Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: shhb
Description: sonic hedgehog b
Alias: twh, twhh, tiggy-winkle hedgehog protein, sonic hedgehog protein B, tiggy winkle hedge hog, tiggy winkle hedgehog, twiggy-winkle hedgehog
- Du S, Dienhart M. Gli2 mediation of hedgehog signals in slow muscle induction in zebrafish. Differentiation. 2001;67:84-91 pubmed..other Hhs appeared to require Gli2, because ectopic expression of Echidna hedgehog (Ehh) and Tiggy-winkle hedgehog (Twhh) failed to induce slow muscles in yot mutant embryos...
- Avaron F, Hoffman L, Guay D, Akimenko M. Characterization of two new zebrafish members of the hedgehog family: atypical expression of a zebrafish indian hedgehog gene in skeletal elements of both endochondral and dermal origins. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:478-89 pubmed..The presence of cartilage markers suggests that the dermal fin ray possesses an intermediate phenotype between cartilage and bone. ..
- Muller F, Albert S, Blader P, Fischer N, Hallonet M, Strahle U. Direct action of the nodal-related signal cyclops in induction of sonic hedgehog in the ventral midline of the CNS. Development. 2000;127:3889-97 pubmed..Based on the differential responsiveness of shh and other neural tube specific genes to Hedgehog and Cyc signalling, a two-step model for the establishment of the ventral midline of the CNS is proposed. ..
- Wada N, Javidan Y, Nelson S, Carney T, Kelsh R, Schilling T. Hedgehog signaling is required for cranial neural crest morphogenesis and chondrogenesis at the midline in the zebrafish skull. Development. 2005;132:3977-88 pubmed
- Scholpp S, Foucher I, Staudt N, Peukert D, Lumsden A, Houart C. Otx1l, Otx2 and Irx1b establish and position the ZLI in the diencephalon. Development. 2007;134:3167-76 pubmed..We therefore propose that the ZLI is induced within the competence area established by Otx1l/2, and is posteriorly restricted by Irx1b. ..
- Wolff C, Roy S, Ingham P. Multiple muscle cell identities induced by distinct levels and timing of hedgehog activity in the zebrafish embryo. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1169-81 pubmed..Allocation of the correct number of cells to a specific fate depends upon the range of Hh activity. The timing of exposure to Hh determines the response of cells to the signal. ..
- Woods I, Talbot W. The you gene encodes an EGF-CUB protein essential for Hedgehog signaling in zebrafish. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e66 pubmed..Our positional cloning and functional studies demonstrate that You is a novel extracellular component of the Hedgehog pathway in vertebrates. ..
- Teraoka H, Dong W, Okuhara Y, Iwasa H, Shindo A, Hill A, et al. Impairment of lower jaw growth in developing zebrafish exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and reduced hedgehog expression. Aquat Toxicol. 2006;78:103-13 pubmed..We demonstrate that the developing lower jaw expresses sonic hedgehog a (shha), sonic hedgehog b (shhb) and their receptors, patched1 (ptc1) and patched2 (ptc2), as well as the downstream transcription factors, gli1 ..
- Parkin C, Allen C, Ingham P. Hedgehog signalling is required for cloacal development in the zebrafish embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:45-57 pubmed publisher..These studies establish the zebrafish as a model for ARMs, and for the elucidation of other pathways involved in hindgut developmental processes. ..
- Wang J, Cao J, Dickson A, Poss K. Epicardial regeneration is guided by cardiac outflow tract and Hedgehog signalling. Nature. 2015;522:226-230 pubmed publisher..These findings extend our understanding of tissue interactions during regeneration and have implications for mobilizing epicardial cells for therapeutic heart repair. ..
- Wong K, Rehn K, Palencia Desai S, Kohli V, Hunter W, Uhl J, et al. Hedgehog signaling is required for differentiation of endocardial progenitors in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2012;361:377-91 pubmed publisher..Simultaneous knockdown of the two zebrafish sonic hedgehog homologs, shh and twhh or Hh co-receptor smoothened (smo) resulted in similar defects in endocardial morphogenesis...
- Van Hellemont R, Blomme T, Van de Peer Y, Marchal K. Divergence of regulatory sequences in duplicated fish genes. Genome Dyn. 2007;3:81-100 pubmed publisher..In this study we used in silico motif detection to show how alterations in the composition of regulatory motifs between paralogous genes in zebrafish and Tetraodon might reflect the functional divergence of duplicates. ..
- Norton W, Mangoli M, Lele Z, Pogoda H, Diamond B, Mercurio S, et al. Monorail/Foxa2 regulates floorplate differentiation and specification of oligodendrocytes, serotonergic raphé neurones and cranial motoneurones. Development. 2005;132:645-58 pubmed
- Chaplin N, Tendeng C, Wingate R. Absence of an external germinal layer in zebrafish and shark reveals a distinct, anamniote ground plan of cerebellum development. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3048-57 pubmed publisher..We show that these anamniotes share a common ground plan of granule cell production that does not include an external germinal layer. ..
- Cheesman S, Layden M, Von Ohlen T, Doe C, Eisen J. Zebrafish and fly Nkx6 proteins have similar CNS expression patterns and regulate motoneuron formation. Development. 2004;131:5221-32 pubmed..Overexpression of fish or fly Nkx6 is sufficient to generate supernumerary motoneurons in both zebrafish and flies. These results suggest that one ancestral function of Nkx6 proteins was to promote motoneuron development. ..
- Latimer A, Appel B. Notch signaling regulates midline cell specification and proliferation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2006;298:392-402 pubmed..Together, our results indicate that Notch signaling regulates allocation of appropriate numbers of different midline cells by different mechanisms. ..
- Stacher Hörndli C, Chien C. Sonic hedgehog is indirectly required for intraretinal axon pathfinding by regulating chemokine expression in the optic stalk. Development. 2012;139:2604-13 pubmed publisher..Together, our results support a model in which Shh acts in RGC axon pathfinding indirectly by regulating axon guidance cues at the optic disc through patterning of the optic stalk. ..
- Stenkamp D, Frey R, Prabhudesai S, Raymond P. Function for Hedgehog genes in zebrafish retinal development. Dev Biol. 2000;220:238-52 pubmed..Here we report that two vertebrate hh genes, sonic hedgehog (shh) and tiggy-winkle hedgehog (twhh), may perform similar functions in the developing zebrafish...
- Rebagliati M, Toyama R, Haffter P, Dawid I. cyclops encodes a nodal-related factor involved in midline signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:9932-7 pubmed..quot; Thus, in interaction with other molecules implicated in these processes such as sonic hedgehog and one-eyed-pinhead, cyclops is required for ventral midline patterning of the embryonic central nervous system. ..
- Wang N, Sun Y, Liu J, Wang Y, Zhu Z. Molecular characterization of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Sonic Hedgehog and discovery of its maternal expression. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:299-305 pubmed
- Gongal P, March L, Holly V, Pillay L, Berry Wynne K, Kagechika H, et al. Hmx4 regulates Sonic hedgehog signaling through control of retinoic acid synthesis during forebrain patterning. Dev Biol. 2011;355:55-64 pubmed publisher..We propose that Hmx4 is a critical regulator of retinoic acid synthesis in a developing embryo, and that this regulation is essential for controlling Shh signaling and forebrain development. ..
- Takamiya M, Campos Ortega J. Hedgehog signalling controls zebrafish neural keel morphogenesis via its level-dependent effects on neurogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:978-97 pubmed..Such differences seem to be created in part by regional effector signalling; the effects of high Hh-signalling on medial neurogenesis can be reversed in accordance to medial Tri/Stbm level, in a polarity independent manner. ..
- Williams L, Timme Laragy A, Goldstone J, McArthur A, Stegeman J, Smolowitz R, et al. Developmental expression of the Nfe2-related factor (Nrf) transcription factor family in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79574 pubmed publisher..Our results provide a foundation for understanding the role of nrf genes in normal development and in regulating the response to oxidative stress in vertebrate embryos. ..
- Schafer M, Rembold M, Wittbrodt J, Schartl M, Winkler C. Medial floor plate formation in zebrafish consists of two phases and requires trunk-derived Midkine-a. Genes Dev. 2005;19:897-902 pubmed..Thus in zebrafish, trunk-derived signals are required for complete MFP formation from a common pool of organizer-derived midline precursor cells. ..
- Zhong Y, Duan C. Lamprey IGF-Binding Protein-3 Has IGF-Dependent and -Independent Actions. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2016;7:174 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that lamprey IGFBP-3 has both IGF-dependent and -independent actions and provide new insights into the functional evolution of the IGFBP family. ..
- Park H, Shin J, Appel B. Spatial and temporal regulation of ventral spinal cord precursor specification by Hedgehog signaling. Development. 2004;131:5959-69 pubmed..Our studies show that spatial and temporal differences in Hh signaling within a common population of neural precursors can contribute to cell fate diversification. ..
- Hadzhiev Y, Lele Z, Schindler S, Wilson S, Ahlberg P, Strahle U, et al. Hedgehog signaling patterns the outgrowth of unpaired skeletal appendages in zebrafish. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:75 pubmed..The median fins evolved before paired fins in early craniates, thus the patterning of the median fins may be an ancestral mechanism that controls the outgrowth of skeletogenic appendages in vertebrates. ..
- Chandrasekhar A, Warren J, Takahashi K, Schauerte H, van Eeden F, Haffter P, et al. Role of sonic hedgehog in branchiomotor neuron induction in zebrafish. Mech Dev. 1998;76:101-15 pubmed..In cyclops mutants, reduction in sonic hedgehog (shh) expression, and elimination of tiggy-winkle hedgehog (twhh) expression, correlated with reductions in branchiomotor neuron populations...
- Chen Z, Lee H, Henle S, Cheever T, Ekker S, Henley J. Primary neuron culture for nerve growth and axon guidance studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57539 pubmed publisher..Thus, this primary neuron culture model system may be useful for studies of neuronal development, chemotropic axon guidance, and mechanisms underlying inhibition of neural regeneration in vitro, and complement observations made in vivo. ..
- Hagos E, Dougan S. Time-dependent patterning of the mesoderm and endoderm by Nodal signals in zebrafish. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:22 pubmed
- Marlow F, Zwartkruis F, Malicki J, Neuhauss S, Abbas L, Weaver M, et al. Functional interactions of genes mediating convergent extension, knypek and trilobite, during the partitioning of the eye primordium in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 1998;203:382-99 pubmed..Furthermore, tri and kny have overlapping functions in establishing proper alignment of the anterior neural plate and midline cells expressing shh and twhh genes when the partitioning of the eye primordium takes place.
- Albuixech Crespo B, López Blanch L, Burguera D, Maeso I, Sánchez Arrones L, Moreno Bravo J, et al. Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2001573 pubmed publisher..This suggests that these domains have a common developmental and evolutionary origin, as supported by functional experiments manipulating secondary organizers in zebrafish and mice. ..
- Armstrong B, Henner A, Stewart S, Stankunas K. Shh promotes direct interactions between epidermal cells and osteoblast progenitors to shape regenerated zebrafish bone. Development. 2017;144:1165-1176 pubmed publisher..Progressively separated pObs pools then continue regenerating independently to collectively re-form a now branched skeletal structure. ..
- Jia S, Nakaya N, Piatigorsky J. Differential expression patterns and developmental roles of duplicated scinderin-like genes in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2633-40 pubmed publisher..reduction of scinlb expression led to subtle brain abnormalities associated with increased cell death, decreased shhb expression in the floor plate, and slightly reduced eye distance...
- Stewart R, Arduini B, Berghmans S, George R, Kanki J, Henion P, et al. Zebrafish foxd3 is selectively required for neural crest specification, migration and survival. Dev Biol. 2006;292:174-88 pubmed
- Stenkamp D, Frey R. Extraretinal and retinal hedgehog signaling sequentially regulate retinal differentiation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2003;258:349-63 pubmed
- Balczerski B, Matsutani M, Castillo P, Osborne N, Stainier D, Crump J. Analysis of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling mutants reveals endodermal requirements for the growth but not dorsoventral patterning of jaw skeletal precursors. Dev Biol. 2012;362:230-41 pubmed publisher..Hence, we propose that the S1P-dependent anterior foregut endoderm functions primarily through Shh to regulate the growth but not DV patterning of zebrafish jaw precursors...
- Maurus D, Harris W. Zic-associated holoprosencephaly: zebrafish Zic1 controls midline formation and forebrain patterning by regulating Nodal, Hedgehog, and retinoic acid signaling. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1461-73 pubmed publisher..Repression of BMP signaling in dorsal forebrain has been implicated in causing MIH HPE. This work provides a mechanistical explanation at the molecular level of why Zic factors are associated with both major forms of HPE. ..
- Holley S, Geisler R, Nusslein Volhard C. Control of her1 expression during zebrafish somitogenesis by a delta-dependent oscillator and an independent wave-front activity. Genes Dev. 2000;14:1678-90 pubmed..Thus, our analysis indicates that the smooth sequence of formation, refinement, and fading of her1 stripes in the PSM is governed by two separate activities. ..
- Kuo M, Lou S, Chung B. Hedgehog-PKA signaling and gnrh3 regulate the development of zebrafish gnrh3 neurons. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95545 pubmed publisher..were absent in embryos that lack Hedgehog signaling, but their numbers were increased in embryos overexpressing shhb. We manipulated the amounts of kinase that antagonizes the Hedgehog signaling pathway, protein kinase A (PKA), by ..
- Chandrasekhar A, Schauerte H, Haffter P, Kuwada J. The zebrafish detour gene is essential for cranial but not spinal motor neuron induction. Development. 1999;126:2727-37 pubmed
- Stenkamp D, Frey R, Mallory D, Shupe E. Embryonic retinal gene expression in sonic-you mutant zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2002;225:344-50 pubmed..We also find that Hh signaling is important for retinal cell proliferation and retinal cell survival; together, these functions provide an explanation for progressive microphthalmia in the syu-/- mutant. ..
- Ferrari L, Pistocchi A, Libera L, Boari N, Mortini P, Bellipanni G, et al. FAS/FASL are dysregulated in chordoma and their loss-of-function impairs zebrafish notochord formation. Oncotarget. 2014;5:5712-24 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate for the first time the dysregulation of FAS/FASL in chordoma and their role in notochord formation in the zebrafish model, suggesting their possible implication in chordoma onset...
- Beattie C, Hatta K, Halpern M, Liu H, Eisen J, Kimmel C. Temporal separation in the specification of primary and secondary motoneurons in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 1997;187:171-82 pubmed..These results suggest that both primary and secondary motoneurons are specified by signals from midline tissues, but at very different stages of embryonic development. ..
- Masai I, Yamaguchi M, Tonou Fujimori N, Komori A, Okamoto H. The hedgehog-PKA pathway regulates two distinct steps of the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells: the cell-cycle exit of retinoblasts and their neuronal maturation. Development. 2005;132:1539-53 pubmed..This dual requirement of Hh signalling in RGC differentiation implies that the regulation of a neurogenic wave is more complex in the zebrafish retina than in the Drosophila eye. ..
- Li Z, Korzh V, Gong Z. Localized rbp4 expression in the yolk syncytial layer plays a role in yolk cell extension and early liver development. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:117 pubmed..YSL-expressed Rbp4 plays a role in formation of both yolk extension and liver bud, the latter may also require migration of liver progenitor cells. ..
- Stadler J, Shkumatava A, Neumann C. The role of hedgehog signaling in the development of the zebrafish visual system. Dev Neurosci. 2004;26:346-51 pubmed
- Chalasani K, Brewster R. N-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion restricts cell proliferation in the dorsal neural tube. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1505-15 pubmed publisher..In addition, these findings are the first to demonstrate a requirement for cadherins in synchronizing cell-cycle exit and differentiation and a reciprocal interaction between AJs and Hh signaling. ..
- Sztal T, Sonntag C, Hall T, Currie P. Epistatic dissection of laminin-receptor interactions in dystrophic zebrafish muscle. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:4718-31 pubmed publisher..Collectively these findings provide a better understanding of the cellular pathology of MDC1A and help in designing effective therapies. ..
- Jászai J, Reifers F, Picker A, Langenberg T, Brand M. Isthmus-to-midbrain transformation in the absence of midbrain-hindbrain organizer activity. Development. 2003;130:6611-23 pubmed..the diencephalic expression domains of epha4a, zash1b/ashb, gap43 and tag1/cntn2, and by the dramatic reduction of twhh expression...
- Hammond K, Loynes H, Folarin A, Smith J, Whitfield T. Hedgehog signalling is required for correct anteroposterior patterning of the zebrafish otic vesicle. Development. 2003;130:1403-17 pubmed..By using double mutants and antisense morpholino analysis, we also show that both Sonic hedgehog and Tiggy-winkle hedgehog are involved in anteroposterior patterning of the zebrafish otic vesicle. ..
- Lang M, Hadzhiev Y, Siegel N, Amemiya C, Parada C, Strahle U, et al. Conservation of shh cis-regulatory architecture of the coelacanth is consistent with its ancestral phylogenetic position. Evodevo. 2010;1:11 pubmed publisher..High overall sequence conservation of shh conserved noncoding elements (CNE) is consistent with the general trend of high levels of conservation of noncoding DNA in the slowly evolving Latimeria genome. ..
- Walshe J, Mason I. Unique and combinatorial functions of Fgf3 and Fgf8 during zebrafish forebrain development. Development. 2003;130:4337-49 pubmed..Analysis of embryos treated with an FGFR inhibitor suggests that continuous FGF signalling is required from gastrulation stages for normal forebrain patterning, and identifies additional requirements for FGFR activity. ..
- Barth K, Kishimoto Y, Rohr K, Seydler C, Schulte Merker S, Wilson S. Bmp activity establishes a gradient of positional information throughout the entire neural plate. Development. 1999;126:4977-87 pubmed..These results are consistent with there being a gradient of Bmp-dependent positional information extending throughout the entire neural and non-neural ectoderm. ..
- Eberhart J, Swartz M, Crump J, Kimmel C. Early Hedgehog signaling from neural to oral epithelium organizes anterior craniofacial development. Development. 2006;133:1069-77 pubmed..Two Hh genes, shh and twhh, are expressed in midline tissue at this stage, and we show using mosaics that for condensation and skeletogenesis ..
- Appel B, Marasco P, McClung L, Latimer A. lunatic fringe regulates Delta-Notch induction of hypochord in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:281-6 pubmed
- Jackman W, Yoo J, Stock D. Hedgehog signaling is required at multiple stages of zebrafish tooth development. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:119 pubmed publisher..We looked for, but did not detect, tooth germ expression of the other known zebrafish hedgehog ligands shhb, dhh, ihha, or ihhb, suggesting that as in mammals, only Shh participates in zebrafish tooth development...
- Hui S, Sengupta D, Lee S, Sen T, Kundu S, Mathavan S, et al. Genome wide expression profiling during spinal cord regeneration identifies comprehensive cellular responses in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e84212 pubmed publisher..The data highlights the importance of different event specific gene expression that could be better understood and manipulated further to induce successful regeneration in mammals...
- Burger A, Vasilyev A, Tomar R, Selig M, Nielsen G, Peterson R, et al. A zebrafish model of chordoma initiated by notochord-driven expression of HRASV12. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:907-13 pubmed publisher..Consequently, the HRASV12-driven zebrafish model of chordoma could enable high-throughput screening of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of this refractory cancer. ..
- Corallo D, Schiavinato A, Trapani V, Moro E, Argenton F, Bonaldo P. Emilin3 is required for notochord sheath integrity and interacts with Scube2 to regulate notochord-derived Hedgehog signals. Development. 2013;140:4594-601 pubmed publisher..Overall, this study reveals a new role for an EMILIN protein and reinforces the concept that structure and function of the notochord are strictly linked. ..
- Fushimi S, Wada N, Nohno T, Tomita M, Saijoh K, Sunami S, et al. 17beta-Estradiol inhibits chondrogenesis in the skull development of zebrafish embryos. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;95:292-8 pubmed publisher..However, the expression levels of sonic hedgehog (shh) and tiggywinkle hedgehog (twhh) mRNAs were constant in the E2-treated embryos...
- Guner B, Ozacar A, Thomas J, Karlstrom R. Graded hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor signaling independently regulate pituitary cell fates and help establish the pars distalis and pars intermedia of the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4435-51 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that there are distinct origins and signaling requirements for the PD and PI. ..