Gene Symbol: penkb
Description: proenkephalin b
Alias: penk, proenkephalin-A, PENKa
Species: zebrafish
Products:     penkb

Top Publications

  1. Khalap A, Bagrosky B, Lecaude S, Youson J, Danielson P, Dores R. Trends in the evolution of the proenkephalin and prodynorphin genes in gnathostomes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1040:22-37 pubmed
    ..Current studies on the opioid/orphanin gene family point to the duplication events that shaped this family occurring prior to the radiation of the gnathostomes. ..
  2. Gonzalez Nunez V, Gonzalez Sarmiento R, Rodriguez R. Characterization of zebrafish proenkephalin reveals novel opioid sequences. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;114:31-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings support the concept that PENK genes might have been highly conserved throughout evolution and that its origins might be placed more than 400 ..
  3. Herget U, Ryu S. Coexpression analysis of nine neuropeptides in the neurosecretory preoptic area of larval zebrafish. Front Neuroanat. 2015;9:2 pubmed publisher
    ..neuropeptides found in the mammalian PVN (arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), proenkephalin a (penka)/b (penkb), neurotensin (NTS), oxytocin (OXT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), cholecystokinin (..
  4. Donizetti A, Grossi M, Pariante P, D Aniello E, Izzo G, Minucci S, et al. Two neuron clusters in the stem of postembryonic zebrafish brain specifically express relaxin-3 gene: first evidence of nucleus incertus in fish. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3864-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This pattern indicates both conserved and divergent expression features of the relaxin-3 gene among developing zebrafish and rat brains, where only scattered cells express the gene in the periaqueductal gray. ..
  5. Gonzalez Nunez V, Rodriguez R. The zebrafish: a model to study the endogenous mechanisms of pain. ILAR J. 2009;50:373-86 pubmed
  6. Bojnik E, Boynik E, Corbani M, Babos F, Magyar A, Borsodi A, et al. Phylogenetic diversity and functional efficacy of the C-terminally expressed heptapeptide unit in the opioid precursor polypeptide proenkephalin A. Neuroscience. 2011;178:56-67 pubmed publisher
    ..MERF) with the sequence of YGGFMRF is a potent endogenous opioid located at the C-terminus of proenkephalin-A (PENK), the common polypeptide precursor of Met- and Leu-enkephalin...
  7. Herget U, Wolf A, Wullimann M, Ryu S. Molecular neuroanatomy and chemoarchitecture of the neurosecretory preoptic-hypothalamic area in zebrafish larvae. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:1542-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results identify the definitive borders and extent of the PVN homologous region in larval zebrafish and serve as an important basis for cross-species comparisons of PVN/NPO structure and function. ..
  8. Gonzalez Nunez V, Jimenez González A, Barreto Valer K, Rodriguez R. In vivo regulation of the ? opioid receptor: role of the endogenous opioid agents. Mol Med. 2013;19:7-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Knocking down the dre-oprm1 gene significantly modified the mRNA expression of the penk and pomc genes, thus indicating that oprm1 is involved in shaping penk and pomc expression...
  9. Aoki T, Kinoshita M, Aoki R, Agetsuma M, Aizawa H, Yamazaki M, et al. Imaging of neural ensemble for the retrieval of a learned behavioral program. Neuron. 2013;78:881-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the findings indicate that consolidated memory traces can be rapidly modified during reinforcement learning. ..

More Information


  1. Gutierrez Triana J, Herget U, Lichtner P, Castillo Ramírez L, Ryu S. A vertebrate-conserved cis-regulatory module for targeted expression in the main hypothalamic regulatory region for the stress response. BMC Dev Biol. 2014;14:41 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this enhancer provides a useful tool to manipulate and visualize stress-regulatory hypothalamic cells in vivo with the long-term goal of understanding the ontogeny of the stress axis in vertebrates. ..