Gene Symbol: ptgs2a
Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2a
Alias: fj02a10, ptgs2, unp1239, wu:fj02a10, zCOX-2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, Cox-2a, cox2
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Cha Y, Kim S, Sepich D, Buchanan F, Solnica Krezel L, DuBois R. Cyclooxygenase-1-derived PGE2 promotes cell motility via the G-protein-coupled EP4 receptor during vertebrate gastrulation. Genes Dev. 2006;20:77-86 pubmed
    ..This work demonstrates a critical requirement of PGE(2) signaling in promoting cell motility through the COX-1-Ptges-EP4 pathway, a previously unrecognized role for this biologically active lipid in early animal development. ..
  2. North T, Goessling W, Walkley C, Lengerke C, Kopani K, Lord A, et al. Prostaglandin E2 regulates vertebrate haematopoietic stem cell homeostasis. Nature. 2007;447:1007-11 pubmed
    ..The conserved role for PGE2 in the regulation of vertebrate HSC homeostasis indicates that modulation of the prostaglandin pathway may facilitate expansion of HSC number for therapeutic purposes. ..
  3. Lister A, van der Kraak G. Regulation of prostaglandin synthesis in ovaries of sexually-mature zebrafish (Danio rerio). Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:1064-75 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis revealed that the expression levels of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cpla2) and cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 (ptgs2) in ovarian fragments and in isolated full-grown follicles of spawning fish were highest at 6:00 when ovulation ..
  4. Ishikawa T, Griffin K, Banerjee U, Herschman H. The zebrafish genome contains two inducible, functional cyclooxygenase-2 genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;352:181-7 pubmed
    ..Database searching demonstrates that some fish genomes contain multiple Cox-1 or Cox-2 cyclooxygenase genes, suggesting alternate duplication and retention of this gene. ..
  5. Cha Y, Kim S, Solnica Krezel L, DuBois R. Cyclooxygenase-1 signaling is required for vascular tube formation during development. Dev Biol. 2005;282:274-83 pubmed
    ..Together, we provide the first evidence that COX-1 signaling is required for development of posterior mesoderm organs, specifically in the vascular tube formation and posterior nephric duct development. ..
  6. Teraoka H, Okuno Y, Nijoukubo D, Yamakoshi A, Peterson R, Stegeman J, et al. Involvement of COX2-thromboxane pathway in TCDD-induced precardiac edema in developing zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;154:19-26 pubmed publisher
    ..A selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2), NS398, also markedly inhibited TCDD-induced precardiac edema...
  7. Carnevali O, Tosti L, Speciale C, Peng C, Zhu Y, Maradonna F. DEHP impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting critical factors in oogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10201 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP15), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (ptgs2) were determined by real time PCR...
  8. Beauchemin M, Smith A, Yin V. Dynamic microRNA-101a and Fosab expression controls zebrafish heart regeneration. Development. 2015;142:4026-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In summation, our studies indicate that the precise temporal modulation of the miR-101a/fosab genetic axis is crucial for coordinating CM proliferation and scar tissue removal during zebrafish heart regeneration. ..
  9. Galindo Villegas J, Montalban Arques A, Liarte S, de Oliveira S, Pardo Pastor C, Rubio Moscardo F, et al. TRPV4-Mediated Detection of Hyposmotic Stress by Skin Keratinocytes Activates Developmental Immunity. J Immunol. 2016;196:738-49 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Havird J, Miyamoto M, Choe K, Evans D. Gene duplications and losses within the cyclooxygenase family of teleosts and other chordates. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:2349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should examine the functional ramifications of these differential gene losses...
  2. Liu D, Brewer M, Chen S, Hong W, Zhu Y. Transcriptomic signatures for ovulation in vertebrates. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;247:74-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to establish relationships among these genes and an ovulatory circuit in the zebrafish model. ..
  3. Tang H, Liu Y, Li J, Li G, Chen Y, Yin Y, et al. LH signaling induced ptgs2a expression is required for ovulation in zebrafish. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;447:125-133 pubmed publisher
    ..Three types of cox genes including ptgs1, ptgs2a and ptgs2b have been identified in zebrafish...
  4. Phelps R, Chidester S, Dehghanizadeh S, Phelps J, Sandoval I, Rai K, et al. A two-step model for colon adenoma initiation and progression caused by APC loss. Cell. 2009;137:623-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this model, human FAP adenomas showed robust upregulation of CtBP1 in the absence of detectable nuclear beta-catenin, whereas nuclear beta-catenin was detected in carcinomas. ..
  5. Deveau A, Forrester A, Coombs A, Wagner G, Grabher C, Chute I, et al. Epigenetic therapy restores normal hematopoiesis in a zebrafish model of NUP98-HOXA9-induced myeloid disease. Leukemia. 2015;29:2086-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work proposes novel drug targets in NHA9-induced myeloid disease, and suggests rational therapies by combining minimal doses of known bioactive compounds. ..
  6. Ishikawa T, Herschman H. Two inducible, functional cyclooxygenase-2 genes are present in the rainbow trout genome. J Cell Biochem. 2007;102:1486-92 pubmed
    ..Thus the rainbow trout has two functional, inducible Cox-2 genes. The zebrafish also contains two Cox-2 genes. However, genome structure analysis suggests diversion of the Cox-2a gene between zebrafish and rainbow trout. ..
  7. Tyrkalska S, Candel S, Angosto D, Gómez Abellán V, Martín Sánchez F, García Moreno D, et al. Neutrophils mediate Salmonella Typhimurium clearance through the GBP4 inflammasome-dependent production of prostaglandins. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12077 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to GBPs as key inflammasome adaptors required for prostaglandin biosynthesis and bacterial clearance by neutrophils and suggest that transient activation of the inflammasome may be used to treat bacterial infections. ..
  8. Gallardo V, Liang J, Behra M, Elkahloun A, Villablanca E, Russo V, et al. Molecular dissection of the migrating posterior lateral line primordium during early development in zebrafish. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:120 pubmed publisher
  9. Faikoh E, Hong Y, Hu S. Liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde enhances zebrafish (Danio rerio) immunity and survival when challenged with Vibrio vulnificus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014;38:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that LEC could be used as an antimicrobial agent and immunostimulant to protect bacteria-infected fish in aquaculture. ..
  10. Morais R, Crespo D, Nóbrega R, Lemos M, van de Kant H, De Franca L, et al. Antagonistic regulation of spermatogonial differentiation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by Igf3 and Amh. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;454:112-124 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that an important aspect of Fsh bioactivity in stimulating spermatogenesis is implemented by restricting the different inhibitory effects of Amh and by counterbalancing them with stimulatory signals, such as Igf3. ..
  11. Cheng C, Huang S, Wu C, Gong H, Ken C, Hu S, et al. Transgenic expression of omega-3 PUFA synthesis genes improves zebrafish survival during Vibrio vulnificus infection. J Biomed Sci. 2015;22:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Fadsd6 and Elvol5a transgenic zebrafish are more resistant to V. vulnificus infection, and enhance survival by diminishing the attendant inflammatory response. ..
  12. Scherz P, Huisken J, Sahai Hernandez P, Stainier D. High-speed imaging of developing heart valves reveals interplay of morphogenesis and function. Development. 2008;135:1179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These steps are disrupted by the subtle morphological changes that result from inhibiting ErbB-, TGFbeta-or Cox2 (Ptgs2)-dependent signaling...
  13. Eisinger A, Nadauld L, Shelton D, Prescott S, Stafforini D, Jones D. Retinoic acid inhibits beta-catenin through suppression of Cox-2: a role for truncated adenomatous polyposis coli. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29394-400 pubmed
    ..This novel function of truncated Apc may provide a molecular basis for the efficacy of COX-2 inhibitors in the treatment of colon cancer. ..
  14. Han J, Wang Q, Wang X, Li Y, Wen S, Liu S, et al. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;150:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. ..
  15. Nissim S, Sherwood R, Wucherpfennig J, Saunders D, Harris J, Esain V, et al. Prostaglandin E2 regulates liver versus pancreas cell-fate decisions and endodermal outgrowth. Dev Cell. 2014;28:423-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides in vivo evidence that PGE2 may act as a morphogen to regulate cell-fate decisions and outgrowth of the embryonic endodermal anlagen. ..
  16. de Oliveira S, Reyes Aldasoro C, Candel S, Renshaw S, Mulero V, Calado A. Cxcl8 (IL-8) mediates neutrophil recruitment and behavior in the zebrafish inflammatory response. J Immunol. 2013;190:4349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we report that Cxcl8-l2 signaled through Cxcr2 for inducing neutrophil recruitment. Our study, therefore, confirms the zebrafish as an excellent in vivo model to shed light on the roles of CXCL8 in neutrophil biology. ..
  17. Lee Y, Lee B, Jeong S, Park J, Han I, Lee C. Increased cell proliferation and neural activity by physostigmine in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish. Neurosci Lett. 2016;629:189-195 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that 200?M physostigmine increased neural activity and induced cell proliferation via nitric oxide production in zebrafish. ..
  18. Candel S, Sepulcre M, Espín Palazón R, Tyrkalska S, de Oliveira S, Meseguer J, et al. Md1 and Rp105 regulate innate immunity and viral resistance in zebrafish. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;50:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results shed light on the evolutionary history of Md1 and Rp105 and uncover a previously unappreciated function of these molecules in the regulation of innate immunity. ..
  19. Jönsson M, Kubota A, Timme Laragy A, Woodin B, Stegeman J. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;265:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. ..
  20. Pradhan A, Khalaf H, Ochsner S, Sreenivasan R, Koskinen J, Karlsson M, et al. Activation of NF-?B protein prevents the transition from juvenile ovary to testis and promotes ovarian development in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37926-38 pubmed publisher
  21. Wu T, Yang J, Yu F, Liu B. Evaluation of nephrotoxic effects of mycotoxins, citrinin and patulin, on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:4398-404 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, CTN and PAT caused profound nephrotoxicity in histological structure and biological function of zebrafish embryos; the inflammatory pathway and blood rheology may involve in CTN-induced renal impairment. ..
  22. Prescott S, Yost H. The COXes of Danio: from mechanistic model to experimental therapeutics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9084-6 pubmed
  23. Zhang J, Qi J, Wu S, Peng L, Shi Y, Yang J, et al. Fatty Acid Binding Protein 11a Is Required for Brain Vessel Integrity in Zebrafish. Front Physiol. 2017;8:214 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, COX and LOX inhibition partially rescued the brain vessel integrity defects caused by fabp11a loss-of-function, suggesting the integrity defect was relevant to the Fatty Acid function. ..
  24. Lister A, Van Der Kraak G. An investigation into the role of prostaglandins in zebrafish oocyte maturation and ovulation. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;159:46-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these experiments indicate that the AA pathway in zebrafish ovaries is involved in the regulation of oocyte maturation and ovulation and a non-selective inhibitor of COX disrupts these processes. ..
  25. Eisinger A, Nadauld L, Shelton D, Peterson P, Phelps R, Chidester S, et al. The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene regulates expression of cyclooxygenase-2 by a mechanism that involves retinoic acid. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20474-82 pubmed
  26. Zhang Z, Cheang L, Wang M, Lee S. Quercetin exerts a neuroprotective effect through inhibition of the iNOS/NO system and pro-inflammation gene expression in PC12 cells and in zebrafish. Int J Mol Med. 2011;27:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to provide a scientific rationale for the clinical use of quercetin, leading to its development as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. ..
  27. Watzke J, Schirmer K, Scholz S. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides induce genes involved in the innate immune response in embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:901-5 pubmed
    ..The gene induction required the removal of the chorion prior to lipopolysaccharide exposure. ..
  28. Huang C, Chen P, Huang C, Yu J. Aristolochic Acid induces heart failure in zebrafish embryos that is mediated by inflammation. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:486-94 pubmed
  29. Barbalho P, Lopes Cendes I, Maurer Morelli C. Indomethacin treatment prior to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures downregulates the expression of il1b and cox2 and decreases seizure-like behavior in zebrafish larvae. BMC Neurosci. 2016;17:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are supported by previous evidences suggesting that zebrafish is a suitable alternative for studying inflammation, seizures, and the effect of anti-inflammatory compounds on seizure suppression. ..
  30. Yeh J, Munson K, Elagib K, Goldfarb A, Sweetser D, Peterson R. Discovering chemical modifiers of oncogene-regulated hematopoietic differentiation. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:236-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach may open doors for developing therapeutics targeting oncogene function within leukemic stem cells. ..
  31. Bugiak B, Weber L. Phenotypic anchoring of gene expression after developmental exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands in zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2010;99:423-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further experiments are needed to confirm this difference and to determine whether the relationship is causative or merely associative. ..
  32. Hasegawa T, Hall C, Crosier P, Abe G, Kawakami K, Kudo A, et al. Transient inflammatory response mediated by interleukin-1? is required for proper regeneration in zebrafish fin fold. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that proper levels of Il1b signaling and tissue inflammation, which are tuned by macrophages, play a crucial role in tissue regeneration. ..
  33. Chu L, Li J, Liu Y, Hu W, Cheng C. Targeted gene disruption in zebrafish reveals noncanonical functions of LH signaling in reproduction. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:1785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..LH signaling is demonstrated to control oocyte maturation and ovulation in the ovary. ..
  34. Xia L, Zheng L, Zhou J. Effects of ibuprofen, diclofenac and paracetamol on hatch and motor behavior in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2017;182:416-425 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicated that ibuprofen and diclofenac significantly affected embryo locomotivity and were potentially neurotoxic, thus posing threats to zebrafish development. ..
  35. Ding Y, Chen Y. Developmental nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid in a zebrafish model. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;261:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time PCR showed that AA can up-regulate the expression of proinflammatory genes like TNF?, cox2 and mpo...
  36. Morthorst J, Lister A, Bjerregaard P, Van der Kraak G. Ibuprofen reduces zebrafish PGE(2) levels but steroid hormone levels and reproductive parameters are not affected. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;157:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that ibuprofen reduces PGE(2) levels in male and female zebrafish but has no consistent effects on other investigated reproductive parameters. ..
  37. Hua J, Han J, Wang X, Guo Y, Zhou B. The binary mixtures of megestrol acetate and 17?-ethynylestradiol adversely affect zebrafish reproduction. Environ Pollut. 2016;213:776-784 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has important implications for environmental risk assessment of synthetic hormones that are concurrently present in aquatic systems. ..
  38. Bugiak B, Weber L. Hepatic and vascular mRNA expression in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) following exposure to benzo-a-pyrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;95:299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The vascular-specific changes in gene expression will be linked to future studies examining alterations in cardiovascular function produced by acute AhR agonist exposure in adult fish. ..
  39. Klangnurak W, Tokumoto T. Fine selection of up-regulated genes during ovulation by in vivo induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation in zebrafish. Zoological Lett. 2017;3:2 pubmed publisher
    ..The ovulation-specific up-regulation of three candidates, slc37a4a, zgc:65811 and zgc:92184 was confirmed by qPCR. Our in vivo assay provides a new approach to precisely select genes associated with ovulation. ..
  40. Ji K, Liu X, Lee S, Kang S, Kho Y, Giesy J, et al. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on hormones and genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis, and reproduction of zebrafish. J Hazard Mater. 2013;254-255:242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that ibuprofen could modulate hormone production and related gene transcription of the HPG axis in a sex-dependent way, which could cause adverse effects on reproduction and the development of offspring. ..
  41. Pini B, Grosser T, Lawson J, Price T, Pack M, Fitzgerald G. Prostaglandin E synthases in zebrafish. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:315-20 pubmed
    ..Zebrafish cytosolic (c) PGES-1 and COX-1 were coordinately expressed; mPGES-1 and COX-2 were expressed particularly in the vasculature. Zebrafish may afford a high throughput system for detection of novel PGES inhibitors. ..
  42. Knight O, Van der Kraak G. The role of eicosanoids in 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one-induced ovulation and spawning in Danio rerio. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;213:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..COX metabolites also appear to be involved in ovulation and spawning but their role remains undefined. ..