Gene Symbol: tbx6
Description: T-box 6
Alias: ZF-TBX24, id:ibd5070, tbx24, tbx6r, z.TBX24, T-box transcription factor TBX6, T-box 24, T-box protein 24, T-box protein 6, T-box transcription factor TBX24, fss, fused somites
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. van Eeden F, Granato M, Schach U, Brand M, Furutani Seiki M, Haffter P, et al. Mutations affecting somite formation and patterning in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Development. 1996;123:153-64 pubmed
    ..Later, irregular boundaries between somites are present. Mutations in fused somites (fss) and beamter (bea) affect all somites, whereas mutations in deadly seven (des), after eight (aei) and ..
  2. Sieger D, Tautz D, Gajewski M. The role of Suppressor of Hairless in Notch mediated signalling during zebrafish somitogenesis. Mech Dev. 2003;120:1083-94 pubmed
    ..The inactivation of Su(H) in a fss/tbx24 mutant background leads furthermore to a clear breakdown of cyclic her1 and her7 expression, indicating that the ..
  3. Yin C, Solnica Krezel L. Convergence and extension movements affect dynamic notochord-somite interactions essential for zebrafish slow muscle morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2742-56 pubmed
    ..We propose that in the double mutants, impaired C&E movements disrupt notochord development, which impedes the adaxial cell shape changes. ..
  4. van Eeden F, Holley S, Haffter P, Nusslein Volhard C. Zebrafish segmentation and pair-rule patterning. Dev Genet. 1998;23:65-76 pubmed
    ..Mutations of one class, the fss-type mutants, disrupt the formation of the anterior-posterior somite boundaries during somitogenesis...
  5. Row R, Maître J, Martin B, Stockinger P, Heisenberg C, Kimelman D. Completion of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in zebrafish mesoderm requires Spadetail. Dev Biol. 2011;354:102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This mutation creates an ideal system for dissecting the specific properties of cells undergoing the morphological transition of maturing mesoderm, as we demonstrate with a direct measurement of cell-cell adhesion. ..
  6. Brend T, Holley S. Expression of the oscillating gene her1 is directly regulated by Hairy/Enhancer of Split, T-box, and Suppressor of Hairless proteins in the zebrafish segmentation clock. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2745-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We also characterize binding sites for fused somites/Tbx24 and Suppressor of Hairless proteins and show that they are required for activation of her1 expression...
  7. Szeto D, Kimelman D. The regulation of mesodermal progenitor cell commitment to somitogenesis subdivides the zebrafish body musculature into distinct domains. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1923-32 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the tail MPCs are held in a state we previously called the Maturation Zone as they wait for the signal to begin entering somitogenesis. ..
  8. Kawamura A, Koshida S, Hijikata H, Ohbayashi A, Kondoh H, Takada S. Groucho-associated transcriptional repressor ripply1 is required for proper transition from the presomitic mesoderm to somites. Dev Cell. 2005;9:735-44 pubmed
    ..Thus, ripply1 plays dual roles in the transition from the PSM to somites: termination of the segmentation program in the PSM and maintenance of the rostrocaudal polarity. ..
  9. De Rienzo G, Bishop J, Mao Y, Pan L, Ma T, Moens C, et al. Disc1 regulates both ?-catenin-mediated and noncanonical Wnt signaling during vertebrate embryogenesis. FASEB J. 2011;25:4184-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration that Disc1 modulates the noncanonical Wnt pathway and suggests a previously unconsidered mechanism by which Disc1 may contribute to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. ..

More Information


  1. Moreno Mateos M, Vejnar C, Beaudoin J, Fernandez J, Mis E, Khokha M, et al. CRISPRscan: designing highly efficient sgRNAs for CRISPR-Cas9 targeting in vivo. Nat Methods. 2015;12:982-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify determinants that influence Cas9 activity and provide a framework for the design of highly efficient sgRNAs for genome targeting in vivo. ..
  2. McMillen P, Chatti V, Jülich D, Holley S. A Sawtooth Pattern of Cadherin 2 Stability Mechanically Regulates Somite Morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2016;26:542-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Throughout somitogenesis, Cdh2 promotes ECM assembly along tissue boundaries and inhibits ECM assembly in the tissue mesenchyme. ..
  3. Yabe T, Takada S. Mesogenin causes embryonic mesoderm progenitors to differentiate during development of zebrafish tail somites. Dev Biol. 2012;370:213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..that of ntl in the ventral tailbud, as previously reported; and its mis-expression caused ectopic expression of tbx24, a PSM marker gene, only in the tailbud and posterior notochord, both of which expressed ntl in zebrafish embryos...
  4. Kagermeier Schenk B, Wehner D, Ozhan Kizil G, Yamamoto H, Li J, Kirchner K, et al. Waif1/5T4 inhibits Wnt/?-catenin signaling and activates noncanonical Wnt pathways by modifying LRP6 subcellular localization. Dev Cell. 2011;21:1129-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Waif1 modulates pathway selection in Wnt-receiving cells. ..
  5. Baker K, Ramel M, Lekven A. A direct role for Wnt8 in ventrolateral mesoderm patterning. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2828-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Wnt8 and BMP signaling have independent roles during vertebrate ventrolateral mesoderm development that can be identified through loss-of-function analysis. ..
  6. Ramel M, Buckles G, Baker K, Lekven A. WNT8 and BMP2B co-regulate non-axial mesoderm patterning during zebrafish gastrulation. Dev Biol. 2005;287:237-48 pubmed
  7. Lee H, Tseng W, Lo F, Liu T, Tsai H. FoxD5 mediates anterior-posterior polarity through upstream modulator Fgf signaling during zebrafish somitogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;336:232-45 pubmed publisher
    ..An Fgf-FoxD5-Mesps signaling network is therefore proposed. ..
  8. Jülich D, Mould A, Koper E, Holley S. Control of extracellular matrix assembly along tissue boundaries via Integrin and Eph/Ephrin signaling. Development. 2009;136:2913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the tissue, interplay between Eph/Ephrin signaling, ligand-independent Integrin clustering and reciprocal Integrin inhibition restricts de novo ECM production to somite boundaries...
  9. Khan A, Nakamoto A, Okamoto S, Tai M, Nakayama Y, Kobayashi K, et al. Pou2, a class V POU-type transcription factor in zebrafish, regulates dorsoventral patterning and convergent extension movement at different blastula stages. Mech Dev. 2012;129:219-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrated that pou2 regulates DV patterning and CE movement in zebrafish embryos at the midblastula and late blastula stages, respectively...
  10. Fior R, Maxwell A, Ma T, Vezzaro A, Moens C, Amacher S, et al. The differentiation and movement of presomitic mesoderm progenitor cells are controlled by Mesogenin 1. Development. 2012;139:4656-65 pubmed publisher
    ..in the future PSM cells as they exit from the tailbud, and subsequently induces expression of PSM markers such as tbx24. msgn1 is itself positively regulated by Ntl/Wnt/Fgf, creating a negative-feedback loop that might be crucial to ..
  11. Wanglar C, Takahashi J, Yabe T, Takada S. Tbx protein level critical for clock-mediated somite positioning is regulated through interaction between Tbx and Ripply. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107928 pubmed publisher
    ..By utilizing an antibody against zebrafish Tbx6/Fss, previously referred to as Tbx24, we found that the anterior border of Tbx6 domain coincided with the presumptive intersomitic boundary even in the ..
  12. Cui B, Ren L, Xu Q, Yin L, Zhou X, Liu J. Silver_ nanoparticles inhibited erythrogenesis during zebrafish embryogenesis. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;177:295-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it was pointed out that AgNPs affected erythrogenesis mostly by their particles other than their releasing ions. ..
  13. Ishimatsu K, Takamatsu A, Takeda H. Emergence of traveling waves in the zebrafish segmentation clock. Development. 2010;137:1595-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that Fgf has an essential role in establishing the period gradient that is required for the her1 spatial oscillation pattern at the emergence of the traveling wave...
  14. Gilmour D, Knaut H, Maischein H, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Towing of sensory axons by their migrating target cells in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:491-2 pubmed
    ..Here we combine genetics and time-lapse imaging in the zebrafish to show that towing by migrating cells is a bona fide mechanism for guiding pathfinding axons in vivo. ..
  15. O Neill K, Thorpe C. BMP signaling and spadetail regulate exit of muscle precursors from the zebrafish tailbud. Dev Biol. 2013;375:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..They also elucidate that chd;spt tailbud mesodermal progenitor cells (MPC) behave autonomously and their dynamics within the tailbud are drastically different than WT MPCs. ..
  16. Deng Y, Yao F, Li J, Mao Z, Hu P, Long L, et al. RACK1 suppresses gastric tumorigenesis by stabilizing the ?-catenin destruction complex. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:812-823.e15 pubmed publisher
    ..RACK1 negatively regulates Wnt signaling pathway by stabilizing the ?-catenin destruction complex and act as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer cells. ..
  17. Bouldin C, Snelson C, Farr G, Kimelman D. Restricted expression of cdc25a in the tailbud is essential for formation of the zebrafish posterior body. Genes Dev. 2014;28:384-95 pubmed publisher
  18. McCammon J, Blaker Lee A, Chen X, Sive H. The 16p11.2 homologs fam57ba and doc2a generate certain brain and body phenotypes. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:3699-3712 pubmed publisher
    ..2 homologs in zebrafish. The data inform consideration of mechanisms underlying human 16p11.2 deletion symptoms. ..
  19. Windner S, Bird N, PATTERSON S, Doris R, DEVOTO S. Fss/Tbx6 is required for central dermomyotome cell fate in zebrafish. Biol Open. 2012;1:806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The fused somites (fss) gene is the zebrafish ortholog of tbx6...
  20. Kim H, Lee M, Jeong Y, Ro H, Kim D, Shin Y, et al. Ottogi Inhibits Wnt/?-catenin Signaling by Regulating Cell Membrane Trafficking of Frizzled8. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13278 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that OTG functions as a novel negative regulator of Wnt signaling during development by the modulation of cell surface expression of Fz receptor. ..
  21. Kawamura A, Koshida S, Hijikata H, Sakaguchi T, Kondoh H, Takada S. Zebrafish hairy/enhancer of split protein links FGF signaling to cyclic gene expression in the periodic segmentation of somites. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1156-61 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Her13.2 augments autorepression of her1 in association with Her1 protein. Therefore, FGF signaling appears to maintain the oscillation machinery by supplying a binding partner, Her13.2, for Her1. ..
  22. Blaker Lee A, Gupta S, McCammon J, De Rienzo G, Sive H. Zebrafish homologs of genes within 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:834-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The second major finding is that there are (at least) two genes with deletion dosage sensor properties among the 16p11.2 set, and these could link this CNV to brain disorders such as ASD and IDD. ..
  23. Hayes M, Naito M, Daulat A, Angers S, Ciruna B. Ptk7 promotes non-canonical Wnt/PCP-mediated morphogenesis and inhibits Wnt/?-catenin-dependent cell fate decisions during vertebrate development. Development. 2013;140:1807-18 pubmed publisher
  24. Maragh S, Miller R, Bessling S, Wang G, Hook P, McCallion A. Rbm24a and Rbm24b are required for normal somitogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105460 pubmed publisher
  25. Oates A, Rohde L, Ho R. Generation of segment polarity in the paraxial mesoderm of the zebrafish through a T-box-dependent inductive event. Dev Biol. 2005;283:204-14 pubmed
    ..To better understand the generation of segment polarity in vertebrates, we have studied the zebrafish mutant fused somites (fss), because its paraxial mesoderm lacks segment polarity...
  26. Kawahara A, Che Y, Hanaoka R, Takeda H, Dawid I. Zebrafish GADD45beta genes are involved in somite segmentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:361-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that regulated expression of gadd45beta genes in the anterior PSM is required for somite segmentation...
  27. Barrios A, Poole R, Durbin L, Brennan C, Holder N, Wilson S. Eph/Ephrin signaling regulates the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition of the paraxial mesoderm during somite morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1571-82 pubmed
    ..This pattern establishes a receptor/ligand interface at each site of somite furrow formation. In the fused somites (fss/tbx24) mutant, lack of intersomitic boundaries and epithelial somites is accompanied by a lack of Eph ..
  28. Lewis K, Eisen J. Paraxial mesoderm specifies zebrafish primary motoneuron subtype identity. Development. 2004;131:891-902 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that in the absence of signals from paraxial mesoderm, primary motoneurons have a hybrid identity with respect to gene expression, and that under these conditions the CaP axon trajectory may be dominant. ..
  29. Lin C, He J, Zeng C, Loo M, Chang W, Zhang P, et al. microRNA-206 modulates an Rtn4a/Cxcr4a/Thbs3a axis in newly forming somites to maintain and stabilize the somite boundary formation of zebrafish embryos. Open Biol. 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we suggest that miR-206 mediates a novel pathway, the Rtn4a/Cxcr4a/Thbs3a axis, that allows boundary cells to undergo MET and form somite boundaries in the newly forming somites of zebrafish embryos. ..
  30. Du T, Xu P, Dong Z, Fan H, Jin Y, Dong M, et al. Setdb2 controls convergence and extension movements during zebrafish gastrulation by transcriptional regulation of dvr1. Dev Biol. 2014;392:233-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that Setdb2 is a novel regulator for C&E movements and acts by modulating the expression level of dvr1, suggesting that Dvr1 acts as a direct and essential mediator for C&E cell movements. ..
  31. zhan G, Sezgin E, Wehner D, Pfister A, K hl S, Kagermeier Schenk B, et al. Lypd6 enhances Wnt/?-catenin signaling by promoting Lrp6 phosphorylation in raft plasma membrane domains. Dev Cell. 2013;26:331-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Lypd6 appears to control Lrp6 activation specifically in membrane rafts, which is essential for downstream signaling...
  32. Gu Q, Yang X, He X, Li Q, Cui Z. Generation and characterization of a transgenic zebrafish expressing the reverse tetracycline transactivator. J Genet Genomics. 2013;40:523-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this rtTA-transgenic zebrafish can be utilized to dissect functions of genes in a temporal manner. ..
  33. He Y, Xu X, Zhao S, Ma S, Sun L, Liu Z, et al. Maternal control of axial-paraxial mesoderm patterning via direct transcriptional repression in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2014;386:96-110 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that direct transcriptional repression of the decisive axial mesoderm gene by maternal ventralizing factor is a crucial regulatory mechanism of initiating axial-paraxial mesoderm patterning in vertebrates. ..
  34. Khan A, Nakamoto A, Tai M, Saito S, Nakayama Y, Kawamura A, et al. Mesendoderm specification depends on the function of Pou2, the class V POU-type transcription factor, during zebrafish embryogenesis. Dev Growth Differ. 2012;54:686-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Pou2 functions in multiple aspects of vertebrate development, especially in the binary decision of the mesendoderm to mesoderm and endoderm in different ways depending on the developmental stage. ..
  35. Liu J, Zhang D, Xie X, Ouyang G, Liu X, Sun Y, et al. Eaf1 and Eaf2 negatively regulate canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Development. 2013;140:1067-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our evidence points to a novel role for Eaf1 and Eaf2 in inhibiting canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which might form the mechanistic basis for Eaf1 and Eaf2 tumor suppressor activity. ..
  36. He X, Zhang W, Yan C, Nie F, Li C, Liu X, et al. Chemical biology reveals CARF as a positive regulator of canonical Wnt signaling by promoting TCF/β-catenin transcriptional activity. Cell Discov. 2017;3:17003 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we identified CARF as the cellular target of NC043 and revealed CARF as a positive regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction. ..
  37. Morrow Z, Maxwell A, Hoshijima K, Talbot J, Grunwald D, Amacher S. tbx6l and tbx16 are redundantly required for posterior paraxial mesoderm formation during zebrafish embryogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2017;246:759-769 pubmed publisher
    ..effect on embryonic development, nor does tbx6l loss enhance the phenotype of two other T-box gene mutants, ta and tbx6, or of the mesp family gene mutant msgn1...
  38. Muraoka O, Shimizu T, Yabe T, Nojima H, Bae Y, Hashimoto H, et al. Sizzled controls dorso-ventral polarity by repressing cleavage of the Chordin protein. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:329-38 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role for a secreted Frizzled-related protein. ..
  39. Lin Y, Tsai Y, Liu Y, Cheng Y, Hung C, Lee Y, et al. The critical role of protein arginine methyltransferase prmt8 in zebrafish embryonic and neural development is non-redundant with its paralogue prmt1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55221 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that prmt8 may play important roles non-overlapping with prmt1 in embryonic and neural development depending on its specific N-terminus. ..
  40. Seebald J, Szeto D. Zebrafish eve1 regulates the lateral and ventral fates of mesodermal progenitor cells at the onset of gastrulation. Dev Biol. 2011;349:78-89 pubmed publisher
  41. Windner S, Doris R, Ferguson C, Nelson A, Valentin G, Tan H, et al. Tbx6, Mesp-b and Ripply1 regulate the onset of skeletal myogenesis in zebrafish. Development. 2015;142:1159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..that a gene network previously implicated in somite boundary formation, involving the transcriptional regulators Tbx6, Mesp-b and Ripply1, also confers spatial and temporal regulation to skeletal myogenesis in zebrafish...
  42. von der Hardt S, Bakkers J, Inbal A, Carvalho L, Solnica Krezel L, Heisenberg C, et al. The Bmp gradient of the zebrafish gastrula guides migrating lateral cells by regulating cell-cell adhesion. Curr Biol. 2007;17:475-87 pubmed
  43. Jahangiri L, Nelson A, Wardle F. A cis-regulatory module upstream of deltaC regulated by Ntla and Tbx16 drives expression in the tailbud, presomitic mesoderm and somites. Dev Biol. 2012;371:110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This CRM is bound by both Ntla and Tbx16 at a cluster of T-box binding sites, which are required in combination for activation of the CRM. ..
  44. Dumortier J, David N. The TORC2 component, Sin1, controls migration of anterior mesendoderm during zebrafish gastrulation. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0118474 pubmed publisher
    ..We furthermore establish that Sin1 is required for protrusion formation downstream of PI3K, and is acting upstream of the GTPase Rac1, since expression of an activated form of Rac1 is sufficient to rescue sin1 loss of function. ..
  45. Zhong Y, Lu L, Zhou J, Li Y, Liu Y, Clemmons D, et al. IGF binding protein 3 exerts its ligand-independent action by antagonizing BMP in zebrafish embryos. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1925-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of Igfbp3 enhanced the ventralized phenotype caused by chordin knockdown. These results suggest that Igfbp3 exerts its IGF-independent actions by antagonizing Bmp signaling and that this mechanism is conserved. ..
  46. Zhang T, Zhou X, Ma X, Liu J. Mechanisms of cadmium-caused eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in zebrafish embryos. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;167:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found that compounds BIO or RA could neutralize the toxic effects of Cd. ..
  47. Yabe T, Hoshijima K, Yamamoto T, Takada S. Quadruple zebrafish mutant reveals different roles of Mesp genes in somite segmentation between mouse and zebrafish. Development. 2016;143:2842-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clarify the conserved and species-specific roles of Mesp in the link between the molecular clock and somite morphogenesis. ..
  48. Li D, Sun H, Deng W, Tao D, Liu Y, Ma Y. Zili antagonizes Bmp signaling to regulate dorsal-ventral patterning during zebrafish early embryogenesis. Zoolog Sci. 2011;28:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, overexpression of zili produced opposite effects. In conclusion, our results indicate that zili regulates dorsal-ventral patterning by antagonizing Bmp signaling during early embryogenesis in zebrafish. ..
  49. Holley S, Takeda H. Catching a wave: the oscillator and wavefront that create the zebrafish somite. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2002;13:481-8 pubmed
    ..of Fgf signaling declines in the rostral presomitic mesoderm, a wavefront mediated by the transcription factor fss/tbx24, stabilizes the prepattern and leads to the segmental expression of a number of genes which then establish segment ..
  50. Stulberg M, Lin A, Zhao H, Holley S. Crosstalk between Fgf and Wnt signaling in the zebrafish tailbud. Dev Biol. 2012;369:298-307 pubmed publisher
  51. Rong X, Zhou Y, Liu Y, Zhao B, Wang B, Wang C, et al. Glutathione peroxidase 4 inhibits Wnt/?-catenin signaling and regulates dorsal organizer formation in zebrafish embryos. Development. 2017;144:1687-1697 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings unravel GPX4 as a suppressor of Wnt/?-catenin signals, suggesting a possible relationship between the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and selenium via the association of Tcf/Lef family proteins with GPX4. ..
  52. Naylor R, Skvarca L, Thisse C, Thisse B, Hukriede N, Davidson A. BMP and retinoic acid regulate anterior-posterior patterning of the non-axial mesoderm across the dorsal-ventral axis. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12197 pubmed publisher
    ..This work clarifies our understanding of vertebrate axis orientation and establishes a new paradigm for how the kidney and other mesodermal derivatives arise during embryogenesis. ..
  53. Kok F, Oster E, Mentzer L, Hsieh J, Henry C, Sirotkin H. The role of the SPT6 chromatin remodeling factor in zebrafish embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;307:214-26 pubmed
    ..However, additional Spt6 mutant phenotypes are likely caused by vital functions of Spt6 in other pathways. ..
  54. Shaw K, Castranova D, Pham V, Kamei M, Kidd K, Lo B, et al. fused-somites-like mutants exhibit defects in trunk vessel patterning. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1753-60 pubmed
    ..The fss locus has been shown to correspond to tbx24; we show here that bea mutants are defective in the zebrafish dlC gene...
  55. Cao J, Li S, Zhang H, Shi D. High mobility group B proteins regulate mesoderm formation and dorsoventral patterning during zebrafish and Xenopus early development. Mech Dev. 2012;129:263-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that hmgb genes may function to fine-tune the specification and/or dorsoventral patterning of mesoderm during zebrafish and Xenopus development. ..
  56. Lawton A, Nandi A, Stulberg M, Dray N, Sneddon M, Pontius W, et al. Regulated tissue fluidity steers zebrafish body elongation. Development. 2013;140:573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Modeling and additional data analyses suggest that the balance between the coherence and rate of cell flow determines whether body elongation is linear or whether congestion forms within the flow and the body axis becomes contorted. ..
  57. Retnoaji B, Akiyama R, Matta T, Bessho Y, Matsui T. Retinoic acid controls proper head-to-trunk linkage in zebrafish by regulating an anteroposterior somitogenetic rate difference. Development. 2014;141:158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results indicate that RA regulation of the AP difference is crucial for proper linkage between the head and trunk in the vertebrate body plan. ..
  58. Bouldin C, Manning A, Peng Y, Farr G, Hung K, Dong A, et al. Wnt signaling and tbx16 form a bistable switch to commit bipotential progenitors to mesoderm. Development. 2015;142:2499-507 pubmed publisher