Gene Symbol: thrb
Description: thyroid hormone receptor beta
Alias: NR1A2, TR-beta, TR[b]1, fj24f03, trb, wu:fj24f03, thyroid hormone receptor beta, TRbeta1, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group A member 2, thyroid hormone receptor beta 2, thyroid hormone receptor beta-1
Species: zebrafish
Products:     thrb

Top Publications

  1. Marchand O, Safi R, Escriva H, Van Rompaey E, Prunet P, Laudet V. Molecular cloning and characterization of thyroid hormone receptors in teleost fish. J Mol Endocrinol. 2001;26:51-65 pubmed
  2. Williams P, Suzuki S, Yoshimatsu T, Lawrence O, Waldron S, Parsons M, et al. In vivo development of outer retinal synapses in the absence of glial contact. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11951-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in contrast to other CNS circuits, contact from glia is not necessary for the formation or immediate stabilization of outer retinal synapses. ..
  3. Tu W, Xu C, Lu B, Lin C, Wu Y, Liu W. Acute exposure to synthetic pyrethroids causes bioconcentration and disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryos. Sci Total Environ. 2016;542:876-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro and in silico experiments disclosed that during the early stages of zebrafish development, BF and λ-CH have the potential to disrupt thyroid endocrine system. ..
  4. Kwon B, Kho Y, Kim P, Ji K. Thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish following exposure to binary mixture of bisphenol AF and sulfamethoxazole. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;48:168-174 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study indicated that BPAF exposure alone alters transcription of genes associated with the thyroid endocrine system, and combination with SMX could increase the endocrine disrupting effect of BPAF. ..
  5. Sun H, Li H, Xiang P, Zhang X, Ma L. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish. Environ Pollut. 2015;205:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..3-1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish. ..
  6. Zada D, Tovin A, Lerer Goldshtein T, Vatine G, Appelbaum L. Altered behavioral performance and live imaging of circuit-specific neural deficiencies in a zebrafish model for psychomotor retardation. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004615 pubmed publisher
    ..We also propose that the administration of TH analogs early during embryo development can specifically reduce neurological damage in AHDS patients. ..
  7. Kim S, Sohn J, Ha S, Kang H, Yim U, Shim W, et al. Thyroid Hormone Disruption by Water-Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil and Sediments Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill in Zebrafish and GH3 Cells. Environ Sci Technol. 2016;50:5972-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Sediment samples also showed thyroid disrupting potentials in the GH3 cell, even several years after the oil spill. Long-term ecosystem consequences of thyroid hormone disruption due to oil spill deserve further investigation. ..
  8. Liang X, Yu L, Gui W, Zhu G. Exposure to difenoconazole causes changes of thyroid hormone and gene expression levels in zebrafish larvae. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;40:983-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall results showed that exposure to difenoconazole could alter thyroid hormone levels and gene transcription in zebrafish larvae, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. ..
  9. Kim S, Jung J, Lee I, Jung D, Youn H, Choi K. Thyroid disruption by triphenyl phosphate, an organophosphate flame retardant, in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos/larvae, and in GH3 and FRTL-5 cell lines. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;160:188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our observations show that TPP could increase the thyroid hormone concentrations in the early life stages of zebrafish by disrupting the central regulation and hormone synthesis pathways. ..

More Information


  1. Suzuki S, Bleckert A, Williams P, Takechi M, Kawamura S, Wong R. Cone photoreceptor types in zebrafish are generated by symmetric terminal divisions of dedicated precursors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic expression of tr?2 after cone differentiation produces cones with mixed opsins. Temporal differences in the onset of tr?2 expression could explain why some species have mixed, and others have pure, cone types. ..
  2. Yang J, Chan K. Evaluation of the toxic effects of brominated compounds (BDE-47, 99, 209, TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;159:138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..BPA and the brominated compounds tested were able to disrupt the TH system at the gene expression level, probably through the deiodination pathways. ..
  3. Godfrey A, Hooser B, Abdelmoneim A, Horzmann K, Freemanc J, Sepúlveda M. Thyroid disrupting effects of halogenated and next generation chemicals on the swim bladder development of zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;193:228-235 pubmed publisher
    ..However, with the exception of TBBPA and TDCPP, the concentrations tested (?5-137ppm) are not likely to be found in the environment...
  4. Du J, Wang S, You H, Liu Z. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles on perfluorooctane sulfonate induced thyroid-disrupting on zebrafish larvae. J Environ Sci (China). 2016;47:153-164 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also provide insight into the mechanism of disruption of the thyroid status by PFOS and nano-ZnO. ..
  5. Han Z, Li Y, Zhang S, Song N, Xu H, Dang Y, et al. Prenatal transfer of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) results in disruption of the thyroid system and developmental toxicity in zebrafish offspring. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;190:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that exposure of parent zebrafish to BDE-209 can cause developmental toxicity in offspring and disruption of the thyroid endocrine system of offspring. ..
  6. Yu L, Zhao G, Feng M, Wen W, Li K, Zhang P, et al. Chronic exposure to pentachlorophenol alters thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone pathway mRNAs in zebrafish. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:170-6 pubmed publisher
  7. Kim S, Ji K, Lee S, Lee J, Kim J, Kim S, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid exposure increases cadmium toxicity in early life stage of zebrafish, Danio rerio. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:870-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Houbrechts A, Delarue J, Gabriëls I, Sourbron J, Darras V. Permanent Deiodinase Type 2 Deficiency Strongly Perturbs Zebrafish Development, Growth, and Fertility. Endocrinology. 2016;157:3668-81 pubmed publisher
    ..As the first nonmammalian model with permanent Dio2 deficiency, these mutant zebrafish lines provide evidence that Dio2 is essential to assure normal development and to obtain a normal adult phenotype. ..
  9. Liu S, Chang J, Zhao Y, Zhu G. Changes of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in zebrafish on early life stage exposure to triadimefon. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;32:472-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The conversion of T4 to T3 (deiodinase type I-dio1) was decreased, which reduced the T3 level. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (thrb) mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated, possibly as a response to the decreased T3 ..
  10. Cheng Y, Ekker M, Chan H. Relative developmental toxicities of pentachloroanisole and pentachlorophenol in a zebrafish model (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015;112:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..I (SYN), iodothyronine deiodinase type III (Dio3), thyroid hormone receptor alpha a (THRαa) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRβ), and decreased expression of iodothyronine deiodinase type II (Dio2)...
  11. Wang Y, Wu S, Chen J, Zhang C, Xu Z, Li G, et al. Single and joint toxicity assessment of four currently used pesticides to zebrafish (Danio rerio) using traditional and molecular endpoints. Chemosphere. 2018;192:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, increased toxicity might be triggered by the simultaneous presence of several pesticides in the aquatic environment, which seriously damaged the non-target organisms...
  12. Tang T, Yang Y, Chen Y, Tang W, Wang F, Diao X. Thyroid Disruption in Zebrafish Larvae by Short-Term Exposure to Bisphenol AF. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:13069-84 pubmed publisher
    ..It demonstrates that BPAF exposure triggered thyroid endocrine toxicity by altering the whole-body contents of thyroid hormones and changing the transcription of the genes involved in the HPT axis in zebrafish larvae. ..
  13. Jia P, Ma Y, Lu C, Mirza Z, Zhang W, Jia Y, et al. The Effects of Disturbance on Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid (HPT) Axis in Zebrafish Larvae after Exposure to DEHP. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0155762 pubmed publisher
  14. Kang H, Moon H, Choi K. Toxicological responses following short-term exposure through gavage feeding or water-borne exposure to Dechlorane Plus in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2016;146:226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations indicate for the first time that DP disrupts thyroid hormone balance of zebrafish by altering regulatory pathways in the brain. Handling editor: David Volz. ..
  15. Zhu Y, Su G, Yang D, Zhang Y, Yu L, Li Y, et al. Time-dependent inhibitory effects of Tris(1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate on growth and transcription of genes involved in the GH/IGF axis, but not the HPT axis, in female zebrafish. Environ Pollut. 2017;229:470-478 pubmed publisher
  16. Jianjie C, Wenjuan X, Jinling C, Jie S, Ruhui J, Meiyan L. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2016;171:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ)...
  17. Guo Y, Zhou B. Thyroid endocrine system disruption by pentachlorophenol: an in vitro and in vivo assay. Aquat Toxicol. 2013;142-143:138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..PCP exposure did not influence the transcription of the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The results indicate that PCP potentially disrupts the thyroid endocrine system both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  18. Walpita C, Van der Geyten S, Rurangwa E, Darras V. The effect of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine supplementation on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development and expression of iodothyronine deiodinases and thyroid hormone receptors. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;152:206-14 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data show that during embryonic development zebrafish already have the necessary regulatory machinery for TH activation and signaling, and that T(3) treatment at that stage indeed influence embryonic development. ..
  19. Zhang D, Zhou E, Yang Z. Waterborne exposure to BPS causes thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176927 pubmed publisher
    ..All the results indicated that exposure to BPS altered the whole-body THs and TSH concentrations and changed the expression profiling of key genes related to HPT axis, thus triggering thyroid endocrine disruption. ..
  20. Yoshimatsu T, D Orazi F, Gamlin C, Suzuki S, Suli A, Kimelman D, et al. Presynaptic partner selection during retinal circuit reassembly varies with timing of neuronal regeneration in vivo. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10590 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we postulate that signals from the major input that shape the H3 HC's wiring pattern during development persist to restrict miswiring after damage. ..
  21. Liu Z, Li D, Hu Q, Tang R, Li L. Effects of exposure to microcystin-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicon. 2016;124:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it seems that the fish triggered a compensatory mechanism to maintain TH homeostasis in respond to environmental concentrations of MC-LR which induced TH disruption. ..
  22. Tonyushkina K, Krug S, Ortiz Toro T, Mascari T, Karlstrom R. Low Thyroid Hormone Levels Disrupt Thyrotrope Development. Endocrinology. 2017;158:2774-2782 pubmed publisher
  23. Chen Q, Yu L, Yang L, Zhou B. Bioconcentration and metabolism of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) result in thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae. Aquat Toxicol. 2012;110-111:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis can be evaluated to determine thyroid endocrine disruption by BDE-209 in developing zebrafish larvae. ..
  24. Takayama S, Hostick U, Haendel M, Eisen J, Darimont B. An F-domain introduced by alternative splicing regulates activity of the zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor alpha. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;155:176-89 pubmed
  25. Liu Y, Wang J, Fang X, Zhang H, Dai J. The thyroid-disrupting effects of long-term perfluorononanoate exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide the first evidence for the thyroid-disrupting effects of long-term PFNA exposure in zebrafish. ..
  26. Macaulay L, Chernick M, Chen A, Hinton D, Bailey J, Kullman S, et al. Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2017;36:36-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results indicate that exposures to PBDE/OH-BDE mixtures adversely impact zebrafish maturation during metamorphosis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:36-48. © 2016 SETAC. ..
  27. Yan W, Zhou Y, Yang J, Li S, Hu D, Wang J, et al. Waterborne exposure to microcystin-LR alters thyroid hormone levels and gene transcription in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish larvae. Chemosphere. 2012;87:1301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The above results indicated that MCLR could alter gene expression in the HPT axis which might subsequently contribute to MCLR-induced thyroid disruption. ..
  28. Yu L, Chen M, Liu Y, Gui W, Zhu G. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae following exposure to hexaconazole and tebuconazole. Aquat Toxicol. 2013;138-139:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall results indicated that exposure to HEX and TEB could alter thyroid hormone levels as well as gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish larvae. ..
  29. Rainieri S, Conlledo N, Langerholc T, Madorran E, Sala M, Barranco A. Toxic effects of perfluorinated compounds at human cellular level and on a model vertebrate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;104:14-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the importance of studying PFCs in realistic conditions on various biological models. ..
  30. Liang X, Li J, Martyniuk C, Wang J, Mao Y, Lu H, et al. Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers alter the expression of the thyroid hormone pathway in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Chemosphere. 2017;182:22-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors (thraa and thrb) in zebrafish embryos were differentially expressed and the direction of change in these transcripts was isoform ..
  31. Tu W, Xu C, Jin Y, Lu B, Lin C, Wu Y, et al. Permethrin is a potential thyroid-disrupting chemical: In vivo and in silico envidence. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;175:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Both in vivo and in silico studies clearly disclosed that PM potentially disrupts the thyroid endocrine system in fish. This study provides a rapid and cost-effective approach for identifying THDCs and the underlying mechanisms. ..
  32. Cheng H, Yan W, Wu Q, Liu C, Gong X, Hung T, et al. Parental exposure to microcystin-LR induced thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish offspring, a transgenerational toxicity. Environ Pollut. 2017;230:981-988 pubmed publisher
    ..We regard these adverse effects as a parental transgenerational toxicity of MCLR. ..
  33. Baumann L, Ros A, Rehberger K, Neuhauss S, Segner H. Thyroid disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae: Different molecular response patterns lead to impaired eye development and visual functions. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;172:44-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this study is the first to show that pathological eye development, as it can be induced by exposure to thyroid disruptors, indeed translates into impaired visual capacities of zebrafish early life stages. ..
  34. Blüthgen N, Meili N, Chew G, Odermatt A, Fent K. Accumulation and effects of the UV-filter octocrylene in adult and embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio). Sci Total Environ. 2014;476-477:207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood levels of 11-ketotestosterone were not altered. The transcriptomics data suggest that OC mainly affects transcription of genes related to developmental processes in the brain and liver as well as metabolic processes in the liver. ..
  35. Ma E, Lewis A, Barabas P, Stearns G, Suzuki S, Krizaj D, et al. Loss of Pde6 reduces cell body Ca(2+) transients within photoreceptors. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e797 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus provides insight into Ca(2+) dynamics in a common form of inherited blindness and uncovers a dramatic, light-independent modulation of [Ca(2+)]i that occurs in normal cones. ..
  36. Krasowski M, Yasuda K, Hagey L, Schuetz E. Evolutionary selection across the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily with a focus on the NR1I subfamily (vitamin D, pregnane X, and constitutive androstane receptors). Nucl Recept. 2005;3:2 pubmed
    ..NR genes generally show strong sequence conservation and little evidence for positive selection. The main exceptions are PXR and CAR, genes that may have adapted to cross-species differences in toxic compound exposure. ..
  37. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S. Progesterone and norgestrel alter transcriptional expression of genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryos-larvae. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;167:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of thyroglobulin (Tg), iodothyronine deiodinase type Ι (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β (Thrb) genes...
  38. Morais R, Nóbrega R, Gómez González N, Schmidt R, Bogerd J, França L, et al. Thyroid hormone stimulates the proliferation of Sertoli cells and single type A spermatogonia in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) testis. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our studies suggest that T3 expands the population of SCs and A(und) involving Igf signaling and potentiates gonadotropin-stimulated testicular androgen production as well as androgen sensitivity. ..
  39. Zhou Z, Yang J, Chan K. Toxic effects of triclosan on a zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cell line, ZFL. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;191:175-188 pubmed publisher
    ..The impairment of Cyp1a mRNA expression could be due to stimulation by other stressors such as oxidative stress, warranting further investigation into the underlying mechanism in zebrafish. ..
  40. Liu Y, Chan W. Thyroid hormones are important for embryonic to larval transitory phase in zebrafish. Differentiation. 2002;70:36-45 pubmed
    ..Beginning from the midblastula stage, the level of TR beta mRNAs increases dramatically and is maintained until the end of the transitory phase...
  41. Cao C, Wang Q, Jiao F, Zhu G. Impact of co-exposure with butachlor and triadimefon on thyroid endocrine system in larval zebrafish. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2016;68:463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..BTL and TDF resulted in adverse effects on zebrafish embryonic development and caused thyroid endocrine disruption, BTL and TDF have a synergistic effect on development and thyroid endocrine by enhanced level of thyroid hormone. ..
  42. Tan J, Quek S, Chan W. Cloning, genomic organization, and expression analysis of zebrafish nuclear receptor coactivator, TIF2. Zebrafish. 2005;2:33-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In zebrafish, TRbeta1 has been implicated to be involved in the obligatory embryonic-to-larval transitory phase...
  43. Campinho M, Saraiva J, Florindo C, Power D. Maternal thyroid hormones are essential for neural development in zebrafish. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:1136-49 pubmed publisher
  44. Zheng X, Zhu Y, Liu C, Liu H, Giesy J, Hecker M, et al. Accumulation and biotransformation of BDE-47 by zebrafish larvae and teratogenicity and expression of genes along the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:12943-51 pubmed publisher
  45. Walpita C, Crawford A, Janssens E, Van der Geyten S, Darras V. Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase is essential for thyroid hormone-dependent embryonic development and pigmentation in zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2009;150:530-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that TH activation by D2 is essential for embryonic development and pigmentation in zebrafish. ..
  46. Marelli F, Carra S, Rurale G, Cotelli F, Persani L. In vivo Functional Consequences of Human THRA Variants Expressed in the Zebrafish. Thyroid. 2017;27:279-291 pubmed publisher
    ..The described manipulation of zebrafish embryos represents a novel in vivo model to screen the functional consequences of THRA variants and the rescue potential of new therapeutic compounds. ..
  47. Yu L, Deng J, Shi X, Liu C, Yu K, Zhou B. Exposure to DE-71 alters thyroid hormone levels and gene transcription in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis of zebrafish larvae. Aquat Toxicol. 2010;97:226-33 pubmed publisher
  48. Marelli F, Carra S, Agostini M, Cotelli F, Peeters R, Chatterjee K, et al. Patterns of thyroid hormone receptor expression in zebrafish and generation of a novel model of resistance to thyroid hormone action. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;424:102-17 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to thyroid hormone can be due to heterozygous, dominant negative (DN) THRA (RTHα) or THRB (RTHβ) mutations, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood...
  49. Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Du J, Zhao M. Environmentally relevant levels of ?-cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin cause developmental toxicity and disrupt endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. Chemosphere. 2017;185:1173-1180 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that these 3 SPs may cause developmental toxicity to zebrafish larvae by disrupting endocrine signaling at environmentally relevant concentrations. ..
  50. Shi X, Liu C, Wu G, Zhou B. Waterborne exposure to PFOS causes disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish larvae. Chemosphere. 2009;77:1010-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Macaulay L, Chen A, Rock K, Dishaw L, Dong W, Hinton D, et al. Developmental toxicity of the PBDE metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 in zebrafish and the potential role of thyroid receptor β. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;168:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that OH-BDEs can adversely affect early life development of zebrafish and suggest they may be impacting thyroid hormone regulation in vivo through downregulation of the thyroid hormone receptor. ..