Gene Symbol: saa
Description: serum amyloid A
Alias: zgc:103580, serum amyloid A protein, saa1
Species: zebrafish
Products:     saa

Top Publications

  1. Lin B, Chen S, Cao Z, Lin Y, Mo D, Zhang H, et al. Acute phase response in zebrafish upon Aeromonas salmonicida and Staphylococcus aureus infection: striking similarities and obvious differences with mammals. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:295-301 pubmed
    ..When compared with mammals, striking similarities and obvious differences have been observed. Both similar APPs (SAA, hepcidin and haptoglobin, etc...
  2. Kanther M, Sun X, Muhlbauer M, Mackey L, Flynn E, Bagnat M, et al. Microbial colonization induces dynamic temporal and spatial patterns of NF-?B activation in the zebrafish digestive tract. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed patterns of NF-?B-dependent responses to microbial colonization indicate that cells in the gastrointestinal tract respond robustly to the microbial environment. ..
  3. Rawls J, Mahowald M, Goodman A, Trent C, Gordon J. In vivo imaging and genetic analysis link bacterial motility and symbiosis in the zebrafish gut. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7622-7 pubmed
  4. Fuentes Appelgren P, Opazo R, Barros L, Feijóo C, Urzúa V, Romero J. Effect of the dietary inclusion of soybean components on the innate immune system in zebrafish. Zebrafish. 2014;11:41-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Huang C, Chen P, Huang C, Yu J. Aristolochic Acid induces heart failure in zebrafish embryos that is mediated by inflammation. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:486-94 pubmed
  6. Dowling J, Arbogast S, Hur J, Nelson D, McEvoy A, Waugh T, et al. Oxidative stress and successful antioxidant treatment in models of RYR1-related myopathy. Brain. 2012;135:1115-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that N-acetylcysteine represents the first potential therapeutic strategy for these debilitating muscle diseases...
  7. Rawls J, Samuel B, Gordon J. Gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal evolutionarily conserved responses to the gut microbiota. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4596-601 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies establish gnotobiotic zebrafish as a useful model for dissecting the molecular foundations of host-microbial interactions in the vertebrate digestive tract. ..
  8. Oksanen K, Myllymäki H, Ahava M, Mäkinen L, Parikka M, Rämet M. DNA vaccination boosts Bacillus Calmette-Guérin protection against mycobacterial infection in zebrafish. Dev Comp Immunol. 2016;54:89-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that zebrafish is a useful early-phase preclinical model for studying subunit vaccines designed for boosting the effects of BCG. ..
  9. Passeri M, Cinaroglu A, Gao C, Sadler K. Hepatic steatosis in response to acute alcohol exposure in zebrafish requires sterol regulatory element binding protein activation. Hepatology. 2009;49:443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Srebp activation is required for steatosis in this model. The tractability of zebrafish genetics provides a valuable tool for dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of acute ALD. ..

More Information


  1. Wu Z, Zhang W, Lu Y, Lu C. Transcriptome profiling of zebrafish infected with Streptococcus suis. Microb Pathog. 2010;48:178-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The data may provide further validation of this model, which will contribute to understanding of S. suis pathogenic mechanisms. ..
  2. Rawls J, Mahowald M, Ley R, Gordon J. Reciprocal gut microbiota transplants from zebrafish and mice to germ-free recipients reveal host habitat selection. Cell. 2006;127:423-33 pubmed
  3. Gonçalves A, Páscoa I, Neves J, Coimbra J, Vijayan M, Rodrigues P, et al. The inhibitory effect of environmental ammonia on Danio rerio LPS induced acute phase response. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:279-88 pubmed publisher
    ..p. 10 ?g/g after 24h). A panel of LPS-responsive genes (SAA, HAMP, LECT2, Hp and IL1?) were identified and evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR...
  4. Powell M, Pegues M, Szalai A, Ghanta V, D Abramo L, Watts S. Effects of the Dietary ω3:ω6 Fatty Acid Ratio on Body Fat and Inflammation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comp Med. 2015;65:289-94 pubmed
  5. Howarth D, Yin C, Yeh K, Sadler K. Defining hepatic dysfunction parameters in two models of fatty liver disease in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish. 2013;10:199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a panel of parameters to assess liver disease that can be easily applied to zebrafish mutants, transgenics, and for drug screening in which liver function is an important consideration. ..
  6. Schall K, Thornton M, Isani M, Holoyda K, Hou X, Lien C, et al. Short bowel syndrome results in increased gene expression associated with proliferation, inflammation, bile acid synthesis and immune system activation: RNA sequencing a zebrafish SBS model. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:23 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression of ctnnb1, ccnb1, ccnd1, cyp7a1a, dkk3, ifng1-2, igf2a, il1b, lef1, nos2b, saa1, stat3, tnfa and wnt5a were confirmed to be elevated in SBS by RT-qPCR...
  7. Gratacap R, Rawls J, Wheeler R. Mucosal candidiasis elicits NF-?B activation, proinflammatory gene expression and localized neutrophilia in zebrafish. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first system to model host response to mucosal infection in the juvenile zebrafish, and offers unique opportunities to investigate the tripartite interactions of C. albicans, epithelium and immune cells in an intact host. ..
  8. van der Vaart M, Korbee C, Lamers G, Tengeler A, Hosseini R, Haks M, et al. The DNA damage-regulated autophagy modulator DRAM1 links mycobacterial recognition via TLR-MYD88 to autophagic defense [corrected]. Cell Host Microbe. 2014;15:753-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that DRAM1 mediates autophagic defense against a broader range of intracellular pathogens, since DRAM1 expression was also induced by the common bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide. ..
  9. Saranya Revathy K, Umasuthan N, Whang I, Lee Y, Lee S, Oh M, et al. A novel acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A-like 1, from Oplegnathus fasciatus: genomic and molecular characterization and transcriptional expression analysis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;37:294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive proteins are the major positive acute phase proteins...
  10. Davison J, Lickwar C, Song L, Breton G, Crawford G, Rawls J. Microbiota regulate intestinal epithelial gene expression by suppressing the transcription factor Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha. Genome Res. 2017;27:1195-1206 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a critical and conserved role for HNF4A in maintaining intestinal homeostasis in response to microbiota. ..
  11. He S, Ran C, Qin C, Li S, Zhang H, de Vos W, et al. Anti-Infective Effect of Adhesive Probiotic Lactobacillus in Fish is Correlated With Their Spatial Distribution in the Intestinal Tissue. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13195 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the disease protection activity of Lactobacillus in zebrafish is correlated with their spatial distribution in the intestinal tissue, with strains showing a balanced distribution (hybrid type) more efficient in protection. ..
  12. Kanther M, Tomkovich S, Xiaolun S, Grosser M, Koo J, Flynn E, et al. Commensal microbiota stimulate systemic neutrophil migration through induction of serum amyloid A. Cell Microbiol. 2014;16:1053-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic analysis identified the microbiota-induced acute phase protein serum amyloid A (Saa) as a host factor mediating microbial stimulation of tissue-specific neutrophil migratory behaviours...
  13. Ran C, Hu J, Liu W, Liu Z, He S, Dan B, et al. Thymol and Carvacrol Affect Hybrid Tilapia through the Combination of Direct Stimulation and an Intestinal Microbiota-Mediated Effect: Insights from a Germ-Free Zebrafish Model. J Nutr. 2016;146:1132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..zebrafish colonized with NE microbiota showed attenuated induction of immune response marker genes serum amyloid a (Saa; ×0.62), interleukin 1? (Il1?; ×0.29), and interleukin 8 (Il8; ×0.62) (P < 0.05)...
  14. Gonçalves A, Neves J, Coimbra J, Rodrigues P, Vijayan M, Wilson J. Cortisol plays a role in the high environmental ammonia associated suppression of the immune response in zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;249:32-39 pubmed publisher
    ..1? (il1b) and suppressor of cytokine signaling (socs-1a, 2, 3) and acute phase response genes [serum amyloid A (saa), transferrin (tfa), leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2-like (lect2l), haptoglobin (hp), hepcidin (=hepatic anti-..