Gene Symbol: penka
Description: proenkephalin a
Alias: penkl, zgc:73353, proenkephalin-A, PENKb
Donizetti A, Grossi M, Pariante P, D Aniello E, Izzo G, Minucci S, et al
. Two neuron clusters in the stem of postembryonic zebrafish brain specifically express relaxin-3 gene: first evidence of nucleus incertus in fish. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3864-9 pubmed publisher
..This pattern indicates both conserved and divergent expression features of the relaxin-3 gene among developing zebrafish and rat brains, where only scattered cells express the gene in the periaqueductal gray. ..
Gonzalez Nunez V, Rodriguez R. The zebrafish: a model to study the endogenous mechanisms of pain. ILAR J. 2009;50:373-86 pubmed
Bojnik E, Boynik E, Corbani M, Babos F, Magyar A, Borsodi A, et al
. Phylogenetic diversity and functional efficacy of the C-terminally expressed heptapeptide unit in the opioid precursor polypeptide proenkephalin A. Neuroscience. 2011;178:56-67 pubmed publisher
..Thus, the C-terminally processed PENK heptapeptide orthologs exhibited satisfactory bioactivities, moreover they represent further members of the so-called "natural combinatorial neuropeptide library" emerged by evolution. ..
Gonzalez Nunez V, Jimenez González A, Barreto Valer K, Rodriguez R. In vivo regulation of the ? opioid receptor: role of the endogenous opioid agents. Mol Med. 2013;19:7-17 pubmed publisher
..Further knowledge of the complex interactions between the opioid system and analgesic drugs will provide insights that may be relevant for analgesic therapy. ..
Herget U, Wolf A, Wullimann M, Ryu S. Molecular neuroanatomy and chemoarchitecture of the neurosecretory preoptic-hypothalamic area in zebrafish larvae. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:1542-64 pubmed publisher
..Thus, our results identify the definitive borders and extent of the PVN homologous region in larval zebrafish and serve as an important basis for cross-species comparisons of PVN/NPO structure and function. ..
Gutierrez Triana J, Herget U, Lichtner P, Castillo RamÃrez L, Ryu S. A vertebrate-conserved cis-regulatory module for targeted expression in the main hypothalamic regulatory region for the stress response. BMC Dev Biol. 2014;14:41 pubmed publisher
..In addition, this enhancer provides a useful tool to manipulate and visualize stress-regulatory hypothalamic cells in vivo with the long-term goal of understanding the ontogeny of the stress axis in vertebrates. ..
Bojnik E, Kleczkowska P, Marron Fernandez de Velasco E, Corbani M, Babos F, Lipkowski A, et al
. Bioactivity studies on atypical natural opioid hexapeptides processed from proenkephalin (PENK) precursor polypeptides. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;174:29-35 pubmed publisher
..Such libraries can provide a wide range of structural information establishing comparative functional analyses. Since DNA sequencing data are rapidly increasing, more development in the natural peptide library concept is expected. ..
Larhammar D, Bergqvist C, SundstrÃ¶m G. Ancestral vertebrate complexity of the opioid system. Vitam Horm. 2015;97:95-122 pubmed publisher
..From an evolutionary point of view, nociceptin and its receptor can be considered full-fledged members of the opioid system. ..
Herget U, Ryu S. Coexpression analysis of nine neuropeptides in the neurosecretory preoptic area of larval zebrafish. Front Neuroanat. 2015;9:2 pubmed publisher
..neuropeptides found in the mammalian PVN (arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), proenkephalin a (penka)/b (penkb), neurotensin (NTS), oxytocin (OXT), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), cholecystokinin (..