Gene Symbol: pkz
Description: protein kinase containing Z-DNA binding domains
Alias: zgc:136657, interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Rothenburg S, Deigendesch N, Dey M, Dever T, Tazi L. Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding domains and lineage-specific duplications. BMC Biol. 2008;6:12 pubmed
    ..the responsible enzymes eluded molecular characterization until the recent discovery of goldfish and zebrafish PKZ, which contain Z-DNA-binding domains instead of dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs)...
  2. Taghavi N, Samuel C. RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR and the Z-DNA binding orthologue PKZ differ in their capacity to mediate initiation factor eIF2?-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and virus-induced stress granule formation. Virology. 2013;443:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein kinase Z (PKZ), a PKR-like kinase present in fish, possesses two Z-DNA binding domains...
  3. Rothenburg S, Deigendesch N, Dittmar K, Koch Nolte F, Haag F, Lowenhaupt K, et al. A PKR-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase from zebrafish contains Z-DNA binding domains instead of dsRNA binding domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1602-7 pubmed
    ..This previously undescribed kinase, designated PKZ (protein kinase containing Z-DNA binding domains), is transcribed constitutively at low levels and is highly ..
  4. Zenke K, Nam Y, Kim K. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;133:290-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Xiong R, Nie L, Xiang L, Shao J. Characterization of a PIAS4 homologue from zebrafish: insights into its conserved negative regulatory mechanism in the TRIF, MAVS, and IFN signaling pathways during vertebrate evolution. J Immunol. 2012;188:2653-68 pubmed publisher
    ..It presents valuable clues for improving the understanding of not only the negative regulation of cytokine signaling in fish but also the evolutionary history of the PIAS family from fish to mammals as a whole. ..
  6. Zhang L, Chen W, Hu Y, Wu X, Nie P, Chang M. TBK1-like transcript negatively regulates the production of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes through RLRs-MAVS-TBK1 pathway. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;54:135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data support that zebrafish TBK1L negatively regulates RLRs-MAVS-TBK1 pathway. ..
  7. Lee A, Seo Y, Choi S, Ryu K, Cheong H, Lee S, et al. NMR elucidation of reduced B-Z transition activity of PKZ protein kinase at high NaCl concentration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;482:335-340 pubmed publisher
    A Z-DNA binding protein (ZBP)-containing protein kinase (PKZ) in fish species has an important role in the innate immune response...
  8. Chen H, Liu W, Wu S, Chiou P, Li Y, Chen Y, et al. RIG-I specifically mediates group II type I IFN activation in nervous necrosis virus infected zebrafish cells. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;43:427-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that RIG-I plays an essential role in zebrafish group II type I IFN induction and the inflammatory response to NNV infection. ..
  9. Chen W, Hu Y, Zou P, Ren S, Nie P, Chang M. MAVS splicing variants contribute to the induction of interferon and interferon-stimulated genes mediated by RIG-I-like receptors. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;49:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest the molecular mechanisms of fish MAVS variants in antiviral immunity. ..

More Information


  1. Liu Z, Jia K, Li C, Weng S, Guo C, He J. A truncated Danio rerio PKZ isoform functionally interacts with eIF2? and inhibits protein synthesis. Gene. 2013;527:292-300 pubmed publisher
    A protein kinase containing Z-DNA binding domains (PKZ), which resembles protein kinase R (PKR) in domain organization, was recently discovered to be a member of the eIF2? kinase family in fish...
  2. Liu X, Cai X, Zhang D, Xu C, Xiao W. Zebrafish foxo3b Negatively Regulates Antiviral Response through Suppressing the Transactivity of irf3 and irf7. J Immunol. 2016;197:4736-4749 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that by suppressing irf3/irf7 activity, zebrafish foxo3b negatively regulates the antiviral response, implicating the vital role of the FOXO gene family in innate immunity. ..
  3. Nie L, Xiong R, Zhang Y, Zhu L, Shao J, Xiang L. Conserved inhibitory role of teleost SOCS-1s in IFN signaling pathways. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014;43:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of teleost SOCS-1s could dramatically suppress IFN?1-induced Mx, Viperin and PKZ activation in zebrafish, and IFN-induced ISG15 activation in HeLa cells...
  4. de Rosa M, Zacarias S, Athanasiadis A. Structural basis for Z-DNA binding and stabilization by the zebrafish Z-DNA dependent protein kinase PKZ. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:9924-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In some teleost fish, PKZ, a homolog of PKR, performs the same function, but surprisingly, instead of dsRNA binding domains, it harbors two Z-..
  5. Rothenburg S, Chinchar V, Dever T. Characterization of a ranavirus inhibitor of the antiviral protein kinase PKR. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:56 pubmed publisher
    ..This constitutes an important step in understanding the interaction of ranaviruses and the host innate immune system. ..
  6. Li Z, Xu X, Huang L, Wu J, Lu Q, Xiang Z, et al. Administration of recombinant IFN1 protects zebrafish (Danio rerio) from ISKNV infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;29:399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows the protective effects of interferon against a DNA-virus in fish for the first time and provides information about the efficacy of fish interferon that will prove useful in possible therapeutic applications. ..
  7. López Muñoz A, Roca F, Sepulcre M, Meseguer J, Mulero V. Zebrafish larvae are unable to mount a protective antiviral response against waterborne infection by spring viremia of carp virus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:546-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This model, in combination with the powerful gene overexpression and morpholino-mediated knockdown techniques, will help to illuminate the IFN system of teleost fish...
  8. Subramani V, Kim D, Yun K, Kim K. Structural and functional studies of a large winged Z-DNA-binding domain of Danio rerio protein kinase PKZ. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:2275-85 pubmed publisher
    The Z-DNA-binding domain of PKZ from zebrafish (Danio rerio; drZ?PKZ ) contains the largest ?-wing among known Z-DNA-binding domains. To elucidate the functional implication of the ?-wing, we solved the crystal structure of apo-drZ?PKZ ...
  9. Espin Palazon R, Martínez López A, Roca F, López Muñoz A, Tyrkalska S, Candel S, et al. TNF? Impairs Rhabdoviral Clearance by Inhibiting the Host Autophagic Antiviral Response. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005699 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism of action provides new therapeutic targets for the treatment of SVCV-infected fish, and advances our understanding of the previously enigmatic deleterious role of TNF? in certain viral infections. ..
  10. López Muñoz A, Roca F, Meseguer J, Mulero V. New insights into the evolution of IFNs: zebrafish group II IFNs induce a rapid and transient expression of IFN-dependent genes and display powerful antiviral activities. J Immunol. 2009;182:3440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest nonredundant, complementary roles of type I zfIFNs in viral infections and provide evidence for a pivotal role of the recently identified group II IFN of fish in the early stages of viral infections. ..
  11. Perelygin A, Lear T, Zharkikh A, Brinton M. Comparative analysis of vertebrate EIF2AK2 (PKR) genes and assignment of the equine gene to ECA15q24-q25 and the bovine gene to BTA11q12-q15. Genet Sel Evol. 2006;38:551-63 pubmed
    ..FISH was used to physically assign the horse and cattle genes to chromosome locations, ECA15q24-q25 and BTA11q12-15, respectively. Comparative mapping data confirmed conservation of synteny between ungulates, humans and rodents. ..