu H, Yao J, Huang Y, Qin S, Sun Z, et al. Manipulating the air-filled zebrafish swim bladder as a neutrophilic inflammation model for acute lung injury. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2470 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings highlight the swim bladder as a promising and powerful model for mechanistic and drug screening studies of alveolar injuries. ..
  20. Kinoshita S, Biswas G, Kono T, Hikima J, Sakai M. Presence of two tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-? homologs on different chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Mar Genomics. 2014;13:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) possess two tnf-? genes, their genomic location and existence are yet to be described and confirmed...
  21. López Muñoz A, Roca F, Sepulcre M, Meseguer J, Mulero V. Zebrafish larvae are unable to mount a protective antiviral response against waterborne infection by spring viremia of carp virus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:546-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This model, in combination with the powerful gene overexpression and morpholino-mediated knockdown techniques, will help to illuminate the IFN system of teleost fish...
  22. Candel S, de Oliveira S, López Muñoz A, García Moreno D, Espin Palazon R, Tyrkalska S, et al. Tnfa signaling through tnfr2 protects skin against oxidative stress-induced inflammation. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001855 pubmed publisher
    b>TNF? overexpression has been associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, lichen planus, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease...
  23. Yeh D, Liu Y, Lo Y, Yuh C, Yu G, Lo J, et al. Toll-like receptor 9 and 21 have different ligand recognition profiles and cooperatively mediate activity of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20711-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that zebTLR9 and zebTLR21 cooperatively mediate the antimicrobial activities of CpG-ODN. Overall, this study provides a molecular basis for the activities of CpG-ODN in fish...
  24. Oehlers S, Flores M, Hall C, Okuda K, Sison J, Crosier K, et al. Chemically induced intestinal damage models in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish. 2013;10:184-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Methods to monitor intestinal damage and inflammatory processes, and chemical-genetic methods to manipulate the host response to injury are also described. ..
  25. Tokunaga Y, Shirouzu M, Sugahara R, Yoshiura Y, Kiryu I, Ototake M, et al. Comprehensive validation of T- and B-cell deficiency in rag1-null zebrafish: Implication for the robust innate defense mechanisms of teleosts. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7536 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the teleost relies heavily on innate immunity. Thus, this model could better highlight innate immunity in animals that lack adaptive immunity than mouse models. ..
  26. Díaz Pascual F, Ortíz Severín J, Varas M, Allende M, Chavez F. In vivo Host-Pathogen Interaction as Revealed by Global Proteomic Profiling of Zebrafish Larvae. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:334 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa. Our global proteomic profiling identifies novel molecular signatures that give systematic insight into zebrafish-Pseudomonas interaction. ..
  27. Lagos L, Tandberg J, Repnik U, Boysen P, Ropstad E, Varkey D, et al. Characterization and Vaccine Potential of Membrane Vesicles Produced by Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in an Adult Zebrafish Model. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017;24: pubmed publisher
    ..1, and ighm, was upregulated, thus confirming the immunogenic properties of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis-derived MVs. ..
  28. Zhang M, Wu H, Li X, Yang M, Chen T, Wang Q, et al. Edwardsiella tarda flagellar protein FlgD: a protective immunogen against edwardsiellosis. Vaccine. 2012;30:3849-56 pubmed publisher
    ..tarda. ..