Gene Symbol: prl
Description: prolactin
Alias: zgc:110500, prolactin, prl1
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Herzog W, Zeng X, Lele Z, Sonntag C, Ting J, Chang C, et al. Adenohypophysis formation in the zebrafish and its dependence on sonic hedgehog. Dev Biol. 2003;254:36-49 pubmed
    ..pituitary formation and patterning in zebrafish, we cloned four cDNAs encoding different pituitary hormones, prolactin (prl), proopiomelancortin (pomc), thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh), and growth hormone (gh), and analyzed their ..
  2. Herzog W, Sonntag C, von der Hardt S, Roehl H, Varga Z, Hammerschmidt M. Fgf3 signaling from the ventral diencephalon is required for early specification and subsequent survival of the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Development. 2004;131:3681-92 pubmed
    ..This early specification seems to be essential for the subsequent survival of pituitary cells, but not for pituitary morphogenesis or pituitary cell proliferation...
  3. Liu N, Liu Q, Wawrowsky K, Yang Z, Lin S, Melmed S. Prolactin receptor signaling mediates the osmotic response of embryonic zebrafish lactotrophs. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:871-80 pubmed
    The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) regulates salt and water homeostasis by altering ion retention and water uptake through peripheral osmoregulatory organs...
  4. Herzog W, Sonntag C, Walderich B, Odenthal J, Maischein H, Hammerschmidt M. Genetic analysis of adenohypophysis formation in zebrafish. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1185-95 pubmed
    ..Positional cloning of the lia, pia, and aal genes might reveal novel regulators of vertebrate pituitary development. ..
  5. Pogoda H, von der Hardt S, Herzog W, Kramer C, Schwarz H, Hammerschmidt M. The proneural gene ascl1a is required for endocrine differentiation and cell survival in the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Development. 2006;133:1079-89 pubmed
    ..Together, this suggests that Ascl1a might act downstream of diencephalic Fgf3 signaling to mediate some of the effects of Fgf3 on the developing adenohypophysis...
  6. Nica G, Herzog W, Sonntag C, Nowak M, Schwarz H, Zapata A, et al. Eya1 is required for lineage-specific differentiation, but not for cell survival in the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Dev Biol. 2006;292:189-204 pubmed subsequent loss of cognate hormone gene expression in thyrotropes and somatotropes of mutant embryos, whereas prolactin expression in lactotropes persists...
  7. Nica G, Herzog W, Sonntag C, Hammerschmidt M. Zebrafish pit1 mutants lack three pituitary cell types and develop severe dwarfism. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1196-209 pubmed
    ..In sum, our data point to both conserved and class-specific aspects of Pit1 function during pituitary development in different vertebrate species. ..
  8. Zhu Y, Song D, Tran N, Nguyen N. The effects of the members of growth hormone family knockdown in zebrafish development. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;150:395-404 pubmed
    Growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and somatolactin (SL) are members of GH/PRL superfamily. These hormones are involved in the regulation of an array of physiological processes, including growth, lactation, and osmoregulation...
  9. Yang Y, Liu W, Li D, Qian L, Fu B, Wang C. Altered glycometabolism in zebrafish exposed to thifluzamide. Chemosphere. 2017;183:89-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, thifluzamide caused dysfunctional glycometabolism and led to events that might contribute to various thifluzamide-induced abnormalities in zebrafish. ..

More Information


  1. Wang H, Semenova S, Kuusela S, Panula P, Lehtonen S. Tankyrases regulate glucoregulatory mechanisms and somatic growth via the central melanocortin system in zebrafish larvae. FASEB J. 2015;29:4435-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The collective data suggest that TNKS1b modulates glucoregulatory mechanisms and the somatic growth of zebrafish larvae via the central melanocortin system. ..
  2. Huang X, Hui M, Liu Y, Yuen D, Zhang Y, Chan W, et al. Discovery of a novel prolactin in non-mammalian vertebrates: evolutionary perspectives and its involvement in teleost retina development. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6163 pubmed publisher
    The three pituitary hormones, viz. prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and somatolactin (SL), together with the mammalian placental lactogen (PL), constitute a gene family of hormones with similar gene structure and encoded protein ..
  3. Ziv L, Gothilf Y. Period2 expression pattern and its role in the development of the pineal circadian clock in zebrafish. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23:101-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, a possible role for early photoreception and light-induced zper2 expression in the development of clock-controlled rhythms remains to be investigated. ..
  4. De la Paz J, Beiza N, Paredes Zúñiga S, Hoare M, Allende M. Triazole Fungicides Inhibit Zebrafish Hatching by Blocking the Secretory Function of Hatching Gland Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a specific pathway through which this family of fungicides may be impairing a critical event in the fish life cycle. ..
  5. Dutta S, Dawid I. Kctd15 inhibits neural crest formation by attenuating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling output. Development. 2010;137:3013-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Kctd15 inhibits NC formation by attenuating the output of the canonical Wnt pathway, thereby restricting expansion of the NC domain beyond its normal range...
  6. Lopez M, Nica G, Motte P, Martial J, Hammerschmidt M, Muller M. Expression of the somatolactin beta gene during zebrafish embryonic development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:156-61 pubmed
    Somatolactin (Sl) is a pituitary hormone closely related to prolactin (Prl) and growth hormone that was until now only found in various fish species...
  7. Hoshijima K, Hirose S. Expression of endocrine genes in zebrafish larvae in response to environmental salinity. J Endocrinol. 2007;193:481-91 pubmed
    ..larvae have a system in which several endocrine genes, including atrial natriuretic peptide (anp), renin, prolactin, growth hormone ( gh) and parathyroid hormone 1 (pth1), respond at the transcription level to changes in ..
  8. Liu N, Ren M, Song J, RIOS Y, Wawrowsky K, Ben Shlomo A, et al. In vivo time-lapse imaging delineates the zebrafish pituitary proopiomelanocortin lineage boundary regulated by FGF3 signal. Dev Biol. 2008;319:192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF3 down-regulation induces specific defects of pars intermedia POMC cells while pomc, growth hormone and prolactin expression remain intact in the pars distalis...
  9. Li S, Liu W, Li Z, Li W, Wang Y, Zhou L, et al. greb1 regulates convergent extension movement and pituitary development in zebrafish. Gene. 2017;627:176-187 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, pituitary hormones-encoding genes and their serum products, such as GH, TSH, PRL, FSH, and LH, were severely diminished in greb1 mutants, and high mortality and significant growth defects were ..
  10. Pavlidis M, Theodoridi A, Tsalafouta A. Neuroendocrine regulation of the stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2015;60:121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..corticotropin-releasing factor, crf; pro-opiomelanocortin, pomc; glucocorticoid receptor, gr; MR/GR ratio; prolactin, prl; hypocretin/orexin, hcrt; brain-derived neurotrophic factor, bdnf; c-fos)...
  11. Graf M, Teo Qi Wen E, Sarusie M, Rajaei F, Winkler C. Dmrt5 controls corticotrope and gonadotrope differentiation in the zebrafish pituitary. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Intriguingly, its effect on gonadotrope numbers defines a first nongonadal role for a dmrt family member that appears crucial for the activity of the reproductive system. ..
  12. Cheng X, Chen X, Li D, Jin X, He J, Yin Z. Effects of metronidazole on proopiomelanocortin a gene expression in zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;214:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, up-regulated levels of prolactin (prl) and glycoprotein hormone subunit ? (gsu?) were also observed after the MTZ treatment...
  13. Li C, Chen X, Zhang Y, Ye H, Liu T. Molecular and expression characterization of growth hormone/prolactin family genes in the Prenant's schizothoracin. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:4595-602 pubmed publisher
    The growth hormone/prolactin family genes are major participants in control of several complex physiologic processes, including growth, reproduction, and metabolism...
  14. Quiroz Y, Lopez M, Mavropoulos A, Motte P, Martial J, Hammerschmidt M, et al. The HMG-box transcription factor Sox4b is required for pituitary expression of gata2a and specification of thyrotrope and gonadotrope cells in zebrafish. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1014-27 pubmed publisher tsh? and gsu? expression and reduced levels of gh, whereas other anterior pituitary gland markers including prl, sl?, pomc, and lim3 are not affected. Sox4b is also required for expression of gata2a in the pituitary...
  15. Breves J, McCormick S, Karlstrom R. Prolactin and teleost ionocytes: new insights into cellular and molecular targets of prolactin in vertebrate epithelia. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2014;203:21-8 pubmed publisher
    The peptide hormone prolactin is a functionally versatile hormone produced by the vertebrate pituitary...
  16. Li X, He J, Hu W, Yin Z. The essential role of endogenous ghrelin in growth hormone expression during zebrafish adenohypophysis development. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our research here has demonstrated that zebrafish is a unique model for functional studies of endogenous ghrelin, especially during embryonic development. ..
  17. Bergeron S, Tyurina O, Miller E, Bagas A, Karlstrom R. Brother of cdo (umleitung) is cell-autonomously required for Hedgehog-mediated ventral CNS patterning in the zebrafish. Development. 2011;138:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals a role for Boc in ventral CNS cells that receive high levels of Hh and uncovers previously unknown roles for Boc in vertebrate embryogenesis. ..
  18. Guner B, Ozacar A, Thomas J, Karlstrom R. Graded hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor signaling independently regulate pituitary cell fates and help establish the pars distalis and pars intermedia of the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4435-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that there are distinct origins and signaling requirements for the PD and PI. ..
  19. Theodoridi A, Tsalafouta A, Pavlidis M. Acute Exposure to Fluoxetine Alters Aggressive Behavior of Zebrafish and Expression of Genes Involved in Serotonergic System Regulation. Front Neurosci. 2017;11:223 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, an acute administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor alters aggressive behavior in male zebrafish in association with changes in the neuroendocrine mediators of coping styles. ..
  20. Liu F, Pogoda H, Pearson C, Ohyama K, L hr H, Hammerschmidt M, et al. Direct and indirect roles of Fgf3 and Fgf10 in innervation and vascularisation of the vertebrate hypothalamic neurohypophysis. Development. 2013;140:1111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our studies suggest a model for the integrated neurohemal wiring of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal axis...
  21. Wang Y, Li J, Yan Kwok A, Ge W, Leung F. A novel prolactin-like protein (PRL-L) gene in chickens and zebrafish: cloning and characterization of its tissue expression. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;166:200-10 pubmed publisher
    In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding a prolactin-like protein (PRL-L) was cloned from chicken brain tissues using RT-PCR...
  22. Dutta S, Dietrich J, Westerfield M, Varga Z. Notch signaling regulates endocrine cell specification in the zebrafish anterior pituitary. Dev Biol. 2008;319:248-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Notch mediated lateral inhibition regulates the relative numbers of specified hormone cell types in the three pituitary subdomains. ..
  23. Nguyen N, Zhu Y. Prolactin functions as a survival factor during zebrafish embryogenesis. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;153:88-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin is a multifaceted hormone that is capable of modulating hundreds of physiological processes in adult vertebrates. However, the physiological functions of prolactin in embryonic development are still controversial...
  24. He W, Dai X, Chen X, He J, Yin Z. Zebrafish pituitary gene expression before and after sexual maturation. J Endocrinol. 2014;221:429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, we report the quantitative global gene expression patterns at the juvenile and sexual maturity stages. These expression patterns may account for the dynamic neuroendocrine regulation observed in body metabolism. ..
  25. Wolf A, Ryu S. Specification of posterior hypothalamic neurons requires coordinated activities of Fezf2, Otp, Sim1a and Foxb1.2. Development. 2013;140:1762-73 pubmed publisher
  26. Shu Y, Lou Q, Dai Z, Dai X, He J, Hu W, et al. The basal function of teleost prolactin as a key regulator on ion uptake identified with zebrafish knockout models. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18597 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is an anterior pituitary hormone with a broad range of functions...
  27. Dickmeis T, Lahiri K, Nica G, Vallone D, Santoriello C, Neumann C, et al. Glucocorticoids play a key role in circadian cell cycle rhythms. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e78 pubmed
    ..Instead, they act in concert with a systemic signaling environment of which glucocorticoids are an essential part. ..
  28. Wan G, Chan K. A study of somatolactin actions by ectopic expression in transgenic zebrafish larvae. J Mol Endocrinol. 2010;45:301-15 pubmed publisher
    Somatolactin (SL) is a fish-specific hormone that belongs to the prolactin (PRL) and GH family. Recently, two forms of SL, SL? and SL?, have been found in some species, and may have different actions and functions...
  29. Devine C, Sbrogna J, Guner B, Osgood M, Shen M, Karlstrom R. A dynamic Gli code interprets Hh signals to regulate induction, patterning, and endocrine cell specification in the zebrafish pituitary. Dev Biol. 2009;326:143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the link between Hh signaling and pituitary adenomas in humans, our data suggest misregulation of Gli function may contribute to these common pituitary tumors. ..
  30. Trivellin G, Bjelobaba I, Daly A, Larco D, Palmeira L, Faucz F, et al. Characterization of GPR101 transcript structure and expression patterns. J Mol Endocrinol. 2016;57:97-111 pubmed publisher
    ..3 microduplications cause X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG). X-LAG patients mainly present with growth hormone and prolactin-secreting adenomas and share a minimal duplicated region containing at least four genes...
  31. Angotzi A, Mungpakdee S, Stefansson S, Male R, Chourrout D. Involvement of Prop1 homeobox gene in the early development of fish pituitary gland. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;171:332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Prop1 knock-down reduced the expression of pit1, prl (prolactin) and gh (growth hormone), as expected if the function of Prop1 is conserved throughout vertebrates...
  32. Chen M, Huang X, Yuen D, Cheng C. A study on the functional interaction between the GH/PRL family of polypeptides with their receptors in zebrafish: Evidence against GHR1 being the receptor for somatolactin. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;337:114-21 pubmed publisher
    The growth hormone (GH)/prolactin (PRL) family of polypeptide hormones plays important roles in many aspects of vertebrate physiology. In fish, there is an additional member in this family called somatolactin (SL)...
  33. Fontaine R, Affaticati P, Bureau C, Colin I, Demarque M, Dufour S, et al. Dopaminergic Neurons Controlling Anterior Pituitary Functions: Anatomy and Ontogenesis in Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2015;156:2934-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This study offers some insights into the regional identity of the preoptic area and provides the first bases for future functional genetic studies on the development of DA neurons controlling anterior pituitary functions. ..
  34. Li J, Liang Y, Zhang X, Lu J, Zhang J, Ruan T, et al. Impaired gas bladder inflation in zebrafish exposed to a novel heterocyclic brominated flame retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:9750-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, we report that the gas bladder could be a primary target organ for TBC, and assessment of the gas bladder should be included in toxicity testing protocols of zebrafish embryos. ..