Gene Symbol: snai1a
Description: snail family zinc finger 1a
Alias: cb643, sna-1, sna1, snai1, snail1, snail1a, zgc:109820, snail family zinc finger 1a
Species: zebrafish
Products:     snai1a

Top Publications

  1. Yamashita S, Miyagi C, Fukada T, Kagara N, Che Y, Hirano T. Zinc transporter LIVI controls epithelial-mesenchymal transition in zebrafish gastrula organizer. Nature. 2004;429:298-302 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that LIV1 is essential for the nuclear localization of zinc-finger protein Snail, a master regulator of EMT. These results establish a molecular link between STAT3, LIV1 and Snail in EMT. ..
  2. Blanco M, Barrallo Gimeno A, Acloque H, Reyes A, Tada M, Allende M, et al. Snail1a and Snail1b cooperate in the anterior migration of the axial mesendoderm in the zebrafish embryo. Development. 2007;134:4073-81 pubmed
    ..In teleosts, the vertebrate Snail1 gene is represented by two distinct genes, snail1a and snail1b (previously snail1 and snail2)...
  3. Krens S, He S, Lamers G, Meijer A, Bakkers J, Schmidt T, et al. Distinct functions for ERK1 and ERK2 in cell migration processes during zebrafish gastrulation. Dev Biol. 2008;319:370-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data define distinct roles for ERK1 and ERK2 in developmental cell migration processes during zebrafish embryogenesis. ..
  4. Hammerschmidt M, Nusslein Volhard C. The expression of a zebrafish gene homologous to Drosophila snail suggests a conserved function in invertebrate and vertebrate gastrulation. Development. 1993;119:1107-18 pubmed
    ..Data obtained in studies with ectopic ntl expression support this model. ..
  5. Ober E, Schulte Merker S. Signals from the yolk cell induce mesoderm, neuroectoderm, the trunk organizer, and the notochord in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 1999;215:167-81 pubmed
    ..In addition, these experiments show that the establishment of the anteroposterior axis is independent of the dorsoventral axis. ..
  6. Hammerschmidt M, Pelegri F, Mullins M, Kane D, van Eeden F, Granato M, et al. dino and mercedes, two genes regulating dorsal development in the zebrafish embryo. Development. 1996;123:95-102 pubmed
    ..Their function in the patterning of the ventrolateral mesoderm and the induction of the neuroectoderm is similar to the function of the Spemann organizer in the amphibian embryo. ..
  7. Sun H, Li D, Chen S, Liu Y, Liao X, Deng W, et al. Zili inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling by interacting with Smad4. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows that zili plays a role in early embryogenesis beyond germ line as a novel negative regulator of TGF-beta signaling, extending the function of Piwi proteins in vertebrates. ..
  8. Gays D, Hess C, Camporeale A, Ala U, Provero P, Mosimann C, et al. An exclusive cellular and molecular network governs intestinal smooth muscle cell differentiation in vertebrates. Development. 2017;144:464-478 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data uncover a cascade of molecular events that govern distinct morphogenetic steps during the emergence and differentiation of vertebrate iSMCs. ..
  9. Jülich D, Geisler R, Holley S. Integrinalpha5 and delta/notch signaling have complementary spatiotemporal requirements during zebrafish somitogenesis. Dev Cell. 2005;8:575-86 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that notch- and integrinalpha5-dependent cell polarization and Fibronectin matrix assembly occur concomitantly and interdependently during border morphogenesis. ..

More Information


  1. Castro Gonzalez C, Luengo Oroz M, Duloquin L, Savy T, Rizzi B, Desnoulez S, et al. A digital framework to build, visualize and analyze a gene expression atlas with cellular resolution in zebrafish early embryogenesis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2014;10:e1003670 pubmed publisher
  2. Park S, Jung S, Jogeswar G, Ryoo H, Yook J, Choi H, et al. The transcription factor snail regulates osteogenic differentiation by repressing Runx2 expression. Bone. 2010;46:1498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Snail plays a crucial role in osteogenic differentiation by acting as a direct Runx2 repressor. ..
  3. Katoh M, Katoh M. Comparative genomics on SNAI1, SNAI2, and SNAI3 orthologs. Oncol Rep. 2005;14:1083-6 pubmed
    ..Rat Snai3 gene, consisting of three exons, was identified within rat genome sequence AC111791.4. Zebrafish snai1a (NM_131066.1) was identified as SNAI1 ortholog. Chicken ChEST362l17 (CR407272.1), Xenopus slug (AF368041...
  4. Zhang L, Zhou H, Su Y, Sun Z, Zhang H, Zhang L, et al. Zebrafish Dpr2 inhibits mesoderm induction by promoting degradation of nodal receptors. Science. 2004;306:114-7 pubmed
    ..Dpr2 is localized in late endosomes, binds to the TGFbeta receptors ALK5 and ALK4, and accelerates lysosomal degradation of these receptors. ..
  5. Liu X, Huang S, Ma J, Li C, Zhang Y, Luo L. NF-kappaB and Snail1a coordinate the cell cycle with gastrulation. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:805-15 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-kappaB associates with the Snail1a promoter region on the chromatin and directly activates Snail1a, an important factor controlling cell ..
  6. Kelly G, Greenstein P, Erezyilmaz D, Moon R. Zebrafish wnt8 and wnt8b share a common activity but are involved in distinct developmental pathways. Development. 1995;121:1787-99 pubmed
  7. Manzanares M, Blanco M, Nieto M. Snail3 orthologues in vertebrates: divergent members of the Snail zinc-finger gene family. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:47-53 pubmed
    ..We further show that all three Snail genes lie in regions of extensive paralogy, revealing their common origin through segmental or chromosomal duplication. ..
  8. Lou Q, He J, Hu L, Yin Z. Role of lbx2 in the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway for convergence and extension movements and hypaxial myogenesis in zebrafish. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:1024-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the key noncanonical Wnt signaling components Wnt5, Dvl, and RhoA are downstream effectors involved in the regulative roles of lbx2 in CE movement and hypaxial myogenesis during zebrafish embryogenesis. ..
  9. Lee H, Lo H, Lo D, Su M, Hu J, Wu C, et al. Amiodarone Induces Overexpression of Similar to Versican b to Repress the EGFR/Gsk3b/Snail Signaling Axis during Cardiac Valve Formation of Zebrafish Embryos. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0144751 pubmed publisher
    ..This signaling cascade implicates the EGFR/Gsk3b/Snail axis as the molecular basis for the inhibition of cardiac valve formation by Amiodarone. ..
  10. Esguerra C, Nelles L, Vermeire L, Ibrahimi A, Crawford A, Derua R, et al. Ttrap is an essential modulator of Smad3-dependent Nodal signaling during zebrafish gastrulation and left-right axis determination. Development. 2007;134:4381-93 pubmed
    ..Morpholino-mediated Ttrap knockdown increases Smad3 activity, leading to ectopic expression of snail1a and apparent repression of e-cadherin, thereby perturbing cell movements during convergent extension, epiboly and ..
  11. Chen Y, Harris M, Levesque M, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, Sonawane M. Heterogeneity across the dorso-ventral axis in zebrafish EVL is regulated by a novel module consisting of sox, snail1a and max genes. Mech Dev. 2012;129:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that along with Nodal signalling components, four proteins Sox11b, Sox19b, Snail1a and Max are involved in regulating the size of this EVL domain...
  12. Pei W, Noushmehr H, Costa J, Ouspenskaia M, Elkahloun A, Feldman B. An early requirement for maternal FoxH1 during zebrafish gastrulation. Dev Biol. 2007;310:10-22 pubmed
    ..Our studies thus point to an essential role for maternal FoxH1 and downstream keratins during gastrulation that is epistatic to Nodal signaling. ..
  13. Putiri E, Pelegri F. The zebrafish maternal-effect gene mission impossible encodes the DEAH-box helicase Dhx16 and is essential for the expression of downstream endodermal genes. Dev Biol. 2011;353:275-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal RNA helicases have long been known to be involved in the development of the animal germ line, but our findings add to growing evidence that these factors may also control specific gene expression programs in somatic tissues. ..
  14. Arnaud E, Ferri K, Thibaut J, Haftek Terreau Z, Aouacheria A, Le Guellec D, et al. The zebrafish bcl-2 homologue Nrz controls development during somitogenesis and gastrulation via apoptosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1128-37 pubmed
    ..Together these data suggest that Nrz, in addition to its effect on apoptosis, contributes to cell movements during gastrulation by negatively regulating the expression of Snail-1, a transcription factor that controls cell adhesion. ..
  15. Kim J, Wu Q, Zhang Y, Wiens K, Huang Y, Rubin N, et al. PDGF signaling is required for epicardial function and blood vessel formation in regenerating zebrafish hearts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17206-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that PDGF signaling plays important roles in epicardial function and coronary vessel formation during heart regeneration in zebrafish. ..
  16. Zhang K, Rodriguez Aznar E, Yabuta N, Owen R, Mingot J, Nojima H, et al. Lats2 kinase potentiates Snail1 activity by promoting nuclear retention upon phosphorylation. EMBO J. 2012;31:29-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Snail1 is a central regulator of epithelial cell adhesion and movement in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) during embryo development; a process reactivated during cancer metastasis...
  17. Kim B, Hancock B, Bermudez A, Del Cid N, Reyes E, van Sorge N, et al. Bacterial induction of Snail1 contributes to blood-brain barrier disruption. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..cells (hBMECs) with GBS and other meningeal pathogens results in the induction of host transcriptional repressor Snail1, which impedes expression of tight junction genes...
  18. Missinato M, Tobita K, Romano N, Carroll J, Tsang M. Extracellular component hyaluronic acid and its receptor Hmmr are required for epicardial EMT during heart regeneration. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;107:487-98 pubmed publisher
    ..HA and Hmmr are required for activated epicardial cell EMT and migration involving the FAK/Src pathway for proper heart regeneration. ..
  19. Jiménez Amilburu V, Rasouli S, Staudt D, Nakajima H, Chiba A, Mochizuki N, et al. In Vivo Visualization of Cardiomyocyte Apicobasal Polarity Reveals Epithelial to Mesenchymal-like Transition during Cardiac Trabeculation. Cell Rep. 2016;17:2687-2699 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide information about cardiomyocyte polarization and enhance our understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying ventricular morphogenesis and maturation. ..
  20. Lyman Gingerich J, Lindeman R, Putiri E, Stolzmann K, Pelegri F. Analysis of axis induction mutant embryos reveals morphogenetic events associated with zebrafish yolk extension formation. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2749-60 pubmed
  21. Thisse C, Thisse B, Postlethwait J. Expression of snail2, a second member of the zebrafish snail family, in cephalic mesendoderm and presumptive neural crest of wild-type and spadetail mutant embryos. Dev Biol. 1995;172:86-99 pubmed
  22. Wang X, Ren J, Wang Z, Yao J, Fei J. NRSF/REST is required for gastrulation and neurogenesis during zebrafish development. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2012;44:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that REST (especially maternal supplied REST) was required for gastrulation and neurogenesis during zebrafish early embryogenesis. ..
  23. van Eeden F, Granato M, Schach U, Brand M, Furutani Seiki M, Haffter P, et al. Mutations affecting somite formation and patterning in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Development. 1996;123:153-64 pubmed
    ..Skeletal stainings and the expression pattern of myoD and snail1 suggest that anteroposterior patterning within individual somites is abnormal...
  24. BIRKHOLZ D, OLESNICKY KILLIAN E, George K, Artinger K. Prdm1a is necessary for posterior pharyngeal arch development in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2575-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate an essential role for prdm1a in the development of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton...
  25. Howley C, Ho R. mRNA localization patterns in zebrafish oocytes. Mech Dev. 2000;92:305-9 pubmed
    ..Unique patterns of localization are seen in mature eggs as well. Some mRNAs maintain their oocyte localization patterns, while others localize upon egg activation (fertilization). ..
  26. Fernandez J, Fuentes R. Fixation/permeabilization: new alternative procedure for immunofluorescence and mRNA in situ hybridization of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:503-17 pubmed publisher
    ..It is hypothesized that short C-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids modulate the cross-linking effect of aldehyde fixatives on cell proteins. ..
  27. Reifers F, Böhli H, Walsh E, Crossley P, Stainier D, Brand M. Fgf8 is mutated in zebrafish acerebellar (ace) mutants and is required for maintenance of midbrain-hindbrain boundary development and somitogenesis. Development. 1998;125:2381-95 pubmed
    ..Fgf8 is therefore required in development of several important signaling centers in the zebrafish embryo, but may be redundant or dispensable for others. ..
  28. Hug B, Walter V, Grunwald D. tbx6, a Brachyury-related gene expressed by ventral mesendodermal precursors in the zebrafish embryo. Dev Biol. 1997;183:61-73 pubmed
    ..However, no tail appears to contribute to the maintenance of normal levels of tbx6 transcription and may be required for tbx6 transcription in the developing tail. ..
  29. Slaats G, Ghosh A, Falke L, Le Corre S, Shaltiël I, van de Hoek G, et al. Nephronophthisis-associated CEP164 regulates cell cycle progression, apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004594 pubmed publisher
  30. Speirs C, Jernigan K, Kim S, Cha Y, Lin F, Sepich D, et al. Prostaglandin Gbetagamma signaling stimulates gastrulation movements by limiting cell adhesion through Snai1a stabilization. Development. 2010;137:1327-37 pubmed publisher modulating E-cadherin transcript and protein, in part through stabilization of the Snai1a (also known as Snail1) transcriptional repressor, an evolutionarily conserved regulator of cell delamination and directed migration...
  31. Kunwar P, Zimmerman S, Bennett J, Chen Y, Whitman M, Schier A. Mixer/Bon and FoxH1/Sur have overlapping and divergent roles in Nodal signaling and mesendoderm induction. Development. 2003;130:5589-99 pubmed
  32. Wallace K, Dolan A, Seiler C, Smith E, Yusuff S, Chaille Arnold L, et al. Mutation of smooth muscle myosin causes epithelial invasion and cystic expansion of the zebrafish intestine. Dev Cell. 2005;8:717-26 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that high-throughput screens to identify regulators of cancer cell invasion may be feasible in zebrafish. ..
  33. Song S, Eckerle S, Onichtchouk D, Marrs J, Nitschke R, Driever W. Pou5f1-dependent EGF expression controls E-cadherin endocytosis, cell adhesion, and zebrafish epiboly movements. Dev Cell. 2013;24:486-501 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that dynamic control of E-cad trafficking is essential to effectively generate new adhesion sites when cells move relative to each other. ..
  34. Ignatius M, Hayes M, Lobbardi R, Chen E, McCarthy K, Sreenivas P, et al. The NOTCH1/SNAIL1/MEF2C Pathway Regulates Growth and Self-Renewal in Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma. Cell Rep. 2017;19:2304-2318 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, ICN1 upregulated expression of SNAIL1, a transcriptional repressor, to increase TPC number in human ERMS and to block muscle differentiation through ..
  35. Griffin K, Patient R, Holder N. Analysis of FGF function in normal and no tail zebrafish embryos reveals separate mechanisms for formation of the trunk and the tail. Development. 1995;121:2983-94 pubmed
    ..Taken together these data suggest that the germ ring acts as a posteriorising centre during AP patterning, mediated by FGF activity in this tissue. ..
  36. Ocaña O, Coskun H, Minguillón C, Murawala P, Tanaka E, Galcerán J, et al. A right-handed signalling pathway drives heart looping in vertebrates. Nature. 2017;549:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Nodal-Pitx2 axis that is repressed on the right-hand side by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer Snail1 (refs 3, 4)...
  37. Liedtke D, Erhard I, Schartl M. snail gene expression in the medaka, Oryzias latipes. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified three snai gene family members, snai1a, snai1b and snai2...
  38. Reischauer S, Levesque M, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, Sonawane M. Lgl2 executes its function as a tumor suppressor by regulating ErbB signaling in the zebrafish epidermis. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000720 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal that pen/lgl2 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in vertebrates, establishing zebrafish pen/lgl2 mutants as a valuable cancer model. ..
  39. Tanaka H, Abe K, Kim C. Cloning and expression of the quaking gene in the zebrafish embryo. Mech Dev. 1997;69:209-13 pubmed
    ..The insertion of the 123 nucleotide sequence could be related to the acquisition of a neural function for the gene. ..
  40. Close R, Toro S, Martial J, Muller M. Expression of the zinc finger Egr1 gene during zebrafish embryonic development. Mech Dev. 2002;118:269-72 pubmed
    ..g. in the telencephalon, diencephalon and hypothalamus. Between 24 and 48 hpf, Egr1 is expressed in specific domains of the hypothalamus, mesencephalon, tegmentum, pharynx, retina, otic vesicle and heart. ..
  41. Caneparo L, Huang Y, Staudt N, Tada M, Ahrendt R, Kazanskaya O, et al. Dickkopf-1 regulates gastrulation movements by coordinated modulation of Wnt/beta catenin and Wnt/PCP activities, through interaction with the Dally-like homolog Knypek. Genes Dev. 2007;21:465-80 pubmed
    ..Our data therefore indicate that Dkk1 regulates gastrulation movement through interaction with LRP5/6 and Kny and coordinated modulations of Wnt/beta catenin and Wnt/PCP pathways. ..
  42. Chen C, Lin D, Cheng C, Lin C, Lo Y, Yen C, et al. Cdc6 cooperates with c-Myc to promote genome instability and epithelial to mesenchymal transition EMT in zebrafish. Oncotarget. 2014;5:6300-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings and other characteristics of zebrafish, including optical clarity and small molecule treatment, provide the future utility of this model for easy and non-invasive detection and for identification of new anti-cancer drug. ..
  43. Liu X, Xiong C, Jia S, Zhang Y, Chen Y, Wang Q, et al. Araf kinase antagonizes Nodal-Smad2 activity in mesendoderm development by directly phosphorylating the Smad2 linker region. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1728 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings open avenues for investigating the potential significance of Raf regulation of transforming growth factor ? signalling in versatile biological and pathological processes in the future. ..
  44. Ott E, Sakalis P, Marques I, Bagowski C. Characterization of the Enigma family in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:3144-54 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that enigma is important for the formation and organization of somites and might play an important role for actin cytoskeleton organization during development. ..
  45. Fior R, Maxwell A, Ma T, Vezzaro A, Moens C, Amacher S, et al. The differentiation and movement of presomitic mesoderm progenitor cells are controlled by Mesogenin 1. Development. 2012;139:4656-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Through its combined effects on gene expression and cell movement, Msgn1 (with Spt) plays a key role both in genesis of the paraxial mesoderm and in maintenance of the progenitor population from which it derives...
  46. Ochi H, Hans S, Westerfield M. Smarcd3 regulates the timing of zebrafish myogenesis onset. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3529-36 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which cooperative activity of Fgf, Ntl, and Smarcd3 is required for the onset of myogenesis, with Smarcd3b serving as the primary regulator of the timing of myogenesis onset. ..
  47. Warga R, Kane D. One-eyed pinhead regulates cell motility independent of Squint/Cyclops signaling. Dev Biol. 2003;261:391-411 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, in addition to a role in Nodal signaling, One-eyed pinhead is required for aspects of cell movement, possibly by regulating cell adhesion. ..
  48. Artinger K, Chitnis A, Mercola M, Driever W. Zebrafish narrowminded suggests a genetic link between formation of neural crest and primary sensory neurons. Development. 1999;126:3969-79 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of these findings for the possibility that RB sensory neurons and neural crest cells share a common evolutionary origin. ..
  49. Li D, Sun H, Deng W, Tao D, Liu Y, Ma Y. Zili antagonizes Bmp signaling to regulate dorsal-ventral patterning during zebrafish early embryogenesis. Zoolog Sci. 2011;28:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, overexpression of zili produced opposite effects. In conclusion, our results indicate that zili regulates dorsal-ventral patterning by antagonizing Bmp signaling during early embryogenesis in zebrafish. ..
  50. Solnica Krezel L, Stemple D, Mountcastle Shah E, Rangini Z, Neuhauss S, Malicki J, et al. Mutations affecting cell fates and cellular rearrangements during gastrulation in zebrafish. Development. 1996;123:67-80 pubmed
    ..These mutations provide an approach to understanding the genetic control of gastrulation in vertebrates. ..
  51. Liu X, Ma Y, Zhang C, Wei S, Cao Y, Wang Q. Nodal promotes mir206 expression to control convergence and extension movements during zebrafish gastrulation. J Genet Genomics. 2013;40:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..adhesion molecule E-cadherin is significantly increased, while the key transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin, snail1a, is depressed...
  52. Chang W, Lee G, Kao T, Lin C, Hsiao T, Tsai J, et al. Knocking down 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase increased oxidative stress and impeded zebrafish embryogenesis by obstructing morphogenetic movement. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:2340-50 pubmed publisher
  53. Smith S, Snell P, Gruetzner F, Bench A, Haaf T, Metcalfe J, et al. Analyses of the extent of shared synteny and conserved gene orders between the genome of Fugu rubripes and human 20q. Genome Res. 2002;12:776-84 pubmed
    ..Two other genes (SNAI1 and KRML) mapping to human chromosome 20 are also duplicated in Fugu...
  54. Locascio A, Manzanares M, Blanco M, Nieto M. Modularity and reshuffling of Snail and Slug expression during vertebrate evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16841-6 pubmed
    ..Because these changes do not fit easily into current models, we need to invoke additional mechanisms acting on enhancer elements to distribute expression domains and functions of duplicated genes unequally during evolution. ..
  55. Jung I, Leem G, Jung D, Kim M, Kim E, Kim S, et al. Glioma is formed by active Akt1 alone and promoted by active Rac1 in transgenic zebrafish. Neuro Oncol. 2013;15:290-304 pubmed publisher
    ..DARac1 upregulated survivin2, cyclin D1, ?-catenin, and snail1a but downregulated E-cadherin, indicating that DARac1 promotes gliomagenesis by enhancing proliferation, survival, ..
  56. Weinberg E, Allende M, Kelly C, Abdelhamid A, Murakami T, Andermann P, et al. Developmental regulation of zebrafish MyoD in wild-type, no tail and spadetail embryos. Development. 1996;122:271-80 pubmed
    ..We also show that MyoD expression precedes myogenin expression and follows or is coincident with expression of snaill in some regions that express this gene. ..