Gene Symbol: pparg
Description: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Alias: PPAR[g], peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, ARF6, NR1C3
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Flynn E, Trent C, Rawls J. Ontogeny and nutritional control of adipogenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Lipid Res. 2009;50:1641-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal homologies between zebrafish and mammalian adipocytes and establish the zebrafish as a new model for adipocyte research. ..
  2. Li N, Kelsh R, Croucher P, Roehl H. Regulation of neural crest cell fate by the retinoic acid and Pparg signalling pathways. Development. 2010;137:389-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the roles that the retinoic acid (RA) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) pathways play in vivo and found that both pathways act on CNC to direct adipocyte differentiation at the expense ..
  3. Imrie D, Sadler K. White adipose tissue development in zebrafish is regulated by both developmental time and fish size. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3013-23 pubmed publisher
    ..6 mm standard length contained the adult repertoire of WAT depots. Pancreatic, esophageal, and subcutaneous WAT appearance correlated with size, not age, as found for other features appearing during postembryonic zebrafish development. ..
  4. Zhang W, Liu Y, Zhang H, Dai J. Proteomic analysis of male zebrafish livers chronically exposed to perfluorononanoic acid. Environ Int. 2012;42:20-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Other potential modes should be further investigated. ..
  5. Zheng J, Luo Z, Zhu Q, Tan X, Chen Q, Sun L, et al. Molecular cloning and expression pattern of 11 genes involved in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Gene. 2013;531:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study will facilitate further studies on the regulation of lipid metabolism at the molecular level for the fish species. ..
  6. Garbarino G, Costa S, Pestarino M, Candiani S. Differential expression of synapsin genes during early zebrafish development. Neuroscience. 2014;280:351-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, new interesting evidence from our temporal gene expression studies suggests that synapsins have also maternal functions. ..
  7. Maradonna F, Evangelisti M, Gioacchini G, Migliarini B, Olivotto I, Carnevali O. Assay of vtg, ERs and PPARs as endpoint for the rapid in vitro screening of the harmful effect of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and phthalic acid (PA) in zebrafish primary hepatocyte cultures. Toxicol In Vitro. 2013;27:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Noteworthy the gender specific modulation observed for ERs opens a debate on the estrogenic mechanism of action of DEHP and PA and their role on vtg induction. ..
  8. Tseng Y, Chen R, Lucassen M, Schmidt M, Dringen R, Abele D, et al. Exploring uncoupling proteins and antioxidant mechanisms under acute cold exposure in brains of fish. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18180 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed stimulation of the PPAR-UCP axis may help to prevent oxidative damage and to maintain metabolic balance and cellular homeostasis in the brains of ectothermic zebrafish upon cold exposure. ..
  9. Jeon H, Choi H, Lee Y, Hwang J, Lee O, Seo M, et al. Seapolynol Extracted from Ecklonia cava Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation in Vitro and Decreases Fat Accumulation in Vivo. Molecules. 2015;20:21715-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that SN may be an edible agent that can play a positive role in prevention of metabolic disorders. ..

More Information


  1. Zheng X, Dai W, Chen X, Wang K, Zhang W, Liu L, et al. Caffeine reduces hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of lipogenesis and ER stress in zebrafish larvae. J Biomed Sci. 2015;22:105 pubmed publisher
  2. Shieh Y, Chang Y, Hong J, Chen L, Jou L, Hsu C, et al. Increase of hepatic fat accumulation by liver specific expression of Hepatitis B virus X protein in zebrafish. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:721-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, GBXs with transmissible NASH-like phenotypes provide a promising model for studying liver disease. ..
  3. Kim J, Kang S, Jung Y, Choi H. Cholecalciferol inhibits lipid accumulation by regulating early adipogenesis in cultured adipocytes and zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:646-53 pubmed publisher
  4. Carlson P, Smalley D, Van Beneden R. Proteomic analysis of arsenic-exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) identifies altered expression in proteins involved in fibrosis and lipid uptake in a gender-specific manner. Toxicol Sci. 2013;134:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes presented here seem to be most prevalent in lipid transport and metabolic pathways, suggesting a potential increase in fibrosis in males and decreased lipid accumulation and uptake in females. ..
  5. Wiweger M, de Andrea C, Scheepstra K, Zhao Z, Hogendoorn P. Possible effects of EXT2 on mesenchymal differentiation--lessons from the zebrafish. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014;9:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations in the ext2-null fish might explain the musculoskeletal defects that are often observed in MO patients. ..
  6. Forner Piquer I, Maradonna F, Gioacchini G, Santangeli S, Allarà M, Piscitelli F, et al. Dose-Specific Effects of Di-Isononyl Phthalate on the Endocannabinoid System and on Liver of Female Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3462-3476 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that replacement of DEHP with DiNP should be considered with caution because of observed adverse DiNP effects on aquatic organisms. ..
  7. Yan C, Yang Q, Shen H, Spitsbergen J, Gong Z. Chronically high level of tgfb1a induction causes both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma via a dominant Erk pathway in zebrafish. Oncotarget. 2017;8:77096-77109 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings pinpointed the novel role of Tgfb1 as a central regulator in the two major types of liver cancers, which was also supported by human liver disease samples. ..
  8. Fraher D, Ellis M, Morrison S, McGee S, Ward A, Walder K, et al. Lipid Abundance in Zebrafish Embryos Is Regulated by Complementary Actions of the Endocannabinoid System and Retinoic Acid Pathway. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3596-609 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows for the first time that the RA and ECS pathways have additive function in lipid abundance during vertebrate development. ..
  9. Lyssimachou A, Santos J, André A, Soares J, Lima D, Guimarães L, et al. The Mammalian "Obesogen" Tributyltin Targets Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation and the Transcriptional Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in the Liver and Brain of Zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143911 pubmed publisher
  10. Jin C, Luo T, Zhu Z, Pan Z, Yang J, Wang W, et al. Imazalil exposure induces gut microbiota dysbiosis and hepatic metabolism disorder in zebrafish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;202:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that exposure to IMZ could cause gut microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disorders in adult zebrafish. ..
  11. Escriva H, Safi R, Hanni C, Langlois M, Saumitou Laprade P, Stehelin D, et al. Ligand binding was acquired during evolution of nuclear receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:6803-8 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, our results suggest that the ancestral NR was an orphan receptor that acquired ligand-binding ability during subsequent evolution. ..
  12. Minchin J, Williams V, Hinits Y, Low S, Tandon P, Fan C, et al. Oesophageal and sternohyal muscle fibres are novel Pax3-dependent migratory somite derivatives essential for ingestion. Development. 2013;140:2972-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate Pax3-expressing somite cells as a source of OSM and SHM fibres, and highlight a conserved role of Pax3 genes in the genesis of these feeding muscles of vertebrates. ..
  13. Fraher D, Sanigorski A, Mellett N, Meikle P, Sinclair A, Gibert Y. Zebrafish Embryonic Lipidomic Analysis Reveals that the Yolk Cell Is Metabolically Active in Processing Lipid. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1317-1329 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identify a metabolically active yolk and body resulting in a dynamic lipid composition. This provides a foundation for studying lipid biology during normal or pharmacologically compromised embryogenesis. ..
  14. Minchin J, Dahlman I, Harvey C, Mejhert N, Singh M, Epstein J, et al. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:4363-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans. ..
  15. Seo M, Choi H, Jeon H, Woo M, Lee B. Baicalein inhibits lipid accumulation by regulating early adipogenesis and m-TOR signaling. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014;67:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that baicalein inhibits lipid accumulation by controlling the cell cycle and m-TOR signaling in 3T3-L1 cells, and its anti-adipogenic effect was found in a zebrafish model. ..
  16. Carter B, Cortés Campos C, Chen X, McCammon J, Sive H. Validation of Protein Knockout in Mutant Zebrafish Lines Using In Vitro Translation Assays. Zebrafish. 2017;14:73-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We address this issue using in vitro translation assays, a fast and standard procedure that can be easily implemented. ..
  17. Caro M, Sansone A, Amezaga J, Navarro V, Ferreri C, Tueros I. Wine lees modulate lipid metabolism and induce fatty acid remodelling in zebrafish. Food Funct. 2017;8:1652-1659 pubmed publisher
    ..On the whole, wine lees polyphenolic extract was effective at modulating zebrafish lipid metabolism evidencing remodelling effects and antioxidant properties that can be further developed for food innovation. ..
  18. Ran G, Ying L, Li L, Yan Q, Yi W, Ying C, et al. Resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180865 pubmed publisher
    ..protein kinase-? (pAMPK?), silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1? (PGC1?). RSV attenuated CR-induced pAMPK?/AMPK?increases...
  19. Landgraf K, Schuster S, Meusel A, Garten A, Riemer T, Schleinitz D, et al. Short-term overfeeding of zebrafish with normal or high-fat diet as a model for the development of metabolically healthy versus unhealthy obesity. BMC Physiol. 2017;17:4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that zebrafish represents an attractive model to study regulatory mechanisms involved in the determination of AT phenotype during development of metabolically healthy versus metabolically unhealthy obesity. ..
  20. Kopp R, Billecke N, Legradi J, den Broeder M, Parekh S, Legler J. Bringing obesity to light: Rev-erbα, a central player in light-induced adipogenesis in the zebrafish?. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016;40:824-32 pubmed publisher
    ..As the pparβδ promoter includes three Rev-erbα binding sites, we hypothesize that pparβδ may be a direct target that ultimately activates Pparγ. ..
  21. Ibabe A, Bilbao E, Cajaraville M. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in zebrafish (Danio rerio) depending on gender and developmental stage. Histochem Cell Biol. 2005;123:75-87 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that PPAR expression, the activity of its target gene AOX, and peroxisomal biogenesis are developmentally modulated in zebrafish. ..
  22. Ibabe A, Herrero A, Cajaraville M. Modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) by PPAR(alpha)- and PPAR(gamma)-specific ligands and by 17beta-estradiol in isolated zebrafish hepatocytes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2005;19:725-35 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to identify how the expression of different PPAR subtypes is regulated and to elucidate the implication of PPAR subtypes in zebrafish cell functions...
  23. Zhang W, Zhang Y, Zhang H, Wang J, Cui R, Dai J. Sex differences in transcriptional expression of FABPs in zebrafish liver after chronic perfluorononanoic acid exposure. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:5175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that PFNA exposure caused opposite adverse effects on liver TG levels between the sexes in zebrafish possibly due to the opposite expression of FABPs and its upstream genes. ..
  24. Shimada Y, Kuroyanagi J, Zhang B, Ariyoshi M, Umemoto N, Nishimura Y, et al. Downregulation of Max dimerization protein 3 is involved in decreased visceral adipose tissue by inhibiting adipocyte differentiation in zebrafish and mice. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014;38:1053-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrated analysis of human and zebrafish transcriptomes allows identification of a novel therapeutic target against human obesity and further associated metabolic disease. ..
  25. Riu A, Grimaldi M, le Maire A, Bey G, Phillips K, Boulahtouf A, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? is a target for halogenated analogs of bisphenol A. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results strongly suggest that polyhalogenated bisphenols could function as obesogens by acting as agonists to disrupt physiological functions regulated by human or animal PPAR?. ..
  26. Peng X, Shang G, Wang W, Chen X, Lou Q, Zhai G, et al. Fatty Acid Oxidation in Zebrafish Adipose Tissue Is Promoted by 1α,25(OH)2D3. Cell Rep. 2017;19:1444-1455 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that regulation of 1α,25(OH)2D3 during lipid metabolism occurs through the regulation of Pgc1a for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism within zebrafish VAT. ..
  27. Suh H, Cho S, Kim E, Choi H. Blockade of lipid accumulation by silibinin in adipocytes and zebrafish. Chem Biol Interact. 2015;227:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data revealed that silibinin inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and zebrafish, and this inhibitory effect was associated with abrogation of early adipogenesis via regulation of cell cycle and AMPKα signaling. ..
  28. Cunha V, Rodrigues P, Santos M, Moradas Ferreira P, Ferreira M. Danio rerio embryos on Prozac - Effects on the detoxification mechanism and embryo development. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;178:182-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These finding raises additional concerns supporting the need to monitor the presence of this compound in aquatic reservoirs. ..
  29. Driessen M, Kienhuis A, Pennings J, Pronk T, van de Brandhof E, Roodbergen M, et al. Exploring the zebrafish embryo as an alternative model for the evaluation of liver toxicity by histopathology and expression profiling. Arch Toxicol. 2013;87:807-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the applicability of the whole ZFE model for compound-induced hepatotoxicity screening. ..
  30. Grimaldi M, Boulahtouf A, Delfosse V, Thouennon E, Bourguet W, Balaguer P. Reporter cell lines to evaluate the selectivity of chemicals for human and zebrafish estrogen and peroxysome proliferator activated γ receptors. Front Neurosci. 2015;9:212 pubmed publisher
  31. Turola E, Petta S, Vanni E, Milosa F, Valenti L, Critelli R, et al. Ovarian senescence increases liver fibrosis in humans and zebrafish with steatosis. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:1037-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovarian senescence significantly increases the risk of fibrosis severity both in humans with NAFLD and in zebrafish with experimental steatosis. ..
  32. Zhang J, Sun P, Kong T, Yang F, Guan W. Tributyltin promoted hepatic steatosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the molecular pathogenesis involved. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;170:208-215 pubmed publisher
    ..In short, TBT can produce multiple and complex alterations in transcriptional activity of lipid metabolism and cell damage, which provides potential molecular evidence of TBT on hepatic steatosis. ..
  33. Choi H, Jeon H, Lee O, Lee B. Indole-3-carbinol, a vegetable phytochemical, inhibits adipogenesis by regulating cell cycle and AMPK? signaling. Biochimie. 2014;104:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, an anti-adipogenic effect of I3C was found in zebrafish study. Our data suggest that vegetables-derived I3C could reduce lipid accumulation via various molecular mechanisms in cell. ..
  34. Her G, Pai W, Lai C, Hsieh Y, Pang H. Ubiquitous transcription factor YY1 promotes zebrafish liver steatosis and lipotoxicity by inhibiting CHOP-10 expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1831:1037-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to examine YY1 as a potential stimulator for GY liver steatosis and lipotoxicity. ..
  35. Lee Y, Choi H, Seo M, Jeon H, Kim K, Lee B. Kaempferol suppresses lipid accumulation by inhibiting early adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and zebrafish. Food Funct. 2015;6:2824-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results were supported in zebrafish based on the decrease in lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic factors. Our results indicated that kaempferol might have an anti-obesity effect by regulating lipid metabolism. ..
  36. Al Habsi A, Massarsky A, Moon T. Exposure to gemfibrozil and atorvastatin affects cholesterol metabolism and steroid production in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;199:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the reduction in cortisol may impair the ability of these fish to mount a suitable stress response, whereas the reduction of sex steroids may negatively affect reproduction. ..
  37. Koshimizu E, Imamura S, Qi J, Toure J, Valdez D, Carr C, et al. Embryonic senescence and laminopathies in a progeroid zebrafish model. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17688 pubmed publisher
  38. Liu H, Sheng N, Zhang W, Dai J. Toxic effects of perfluorononanoic acid on the development of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. J Environ Sci (China). 2015;32:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mRNA expression levels of both ppara and pparg did not show any significant variation after exposure...
  39. Piccinetti C, Migliarini B, Olivotto I, Simoniello M, Giorgini E, Carnevali O. Melatonin and peripheral circuitries: insights on appetite and metabolism in Danio rerio. Zebrafish. 2013;10:275-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings obtained in this study could be of great interest for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms as the basis of food intake control and, in turn, can be a useful tool for medical and aquaculture applications...
  40. Lima D, Castro L, Coelho I, Lacerda R, Gesto M, Soares J, et al. Effects of Tributyltin and Other Retinoid Receptor Agonists in Reproductive-Related Endpoints in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2015;78:747-60 pubmed publisher
    ..downregulation was observed in brain mRNA levels of aromatase b (CYP19a1b) in females and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARg) in both males and females, suggesting an involvement of these pathways in ..