Gene Symbol: smyhc1
Description: slow myosin heavy chain 1
Alias: fb18g10, im:6897999, wu:fb18g10, slow myosin heavy chain 1, smhc1
Species: zebrafish
Products:     smyhc1

Top Publications

  1. Hollway G, Maule J, Gautier P, Evans T, Keenan D, Lohs C, et al. Scube2 mediates Hedgehog signalling in the zebrafish embryo. Dev Biol. 2006;294:104-18 pubmed
    ..In support of this model we show that scube2 has homology to cubilin, which encodes an endocytic receptor involved in protein trafficking suggesting a possible mode of function for Scube2 during HH signal transduction. ..
  2. Hinits Y, Williams V, Sweetman D, Donn T, Ma T, Moens C, et al. Defective cranial skeletal development, larval lethality and haploinsufficiency in Myod mutant zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2011;358:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..As myod expression is restricted to myogenic cells, the data show that myogenesis is essential for proper skeletogenesis in the head. ..
  3. Li H, Randall W, Du S. skNAC (skeletal Naca), a muscle-specific isoform of Naca (nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha), is required for myofibril organization. FASEB J. 2009;23:1988-2000 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis revealed that myosin protein levels were significantly reduced. Collectively, these results demonstrate that skNAC plays a vital role in myofibril assembly and function during muscle cell differentiation. ..
  4. Du S, Li H, Bian Y, Zhong Y. Heat-shock protein 90alpha1 is required for organized myofibril assembly in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:554-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Hsp90alpha1 plays an important role in muscle development, likely through facilitating myosin folding and assembly into organized myofibril filaments...
  5. Von Hofsten J, Elworthy S, Gilchrist M, Smith J, Wardle F, Ingham P. Prdm1- and Sox6-mediated transcriptional repression specifies muscle fibre type in the zebrafish embryo. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Prdm1 promotes slow-twitch fibre differentiation by acting as a global repressor of fast-fibre-specific genes, as well as by abrogating the repression of slow-fibre-specific genes...
  6. Osborn D, Li K, Hinits Y, Hughes S. Cdkn1c drives muscle differentiation through a positive feedback loop with Myod. Dev Biol. 2011;350:464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdkn1c co-operates with Myod to drive differentiation of several early zebrafish muscle fibre types. Myod in turn up-regulates cdkn1c, thereby providing a positive feedback loop that switches myogenic cells to terminal differentiation. ..
  7. Codina M, Li J, Gutierrez J, Kao J, Du S. Loss of Smyhc1 or Hsp90alpha1 function results in different effects on myofibril organization in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8416 pubmed publisher
  8. Wang X, Ono Y, Tan S, Chai R, Parkin C, Ingham P. Prdm1a and miR-499 act sequentially to restrict Sox6 activity to the fast-twitch muscle lineage in the zebrafish embryo. Development. 2011;138:4399-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that translational repression of sox6 is mediated by miR-499, the slow-twitch-specific expression of which is in turn controlled by Prdm1a, forming a regulatory loop that initiates and maintains the slow-twitch muscle lineage. ..
  9. Hinits Y, Osborn D, Hughes S. Differential requirements for myogenic regulatory factors distinguish medial and lateral somitic, cranial and fin muscle fibre populations. Development. 2009;136:403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Mrf4 does not contribute to early myogenesis in zebrafish. We suggest that the differential use of duplicated MRF paralogues in this novel two-component myogenic system facilitated the diversification of vertebrates...

More Information


  1. Liew H, Choksi S, Wong K, Roy S. Specification of vertebrate slow-twitch muscle fiber fate by the transcriptional regulator Blimp1. Dev Biol. 2008;324:226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular basis of vertebrate muscle fiber-type specification, and underscore Blimp1 as the central determinant of this process. ..
  2. Xu J, Gao J, Li J, Xue L, Clark K, Ekker S, et al. Functional analysis of slow myosin heavy chain 1 and myomesin-3 in sarcomere organization in zebrafish embryonic slow muscles. J Genet Genomics. 2012;39:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..knockdown approach in zebrafish embryos, we carried out a loss-of-function analysis of myomesin-3 and slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1) expressed specifically in slow muscles...
  3. Elworthy S, Hargrave M, Knight R, Mebus K, Ingham P. Expression of multiple slow myosin heavy chain genes reveals a diversity of zebrafish slow twitch muscle fibres with differing requirements for Hedgehog and Prdm1 activity. Development. 2008;135:2115-26 pubmed publisher
    ..of the transcription factor Prdm1 (also called Ubo or Blimp1) in response to Hedgehog (Hh) signalling, express the smyhc1 gene. Subsequently, secondary slow twitch fibres differentiate in most cases independently of Hh activity...
  4. Yogev O, Williams V, Hinits Y, Hughes S. eIF4EBP3L acts as a gatekeeper of TORC1 in activity-dependent muscle growth by specifically regulating Mef2ca translational initiation. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001679 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that by selectively inhibiting translational initiation of mef2ca and other mRNAs, eIF4EBP3L reprograms the translational profile of muscle, enabling it to adjust to new environmental conditions. ..
  5. Maves L, Waskiewicz A, Paul B, Cao Y, Tyler A, Moens C, et al. Pbx homeodomain proteins direct Myod activity to promote fast-muscle differentiation. Development. 2007;134:3371-82 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that Pbx proteins modulate Myod activity to drive fast-muscle gene expression, thus showing that homeodomain proteins can direct bHLH proteins to establish a specific cell-type identity. ..
  6. Hinits Y, Hughes S. Mef2s are required for thick filament formation in nascent muscle fibres. Development. 2007;134:2511-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings show that Mef2 controls skeletal muscle formation after terminal differentiation and define a new maturation step in vertebrate skeletal muscle development at which thick filament gene expression is controlled. ..
  7. Bryson Richardson R, Daggett D, Cortes F, Neyt C, Keenan D, Currie P. Myosin heavy chain expression in zebrafish and slow muscle composition. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1018-22 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that zebrafish embryonic slow twitch muscle co-expresses both slow and fast twitch MyHC isoforms, a property that they share with primary fibers of the amniote myotome...
  8. Groves J, Hammond C, Hughes S. Fgf8 drives myogenic progression of a novel lateral fast muscle fibre population in zebrafish. Development. 2005;132:4211-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Fgf8 drives terminal differentiation of a specific population of lateral muscle precursor cells within the early somite...
  9. Burguière A, Nord H, von Hofsten J. Alkali-like myosin light chain-1 (myl1) is an early marker for differentiating fast muscle cells in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1856-63 pubmed publisher
    ..3. In summary, this study introduces a novel marker for early differentiating fast muscle cells. ..
  10. Sheng Y, Zhao W, Song Y, Li Z, Luo M, Lei Q, et al. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal. Sci Rep. 2015;5:10176 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development. ..
  11. Li Y, Cheng C, Verdun V, Wingert R. Zebrafish nephrogenesis is regulated by interactions between retinoic acid, mecom, and Notch signaling. Dev Biol. 2014;386:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our studies have revealed several essential and novel mechanisms that control pronephros development in the zebrafish. ..
  12. Cheng C, Li Y, Marra A, Verdun V, Wingert R. Flat mount preparation for observation and analysis of zebrafish embryo specimens stained by whole mount in situ hybridization. J Vis Exp. 2014;: pubmed publisher
  13. Patterson L, Parichy D. Interactions with iridophores and the tissue environment required for patterning melanophores and xanthophores during zebrafish adult pigment stripe formation. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003561 pubmed publisher
  14. Li J, Yue Y, Dong X, Jia W, Li K, Liang D, et al. Zebrafish foxc1a plays a crucial role in early somitogenesis by restricting the expression of aldh1a2 directly. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10216-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that foxc1a plays an essential role in early somitogenesis by controlling Fgf and Notch signaling through restricting the expression of aldh1a2 in paraxial mesoderm directly. ..
  15. Nguyen Chi M, Bryson Richardson R, Sonntag C, Hall T, Gibson A, Sztal T, et al. Morphogenesis and cell fate determination within the adaxial cell equivalence group of the zebrafish myotome. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003014 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our results reveal that the synergistic actions of HH, FGF, and BMP signaling independently create a three-dimensional (3D) signaling milieu that coordinates cell fate within the adaxial cell equivalence group. ..
  16. Bretaud S, Pagnon Minot A, Guillon E, Ruggiero F, Le Guellec D. Characterization of spatial and temporal expression pattern of Col15a1b during zebrafish development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the expression pattern of col15a1b, sequence alignments and synteny comparisons, we conclude that, contrary to collagen XVa, the zebrafish collagen XVb likely displays the same or similar function than the mammalian orthologs. ..
  17. Batut J, Duboé C, Vandel L. The methyltransferases PRMT4/CARM1 and PRMT5 control differentially myogenesis in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25427 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our results show that PRMT4/CARM1 is required for proper slow myosin heavy chain localization. Altogether, our results reveal a combinatorial role of PRMT4/CARM1 and PRMT5 for proper myogenesis in zebrafish. ..
  18. Jing L, Gordon L, Shtibin E, Granato M. Temporal and spatial requirements of unplugged/MuSK function during zebrafish neuromuscular development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8843 pubmed publisher
  19. Naganawa Y, Hirata H. Developmental transition of touch response from slow muscle-mediated coilings to fast muscle-mediated burst swimming in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2011;355:194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first direct demonstration that slow and fast muscles have distinct physiologically relevant contribution in early motor development at different stages. ..
  20. Hirata H, Wen H, Kawakami Y, Naganawa Y, Ogino K, Yamada K, et al. Connexin 39.9 protein is necessary for coordinated activation of slow-twitch muscle and normal behavior in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:1080-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9 facilitates the spreading of neuronal inputs, which is irregular during motor development, beyond the muscle cells and that gap junctions play an essential role in the efficient recruitment of slow muscle fibers. ..
  21. Sittaramane V, Chandrasekhar A. Expression of unconventional myosin genes during neuronal development in zebrafish. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:161-70 pubmed
    ..Specific myosins are expressed in particular neuronal or neuroepithelial cell types in the developing zebrafish nervous system, spanning the periods of neuronal differentiation and migration, and of growth cone guidance and motility. ..
  22. Johnson A, Mokalled M, Valera J, Poss K, Olson E. Post-transcriptional regulation of myotube elongation and myogenesis by Hoi Polloi. Development. 2013;140:3645-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Hoip is a conserved, post-transcriptional regulator of muscle morphogenesis and structural gene expression. ..
  23. Yabe T, Hoshijima K, Yamamoto T, Takada S. Quadruple zebrafish mutant reveals different roles of Mesp genes in somite segmentation between mouse and zebrafish. Development. 2016;143:2842-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clarify the conserved and species-specific roles of Mesp in the link between the molecular clock and somite morphogenesis. ..
  24. Yao Z, Farr G, Tapscott S, Maves L. Pbx and Prdm1a transcription factors differentially regulate subsets of the fast skeletal muscle program in zebrafish. Biol Open. 2013;2:546-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide an example of how Pbx homeodomain proteins act in a balance with other transcription factors to regulate subsets of a cellular differentiation program...
  25. Devakanmalai G, Zumrut H, Ozbudak E. Cited3 activates Mef2c to control muscle cell differentiation and survival. Biol Open. 2013;2:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that Cited3 is a critical transcriptional coactivator functioning during muscle differentiation and its absence leads to defects in terminal differentiation and survival of muscle cells. ..
  26. Drummond B, Li Y, Marra A, Cheng C, Wingert R. The tbx2a/b transcription factors direct pronephros segmentation and corpuscle of Stannius formation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2017;421:52-66 pubmed publisher
  27. Ochi H, Westerfield M. Lbx2 regulates formation of myofibrils. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of myofilament genes, including actin and myosin, requires the engrailed repressor domain of Lbx2. Our results elucidate a new function of Lbx2 as a regulator of myofibril formation. ..
  28. Prill K, Windsor Reid P, Wohlgemuth S, Pilgrim D. Still Heart Encodes a Structural HMT, SMYD1b, with Chaperone-Like Function during Fast Muscle Sarcomere Assembly. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0142528 pubmed publisher
  29. Nesan D, Kamkar M, Burrows J, Scott I, Marsden M, Vijayan M. Glucocorticoid receptor signaling is essential for mesoderm formation and muscle development in zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1288-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results for the first time indicate that GR signaling is essential for zebrafish muscle development, and we hypothesize a role for BMP morphogens in this process. ..
  30. Siddique B, Kinoshita S, Wongkarangkana C, Asakawa S, Watabe S. Evolution and Distribution of Teleost myomiRNAs: Functionally Diversified myomiRs in Teleosts. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2016;18:436-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest functional diversification of myomiRs in teleost with the diversification of host MYHs. ..
  31. Jackson H, Ono Y, Wang X, Elworthy S, Cunliffe V, Ingham P. The role of Sox6 in zebrafish muscle fiber type specification. Skelet Muscle. 2015;5:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Cis-regulatory elements upstream of the slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1) and slow troponin c (tnnc1b) genes contain putative Sox6 binding sites required for repression ..
  32. McKee R, Gerlach G, Jou J, Cheng C, Wingert R. Temporal and spatial expression of tight junction genes during zebrafish pronephros development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2014;16:104-13 pubmed publisher
  33. Lu C, Wu J, Xiong S, Zhang X, Zhang J, Mei J. MicroRNA-203a regulates fast muscle differentiation by targeting dmrt2a in zebrafish embryos. Gene. 2017;625:49-54 pubmed publisher
  34. Taglietti V, Maroli G, Cermenati S, Monteverde S, Ferrante A, Rossi G, et al. Nfix Induces a Switch in Sox6 Transcriptional Activity to Regulate MyHC-I Expression in Fetal Muscle. Cell Rep. 2016;17:2354-2366 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate functional cooperation between Sox6 and Nfix in regulating MyHC-I expression during prenatal muscle development. ..
  35. Wang Y, Sun Z, Zhou L, Li Z, Gui J. Grouper tsh? promoter-driven transgenic zebrafish marks proximal kidney tubule development. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97806 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this transgenic line provides a useful tool for genetic or chemical analysis of kidney tubule. ..
  36. Li H, Zhong Y, Wang Z, Gao J, Xu J, Chu W, et al. Smyd1b is required for skeletal and cardiac muscle function in zebrafish. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data support the idea that Smyd1b may work together with myosin chaperones to control myosin folding, degradation, and assembly into sarcomeres during myofibrillogenesis...
  37. Palstra A, Tudorache C, Rovira M, Brittijn S, Burgerhout E, van den Thillart G, et al. Establishing zebrafish as a novel exercise model: swimming economy, swimming-enhanced growth and muscle growth marker gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14483 pubmed publisher
    ..growth hormone receptor b (ghrb), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor a (igf1ra), troponin C (stnnc), slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1), troponin I2 (tnni2), myosin heavy polypeptide 2 (myhz2) and myostatin (mstnb)...
  38. Fujii T, Tsunesumi S, Yamaguchi K, Watanabe S, Furukawa Y. Smyd3 is required for the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23491 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Smyd3 plays an important role in the development of heart and skeletal muscle. ..
  39. Brusegan C, Pistocchi A, Frassine A, Della Noce I, Schepis F, Cotelli F. Ccdc80-l1 Is involved in axon pathfinding of zebrafish motoneurons. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31851 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, we reported that ccdc80-l1 expression is positively regulated by the Hedgehog pathway in adaxial cells and muscle pioneers. These findings strongly indicate ccdc80-l1 as a down-stream effector of the Hedgehog pathway. ..
  40. Flynt A, Li N, Thatcher E, Solnica Krezel L, Patton J. Zebrafish miR-214 modulates Hedgehog signaling to specify muscle cell fate. Nat Genet. 2007;39:259-63 pubmed
    ..Through regulation of su(fu), miR-214 enables precise specification of muscle cell types by sharpening cellular responses to Hedgehog. ..
  41. Bessarab D, Chong S, Srinivas B, Korzh V. Six1a is required for the onset of fast muscle differentiation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2008;323:216-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, differentiation of slow fibers appeared largely unaffected. We conclude that Six1a plays an essential role at the onset of fast muscle differentiation. ..
  42. Jing L, Lefebvre J, Gordon L, Granato M. Wnt signals organize synaptic prepattern and axon guidance through the zebrafish unplugged/MuSK receptor. Neuron. 2009;61:721-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Wnt ligands activate unplugged/MuSK signaling in muscle fibers to restrict growth cone guidance and AChR prepatterns to the muscle center through a mechanism reminiscent of the planar cell polarity pathway. ..
  43. Naylor R, Dodd R, Davidson A. Caudal migration and proliferation of renal progenitors regulates early nephron segment size in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35647 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide new insights into early nephron morphogenesis and demonstrate the importance of cell movement and proliferation in determining initial nephron segment size. ..
  44. Guillon E, Bretaud S, Ruggiero F. Slow Muscle Precursors Lay Down a Collagen XV Matrix Fingerprint to Guide Motor Axon Navigation. J Neurosci. 2016;36:2663-76 pubmed publisher
    ..result in muscle atrophy and compromised swimming behavior, a phenotype partially rescued by injection of a smyhc1:col15a1b construct...
  45. Gordon L, Gribble K, Syrett C, Granato M. Initiation of synapse formation by Wnt-induced MuSK endocytosis. Development. 2012;139:1023-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest a general mechanism by which Wnt signals shape synaptic connectivity through localized receptor endocytosis. ..
  46. Lin C, Chen J, Loo M, Hsiao C, Chang W, Tsai H. MicroRNA-3906 regulates fast muscle differentiation through modulating the target gene homer-1b in zebrafish embryos. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70187 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that miR-3906 controls [Ca(2+)]i homeostasis in fast muscle through fine tuning homer-1b expression during differentiation to maintain normal muscle development. ..
  47. Ganassi M, Badodi S, Polacchini A, Baruffaldi F, Battini R, Hughes S, et al. Distinct functions of alternatively spliced isoforms encoded by zebrafish mef2ca and mef2cb. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1839:559-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data show that AS is a significant regulator of Mef2c activity. ..
  48. Gao J, Li J, Li B, Yagil E, Zhang J, Du S. Expression and functional characterization of Smyd1a in myofibril organization of skeletal muscles. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86808 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that Smyd1a and Smyd1b share similar biological activity in myofibril assembly in zebrafish embryos. However, Smyd1b appears to play a major role in this process. ..
  49. Nord H, Nygård Skalman L, Von Hofsten J. Six1 regulates proliferation of Pax7-positive muscle progenitors in zebrafish. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1868-80 pubmed publisher
  50. Yang J, Zeng Z, Wei J, Jiang L, Ma Q, Wu M, et al. Sema4d is required for the development of the hindbrain boundary and skeletal muscle in zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;433:213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that sema4d plays an important role in the development of the hindbrain and skeletal muscle. ..
  51. Pistocchi A, Gaudenzi G, Foglia E, Monteverde S, Moreno Fortuny A, Pianca A, et al. Conserved and divergent functions of Nfix in skeletal muscle development during vertebrate evolution. Development. 2013;140:1528-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, during vertebrate evolution, the transcription factor Nfix lost some specific functions, probably as a consequence of the different environment in which teleosts and mammals develop. ..
  52. Gerlach G, Wingert R. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta. Dev Biol. 2014;396:183-200 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a valuable foundation for further analysis of MET during nephrogenesis, and have implications for understanding the pathways that affect nephron epithelial cells during kidney disease and regeneration. ..
  53. Myhre J, Hills J, Jean F, Pilgrim D. Unc45b is essential for early myofibrillogenesis and costamere formation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2014;390:26-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents a novel role for Unc45b in the earliest stages of muscle development that is independent of muscle mMHC folding. ..