Gene Symbol: per1b
Description: period circadian clock 1b
Alias: per4, zfper4, period circadian protein homolog 1, period homolog 1b, period homolog 4
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Dekens M, Whitmore D. Autonomous onset of the circadian clock in the zebrafish embryo. EMBO J. 2008;27:2757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This embryonic clock is differentially regulated from that in the adult, the transition coinciding with the appearance of several clock output processes. ..
  2. Carr A, Whitmore D. Imaging of single light-responsive clock cells reveals fluctuating free-running periods. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:319-21 pubmed
    ..Here we show that light acts to reset desynchronous cellular oscillations to a common phase, as well as stabilize the subsequent free-running period. ..
  3. Peyric E, Moore H, Whitmore D. Circadian clock regulation of the cell cycle in the zebrafish intestine. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73209 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results suggest that the intestinal clock integrates multiple rhythmic cues, including light and food, to function optimally. ..
  4. Tamai T, Young L, Cox C, Whitmore D. Light acts on the zebrafish circadian clock to suppress rhythmic mitosis and cell proliferation. J Biol Rhythms. 2012;27:226-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Using clock and cell cycle luminescent reporter zebrafish cell lines, we show that light strongly represses not only circadian clock function, but also mitotic gene expression, and consequently slows cell proliferation. ..
  5. Gavriouchkina D, Fischer S, Ivacevic T, Stolte J, Benes V, Dekens M. Thyrotroph embryonic factor regulates light-induced transcription of repair genes in zebrafish embryonic cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12542 pubmed publisher
    ..These data leads us to propose their involvement in light-induced UV tolerance in the zebrafish embryo. ..
  6. Lahiri K, Vallone D, Gondi S, Santoriello C, Dickmeis T, Foulkes N. Temperature regulates transcription in the zebrafish circadian clock. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e351 pubmed
    ..In the case of the per4 gene, while E-box promoter elements mediate circadian clock regulation, they do not direct the temperature-driven ..
  7. Vallone D, Gondi S, Whitmore D, Foulkes N. E-box function in a period gene repressed by light. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4106-11 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the cloning of a zebrafish per gene, zfper4, which is remarkable in being repressed by light...
  8. Wang H. Comparative analysis of period genes in teleost fish genomes. J Mol Evol. 2008;67:29-40 pubmed publisher
    ..of phylogenetic, splicing site, and syntenic analyses revealed that zebrafish have two per1 genes, per1a and per1b, one per2, and one per3; medaka, fugu, and tetraodon each have two per2 genes, per2a and per2b, one per1, and one ..
  9. Dickmeis T, Lahiri K, Nica G, Vallone D, Santoriello C, Neumann C, et al. Glucocorticoids play a key role in circadian cell cycle rhythms. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e78 pubmed
    ..Instead, they act in concert with a systemic signaling environment of which glucocorticoids are an essential part. ..

More Information


  1. Idda M, Kage E, López Olmeda J, Mracek P, Foulkes N, Vallone D. Circadian timing of injury-induced cell proliferation in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34203 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results point to a preferential role for the circadian clock in the timing of epidermal cell proliferation in response to injury. ..
  2. Long Y, Li L, Li Q, He X, Cui Z. Transcriptomic characterization of temperature stress responses in larval zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37209 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these findings provide new interesting clues for elucidation of mechanisms underlying the temperature acclimation in fish. ..
  3. Tamai T, Young L, Whitmore D. Light signaling to the zebrafish circadian clock by Cryptochrome 1a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14712-7 pubmed
  4. Cavallari N, Frigato E, Vallone D, Fröhlich N, López Olmeda J, Foá A, et al. A blind circadian clock in cavefish reveals that opsins mediate peripheral clock photoreception. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001142 pubmed publisher
    ..This comparative study pinpoints the two extra-retinal photoreceptors Melanopsin (Opn4m2) and TMT-opsin as essential upstream elements of the peripheral clock light input pathway. ..
  5. Egg M, Köblitz L, Hirayama J, Schwerte T, Folterbauer C, Kurz A, et al. Linking oxygen to time: the bidirectional interaction between the hypoxic signaling pathway and the circadian clock. Chronobiol Int. 2013;30:510-29 pubmed publisher
  6. Cruz B, Brongar L, Popiolek P, Gonçalvez B, Figueiredo M, Amaral I, et al. Clock genes expression and locomotor activity are altered along the light-dark cycle in transgenic zebrafish overexpressing growth hormone. Transgenic Res. 2017;26:739-752 pubmed publisher
  7. Yeh C. The Basal NPO crh Fluctuation is Sustained Under Compromised Glucocorticoid Signaling in Diurnal Zebrafish. Front Neurosci. 2015;9:436 pubmed publisher
    ..This further suggests that under basal and stress conditions the HPA/I axis activity is modulated differently by glucocorticoids. ..
  8. Gandhi A, Mosser E, Oikonomou G, Prober D. Melatonin is required for the circadian regulation of sleep. Neuron. 2015;85:1193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we provide evidence that melatonin may induce sleep in part by promoting adenosine signaling, thus potentially linking circadian and homeostatic control of sleep. ..
  9. Long Y, Song G, Yan J, He X, Li Q, Cui Z. Transcriptomic characterization of cold acclimation in larval zebrafish. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:612 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that zebrafish larvae possess the ability to build cold-tolerance under mild low temperature and transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations are extensively involved in this acclimation process. ..
  10. Zhao Y, Zhang K, Fent K. Regulation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) locomotor behavior and circadian rhythm network by environmental steroid hormones. Environ Pollut. 2018;232:422-429 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that steroid hormones can modulate the circadian molecular network in zebrafish and provide novel insights into their mode of actions and potential environmental risks. ..
  11. Egg M, Tischler A, Schwerte T, Sandbichler A, Folterbauer C, Pelster B. Endurance exercise modifies the circadian clock in zebrafish (Danio rerio) temperature independently. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012;205:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the day-active zebrafish arises as a useful model to address the synchronizing effect of exercise on the circadian clock. ..
  12. Smadja Storz S, Tovin A, Mracek P, Alon S, Foulkes N, Gothilf Y. Casein kinase 1? activity: a key element in the zebrafish circadian timing system. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54189 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the effect of CK1? inhibition on rhythmic locomotor activity may reflect its effect on the function of the central clock in the pineal gland as well as its regulation of peripheral clocks...
  13. Sousa J, Magalhães Marques K, da Silveira Cruz Machado S, Moraes M, Castrucci A. Dexamethasone Modulates Nonvisual Opsins, Glucocorticoid Receptor, and Clock Genes in Danio rerio ZEM-2S Cells. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:8459385 pubmed publisher
    ..i>opn4m1, opn4m2, gr, per1b, and cry1b presented an oscillatory profile of expression in LD condition...
  14. Ramos B, Moraes M, Poletini M, Lima L, Castrucci A. From blue light to clock genes in zebrafish ZEM-2S cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e106252 pubmed publisher
    ..light at wavelengths consistent with melanopsin maximal absorption, and evaluated the time course expression of per1b, cry1b, per2 and cry1a...
  15. Heussen R, Whitmore D. The Importance of Stochastic Effects for Explaining Entrainment in the Zebrafish Circadian Clock. Comput Math Methods Med. 2015;2015:254979 pubmed publisher
  16. Jerônimo R, Moraes M, de Assis L, Ramos B, Rocha T, Castrucci A. Thermal stress in Danio rerio: a link between temperature, light, thermo-TRP channels, and clock genes. J Therm Biol. 2017;68:128-138 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results open a novel investigative perspective regarding the relationship between temperature and clock genes, placing a new player in the regulation of this phenomenon: the TRPV1 channel. ..
  17. Pagano C, di Martino O, Ruggiero G, Maria Guarino A, Mueller N, Siauciunaite R, et al. The tumor-associated YB-1 protein: new player in the circadian control of cell proliferation. Oncotarget. 2017;8:6193-6205 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, by acting as a direct target of cyclic posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, YB-1 serves as one bridge between the circadian clock and its cell cycle control. ..
  18. Xiao B, Chen T, Zhong Y. Possible molecular mechanism underlying cadmium-induced circadian rhythms disruption in zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;481:201-205 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA levels of clock1a, bmal1b, per2 and per1b in two groups were determined. Microarray data were generated in two group of samples...
  19. Khan Z, Yumnamcha T, Rajiv C, Sanjita Devi H, Mondal G, Devi S, et al. Melatonin biosynthesizing enzyme genes and clock genes in ovary and whole brain of zebrafish (Danio rerio): Differential expression and a possible interplay. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;233:16-31 pubmed publisher
    ..biosynthesizing enzyme genes (Tph1a, Aanat1, Aanat2 and Hiomt) and clock associated genes (Bmal1a, Clock1a, Per1b, Per2 and Cry2a) in the ovary with a comparison to whole brain in normal (LD=12h L:12h D) and altered photic ..
  20. Li Y, Li G, Görling B, Luy B, Du J, Yan J. Integrative analysis of circadian transcriptome and metabolic network reveals the role of de novo purine synthesis in circadian control of cell cycle. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015;11:e1004086 pubmed publisher
    ..Our method is widely applicable to study the impact of circadian transcriptome on metabolism in complex organisms. ..
  21. DeBruyne J, Hurd M, Gutierrez L, Kaneko M, Tan Y, Wells D, et al. Isolation and phenogenetics of a novel circadian rhythm mutant in zebrafish. J Neurogenet. 2004;18:403-28 pubmed
    ..However, all sequence variants found in per1 cDNA from lag(dg2) mutants are also present in wild type lines, and we were unable to detect any defect in per1 mRNA splicing, so this mutation may identify a novel clock gene. ..
  22. Xiao B, Cui L, Ding C, Wang H. Effects of Lithium and 2,4-Dichlorophenol on Zebrafish: Circadian Rhythm Disorder and Molecular Effects. Zebrafish. 2017;14:209-215 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA levels of circadian clock-related genes, including clock1a, bmal1b, per2, and per1b, were determined. Microarray datasets were generated and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified...
  23. Chen A, Chiu C, Mosser E, Kahn S, Spence R, Prober D. QRFP and Its Receptors Regulate Locomotor Activity and Sleep in Zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2016;36:1823-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that QRFP overexpression reduces locomotor activity, whereas animals that lack QRFP signaling are more active and sleep less. These results suggest that QRFP signaling participates in the hypothalamic regulation of sleep. ..
  24. Pelster B, Egg M. Multiplicity of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and their connection to the circadian clock in the zebrafish. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2015;88:146-57 pubmed publisher
  25. Purushothaman S, Saxena S, Meghah V, Meena Lakshmi M, Singh S, Brahmendra Swamy C, et al. Proteomic and gene expression analysis of zebrafish brain undergoing continuous light/dark stress. J Sleep Res. 2015;24:458-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Real time-polymerase chain reaction revealed that many circadian pathway-associated genes, such as per1b, bmal1b, cry1b, bmal2 and nr1d2, were differentially regulated during continuous light/dark exposures...
  26. Huang J, Zhong Z, Wang M, Chen X, Tan Y, Zhang S, et al. Circadian modulation of dopamine levels and dopaminergic neuron development contributes to attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior. J Neurosci. 2015;35:2572-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that the zebrafish mutant for the circadian gene period1b (per1b) displays hyperactive, impulsive-like, and attention deficit-like behaviors and low levels of dopamine, ..
  27. Zucchi S, Castiglioni S, Fent K. Progesterone alters global transcription profiles at environmental concentrations in brain and ovary of female zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:12548-56 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and 306 ng/L, respectively. Genes related to circadian rhythm (nr1d2b, per1b), cell cycle and reproduction (cdc20, ccnb1) were down-regulated...
  28. Egg M, Paulitsch M, Ennemoser Y, Wüstenhagen A, Schwerte T, Sandbichler A, et al. Chronodisruption increases cardiovascular risk in zebrafish via reduced clearance of senescent erythrocytes. Chronobiol Int. 2014;31:680-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results might shed new light on the etiology of the increased cardiovascular risk observed among shiftworkers. ..
  29. Lui E, Li C, Li Z, Gong Z, Lam S. Molecular insights of organochlorine biocide-induced toxicity in zebrafish: Whole-adult-organism toxicogenomics, targeted gene expression and histological analyses. J Genet Genomics. 2016;43:525-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Weger M, Weger B, Diotel N, Rastegar S, Hirota T, Kay S, et al. Real-time in vivo monitoring of circadian E-box enhancer activity: a robust and sensitive zebrafish reporter line for developmental, chemical and neural biology of the circadian clock. Dev Biol. 2013;380:259-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it allows mapping of clock activity in the brain of a vertebrate model organism with prominent adult neurogenesis and high regeneration capacity. ..
  31. Kopp R, Schwerte T, Egg M, Sandbichler A, Egger B, Pelster B. Chronic reduction in cardiac output induces hypoxic signaling in larval zebrafish even at a time when convective oxygen transport is not required. Physiol Genomics. 2010;42A:8-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that a chronic reduction in blood flow generated hypoxic molecular signals despite partial compensation by increased oxygen carrying capacity and transiently slowed the overall development of zebrafish bre larvae. ..
  32. Mracek P, Santoriello C, Idda M, Pagano C, Ben Moshe Z, Gothilf Y, et al. Regulation of per and cry genes reveals a central role for the D-box enhancer in light-dependent gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51278 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the existence of different photoreceptors in fish cells, our results implicate the D-box enhancer as a general convergence point for light driven signaling. ..
  33. Ren D, Ji C, Wang X, Wang H, Hu B. Endogenous melatonin promotes rhythmic recruitment of neutrophils toward an injury in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:4696 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings provide evidence that endogenous melatonin promotes rhythmic migration of neutrophils through cytokines in zebrafish. ..
  34. Amaral I, Johnston I. Circadian expression of clock and putative clock-controlled genes in skeletal muscle of the zebrafish. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;302:R193-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of circadian clocks in regulating muscle maintenance and growth are discussed. ..
  35. Wang M, Zhong Z, Zhong Y, Zhang W, Wang H. The zebrafish period2 protein positively regulates the circadian clock through mediation of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-related orphan receptor α (Rorα). J Biol Chem. 2015;290:4367-82 pubmed publisher
    ..real time PCR analyses showed up-regulation of cry1aa, cry1ba, cry1bb, and aanat2 but down-regulation of per1b, per3, and bmal1b in per2 mutant zebrafish, suggesting that Per2 is essential for the zebrafish circadian clock...
  36. Di Rosa V, Frigato E, López Olmeda J, Sánchez Vázquez F, Bertolucci C. The Light Wavelength Affects the Ontogeny of Clock Gene Expression and Activity Rhythms in Zebrafish Larvae. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0132235 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of light of different wavelengths (white, blue and red) on the onset of locomotor activity and clock gene (per1b, per2, clock1, bmal1 and dbp) expression rhythms...
  37. Lahiri K, Froehlich N, Heyd A, Foulkes N, Vallone D. Developmental stage-specific regulation of the circadian clock by temperature in zebrafish. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:930308 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have established a clock-regulated luciferase reporter transgenic zebrafish line (Tg (-3.1) per1b::luc) to study the effects of temperature on clock entrainment...
  38. Wang Q, Tan X, Jiao S, You F, Zhang P. Analyzing cold tolerance mechanism in transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio). PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e102492 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are clues to understanding the mechanisms underlying temperature acclimation in fish. ..
  39. Zucchi S, Mirbahai L, Castiglioni S, Fent K. Transcriptional and physiological responses induced by binary mixtures of drospirenone and progesterone in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48:3523-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Effects of DRS and P4 were additive for most of the investigated parameters and occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations. They may translate to adverse reproductive effects in fish. ..
  40. Toloza Villalobos J, Arroyo J, Opazo J. The circadian clock of teleost fish: a comparative analysis reveals distinct fates for duplicated genes. J Mol Evol. 2015;80:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..From a functional perspective, the subfunctionalization of two ohnolog genes (PER1a and PER1b) in zebrafish highlights the power of whole-genome duplications to generate biological diversity.
  41. Kopp R, Billecke N, Legradi J, den Broeder M, Parekh S, Legler J. Bringing obesity to light: Rev-erbα, a central player in light-induced adipogenesis in the zebrafish?. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016;40:824-32 pubmed publisher
    ..As the pparβδ promoter includes three Rev-erbα binding sites, we hypothesize that pparβδ may be a direct target that ultimately activates Pparγ. ..
  42. Du L, Darroch H, Keerthisinghe P, Ashimbayeva E, Astin J, Crosier K, et al. The innate immune cell response to bacterial infection in larval zebrafish is light-regulated. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12657 pubmed publisher