Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: rx3
Description: retinal homeobox gene 3
Alias: retinal homeobox protein Rx3, chk, chokh, eyes missing, eym
- Kim S, Shin J, Park H, Yeo S, Hong S, Han S, et al. Specification of an anterior neuroectoderm patterning by Frizzled8a-mediated Wnt8b signalling during late gastrulation in zebrafish. Development. 2002;129:4443-55 pubmed..In conclusion, we suggest that a gradient of Fz8a-mediated Wnt8b signalling may play crucial role in patterning the posterior diencephalon and midbrain regions in the late gastrula. ..
- Cavodeassi F, Ivanovitch K, Wilson S. Eph/Ephrin signalling maintains eye field segregation from adjacent neural plate territories during forebrain morphogenesis. Development. 2013;140:4193-202 pubmed publisher..The failure of eye morphogenesis in rx3 mutants is accompanied by a loss of complementary expression of Ephs and Ephrins, suggesting that this pathway is ..
- Bielen H, Houart C. BMP signaling protects telencephalic fate by repressing eye identity and its Cxcr4-dependent morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2012;23:812-22 pubmed publisher..reveal that BMP acts as a repressor of eye-field fate through inhibition of its key transcription factor Rx3, thereby protecting the future telencephalon from acquiring eye identity...
- Miyake A, Nihno S, Murakoshi Y, Satsuka A, Nakayama Y, Itoh N. Neucrin, a novel secreted antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling, plays roles in developing neural tissues in zebrafish. Mech Dev. 2012;128:577-90 pubmed publisher..Neucrin is a unique secreted Wnt antagonist that is predominantly expressed in developing neural tissues and plays roles in neural development in zebrafish. ..
- Hao H, Xie Y, Zhang Y, Charlat O, Oster E, Avello M, et al. ZNRF3 promotes Wnt receptor turnover in an R-spondin-sensitive manner. Nature. 2012;485:195-200 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that R-spondin enhances Wnt signalling by inhibiting ZNRF3. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the regulation of Wnt receptor turnover, and reveals ZNRF3 as a tractable target for therapeutic exploration...
- Asaoka Y, Hata S, Namae M, Furutani Seiki M, Nishina H. The Hippo pathway controls a switch between retinal progenitor cell proliferation and photoreceptor cell differentiation in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97365 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that Yap suppresses the differentiation of photoreceptor cells from retinal progenitor cells by repressing Rx1-mediated transactivation of photoreceptor cell genes during zebrafish retinogenesis. ..
- Tessmar Raible K, Raible F, Christodoulou F, Guy K, Rembold M, Hausen H, et al. Conserved sensory-neurosecretory cell types in annelid and fish forebrain: insights into hypothalamus evolution. Cell. 2007;129:1389-400 pubmed..1, rx, and otp) that specify their identity, as evidenced by the specific requirement of zebrafish rx3 for vasotocin-neurophysin expression. MiR-7 also labels another shared population of neurons containing RFamides...
- Shao M, Wang M, Liu Y, Ge Y, Zhang Y, Shi D. Vegetally localised Vrtn functions as a novel repressor to modulate bmp2b transcription during dorsoventral patterning in zebrafish. Development. 2017;144:3361-3374 pubmed publisher..Our work unveils a novel maternal mechanism regulating zygotic BMP gradient in dorsoventral patterning. ..
- McCollum C, Amin S, Pauerstein P, Lane M. A zebrafish LMO4 ortholog limits the size of the forebrain and eyes through negative regulation of six3b and rx3. Dev Biol. 2007;309:373-85 pubmedThe Six3 and Rx3 homeodomain proteins are essential for the specification and proliferation of forebrain and retinal precursor cells of the vertebrate brain, and the regulatory networks that control their expression are beginning to be ..
- Carreira Barbosa F, Concha M, Takeuchi M, Ueno N, Wilson S, Tada M. Prickle 1 regulates cell movements during gastrulation and neuronal migration in zebrafish. Development. 2003;130:4037-46 pubmed..In addition, Pk1 interacts with Tri to mediate posterior migration of branchiomotor neurons, probably independent of the noncanonical Wnt pathway. ..
- Kruse Bend R, Rosenthal J, Quist T, Veien E, Fuhrmann S, Dorsky R, et al. Extraocular ectoderm triggers dorsal retinal fate during optic vesicle evagination in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2012;371:57-65 pubmed publisher..We find that bmp2b is involved in dorsal retina initiation, acting upstream of gdf6a. Together, this work has identified the nature and source of extraocular signals required to pattern the dorsal retina. ..
- Wiellette E, Grinblat Y, Austen M, Hirsinger E, Amsterdam A, Walker C, et al. Combined haploid and insertional mutation screen in the zebrafish. Genesis. 2004;40:231-40 pubmed
- Meani N, Pezzimenti F, Deflorian G, Mione M, Alcalay M. The tumor suppressor PRDM5 regulates Wnt signaling at early stages of zebrafish development. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4273 pubmed publisher..Our data demonstrate that PRDM5 regulates the expression of components of both canonical and non canonical wnt pathways and negatively modulates wnt signaling in vivo. ..
- Levkowitz G, Zeller J, Sirotkin H, French D, Schilbach S, Hashimoto H, et al. Zinc finger protein too few controls the development of monoaminergic neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:28-33 pubmed..Our results indicate that tof/fezl is a key component in regulating the development of monoaminergic neurons in the vertebrate brain. ..
- Flowers G, Topczewska J, Topczewski J. A zebrafish Notum homolog specifically blocks the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Development. 2012;139:2416-25 pubmed publisher..Notum 1a does not interact with Glypican 4, an essential component of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Our results suggest a surprising specific role of Notum in the developing vertebrate embryo. ..
- French C, Erickson T, Callander D, Berry K, Koss R, Hagey D, et al. Pbx homeodomain proteins pattern both the zebrafish retina and tectum. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:85 pubmed..These data define a novel role for Pbx in patterning the vertebrate retina and tectum in a manner required for proper retinal ganglion cell axon outgrowth. ..
- Olsen J, Wong L, Deimling S, Miles A, Guo H, Li Y, et al. G9a and ZNF644 Physically Associate to Suppress Progenitor Gene Expression during Neurogenesis. Stem Cell Reports. 2016;7:454-470 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our data point to ZNF644 as a critical co-regulator of G9a/H3K9me2-mediated gene silencing during neuronal differentiation. ..
- Yin J, Brocher J, Fischer U, Winkler C. Mutant Prpf31 causes pre-mRNA splicing defects and rod photoreceptor cell degeneration in a zebrafish model for Retinitis pigmentosa. Mol Neurodegener. 2011;6:56 pubmed publisher..Analyzing the AD5 effects in our animal model in vivo, our data imply that aberrant splicing of distinct retinal transcripts contributes to the observed retina defects. ..
- Zilinski C, Brownell I, Hashimoto R, Medina Martinez O, Swindell E, Jamrich M. Expression of FoxE4 and Rx visualizes the timing and dynamics of critical processes taking place during initial stages of vertebrate eye development. Dev Neurosci. 2004;26:294-307 pubmed..mouse mutation eyeless (ey1), the medakatemperature-sensitive mutation eyeless (el), and the zebrafish mutation chokh are caused by abnormal regulation or function of Rx genes. In humans, a mutation in Rx leads to anophthalmia...
- Varga M, Maegawa S, Weinberg E. Correct anteroposterior patterning of the zebrafish neurectoderm in the absence of the early dorsal organizer. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:26 pubmed publisher..We also show that the zebrafish embryo can form a radial diffuse neural sheath in the absence of both BMP signaling and the early organizer. ..
- Hu S, Wu Z, Yan Y, Li Y. Sox31 is involved in central nervous system anteroposterior regionalization through regulating the organizer activity in zebrafish. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2011;43:387-99 pubmed publisher..Taken together, Sox31 functions as an essential CNS AP patterning determinant and coordinates the CNS AP patterning process with organizer specification. ..
- Xu X, He Y, Sun L, Ma S, Luo C. Maternal Vsx1 plays an essential role in regulating prechordal mesendoderm and forebrain formation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2014;394:264-76 pubmed publisher..Our results reveal a pivotal role for maternal Vsx1 as a direct transcriptional repressor of ntl expression at the margin of the zebrafish gastrula to ensure directional cell polarization and migration of PME cells. ..
- De Rienzo G, Bishop J, Mao Y, Pan L, Ma T, Moens C, et al. Disc1 regulates both ?-catenin-mediated and noncanonical Wnt signaling during vertebrate embryogenesis. FASEB J. 2011;25:4184-97 pubmed publisher..This is the first demonstration that Disc1 modulates the noncanonical Wnt pathway and suggests a previously unconsidered mechanism by which Disc1 may contribute to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. ..
- Eachus H, Bright C, Cunliffe V, Placzek M, Wood J, Watt P. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 is essential for normal hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis function. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:1992-2005 pubmed publisher..In disc1 mutant embryos, proliferating rx3+?hypothalamic progenitors are not maintained normally and neuronal differentiation is compromised: rx3-derived ff1b+..
- Langenberg T, Kahana A, Wszalek J, Halloran M. The eye organizes neural crest cell migration. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1645-52 pubmed publisher..To gain insight into the mechanisms of anterior NCC guidance, we used the eyeless mutant chokh/rx3. We show that, in chokh mutants, dorsal anterior NCC migration is severely disorganized...
- Nakaya N, Lee H, Takada Y, Tzchori I, Tomarev S. Zebrafish olfactomedin 1 regulates retinal axon elongation in vivo and is a modulator of Wnt signaling pathway. J Neurosci. 2008;28:7900-10 pubmed publisher..of full-length Olfm1 increased the lateral separation of the expression domains of eye-field markers, rx3 and six3. The Olfm1-MO had the opposite effect...
- Samuel A, Rubinstein A, Azar T, Ben Moshe Livne Z, Kim S, Inbal A. Six3 regulates optic nerve development via multiple mechanisms. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20267 pubmed publisher..Hence, the new zebrafish model for Six3 loss of function furthers our understanding of the mechanisms governing optic nerve development and Six3-mediated eye and forebrain malformations. ..
- Zhao X, Zhang Y, Ni P, Wu Z, Yan Y, Li Y. Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 6 (Prmt6) Is Essential for Early Zebrafish Development through the Direct Suppression of gadd45Î±a Stress Sensor Gene. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:402-12 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results suggest that maternal Prmt6 is essential to early zebrafish development by directly repressing gadd45Î±a. ..
- Barbieri E, Deflorian G, Pezzimenti F, Valli D, Saia M, Meani N, et al. Nucleophosmin leukemogenic mutant activates Wnt signaling during zebrafish development. Oncotarget. 2016;7:55302-55312 pubmed publisher..Our results reveal a novel function of NPMc+ and provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis of AML bearing NPM1 mutations. ..
- Loucks E, Schwend T, Ahlgren S. Molecular changes associated with teratogen-induced cyclopia. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:642-51 pubmed..These data suggest that each teratogen exposure leads to a unique set of molecular changes that underlie the single phenotype of cyclopia. ..
- Muthu V, Eachus H, Ellis P, Brown S, Placzek M. Rx3 and Shh direct anisotropic growth and specification in the zebrafish tuberal/anterior hypothalamus. Development. 2016;143:2651-63 pubmed publisher..Analysis of rx3 chk mutant/rx3 morphant fish and EdU pulse-chase studies reveal that rx3 is required to select tuberal/anterior ..
- Kapsimali M, Caneparo L, Houart C, Wilson S. Inhibition of Wnt/Axin/beta-catenin pathway activity promotes ventral CNS midline tissue to adopt hypothalamic rather than floorplate identity. Development. 2004;131:5923-33 pubmed
- Jeong J, Einhorn Z, Mathur P, Chen L, Lee S, Kawakami K, et al. Patterning the zebrafish diencephalon by the conserved zinc-finger protein Fezl. Development. 2007;134:127-36 pubmed..Our findings reveal that Fezl is crucial for establishing regional subdivisions within the diencephalon and may also play a role in the development of the telencephalon and hypothalamus. ..
- Feijóo C, Saldias M, De la Paz J, Gomez Skarmeta J, Allende M. Formation of posterior cranial placode derivatives requires the Iroquois transcription factor irx4a. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;40:328-37 pubmed publisher..Our results point to irx4a as a critical gene for numerous developmental processes and highlight its role in the formation of placodal derivatives in vertebrates. ..
- Eivers E, McCarthy K, Glynn C, Nolan C, Byrnes L. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling is required for early dorso-anterior development of the zebrafish embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2004;48:1131-40 pubmed..IGF-1R knockdown caused a significant decrease in the expression of Otx2, Rx3, FGF8, Pax6...
- Ebert A, Childs S, Hehr C, Cechmanek P, McFarlane S. Sema6a and Plxna2 mediate spatially regulated repulsion within the developing eye to promote eye vesicle cohesion. Development. 2014;141:2473-82 pubmed publisher..We propose a novel, tissue-autonomous mechanism of organ cohesion, with neutralization of repulsion suggested as a means to promote interactions between cells within a tissue domain. ..
- Yin J, Morrissey M, Shine L, Kennedy C, Higgins D, Kennedy B. Genes and signaling networks regulated during zebrafish optic vesicle morphogenesis. BMC Genomics. 2014;15:825 pubmed publisher..Zebrafish rx3 null mutants produce a similar striking eyeless phenotype with an associated expanded forebrain...
- Kikuta H, Laplante M, Navratilova P, Komisarczuk A, Engström P, Fredman D, et al. Genomic regulatory blocks encompass multiple neighboring genes and maintain conserved synteny in vertebrates. Genome Res. 2007;17:545-55 pubmed..Reporter insertions distal to zebrafish developmental regulatory genes pax6.1/2, rx3, id1, and fgf8 and miRNA genes mirn9-1 and mirn9-5 recapitulate the expression patterns of these genes even if ..
- Gestri G, Carl M, Appolloni I, Wilson S, Barsacchi G, Andreazzoli M. Six3 functions in anterior neural plate specification by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting Bmp4 expression. Development. 2005;132:2401-13 pubmed..These results suggest a very early role for Six3 in specification of the anterior neural plate, through the regulation of cell proliferation and the inhibition of BMP signalling. ..
- Shi W, Chen X, Wang F, Gao M, Yang Y, Du Z, et al. ZDHHC16 modulates FGF/ERK dependent proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in the zebrafish telencephalon. Dev Neurobiol. 2016;76:1014-28 pubmed publisher..2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1014-1028, 2016. ..
- Dickmeis T, Lahiri K, Nica G, Vallone D, Santoriello C, Neumann C, et al. Glucocorticoids play a key role in circadian cell cycle rhythms. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e78 pubmed..Instead, they act in concert with a systemic signaling environment of which glucocorticoids are an essential part. ..
- Hartnett L, Glynn C, Nolan C, Grealy M, Byrnes L. Insulin-like growth factor-2 regulates early neural and cardiovascular system development in zebrafish embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:573-83 pubmed publisher..The finding that igf-2a and igf-2b do not act exclusively in a redundant manner may explain why both genes have been stably maintained in the genome. ..
- Sanek N, Taylor A, Nyholm M, Grinblat Y. Zebrafish zic2a patterns the forebrain through modulation of Hedgehog-activated gene expression. Development. 2009;136:3791-800 pubmed publisher..These data uncover a novel, essential role for Zic2a as a modulator of Hh-activated gene expression in the developing forebrain and advance our understanding of a key gene regulatory network that, when disrupted, causes HPE. ..
- Lee J, Wu S, Goering L, Dorsky R. Canonical Wnt signaling through Lef1 is required for hypothalamic neurogenesis. Development. 2006;133:4451-61 pubmed..The conserved presence of this pathway in other vertebrates suggests a common mechanism for regulating hypothalamic neurogenesis. ..