Gene Symbol: nr3c2
Description: nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2
Alias: si:ch211-189l17.1, mineralocorticoid receptor
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Pippal J, Cheung C, Yao Y, Brennan F, Fuller P. Characterization of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) mineralocorticoid receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;332:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Conservation of the N/C-interaction between evolutionarily distant MR provides evidence of functional significance. ..
  2. Lin C, Tsai I, Su C, Tseng D, Hwang P. Reverse effect of mammalian hypocalcemic cortisol in fish: cortisol stimulates Ca2+ uptake via glucocorticoid receptor-mediated vitamin D3 metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23689 pubmed publisher
    ..but downregulated 11?-hydroxylase and the gr with no effects on other Ca(2+) transporters or the mineralocorticoid receptor (mr)...
  3. Alsop D, Vijayan M. Development of the corticosteroid stress axis and receptor expression in zebrafish. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;294:R711-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast to other teleosts that possess two glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and one mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), only one GR and MR were identified in zebrafish, which were cloned and sequenced...
  4. Geronikolou S, Pavlopoulou A, Kanaka Gantenbein C, Chrousos G. Inter-species functional interactome of nuclear steroid receptors (R1). Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2018;10:208-228 pubmed
  5. Sharif F, Steenbergen P, Metz J, Champagne D. Long-lasting effects of dexamethasone on immune cells and wound healing in the zebrafish. Wound Repair Regen. 2015;23:855-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the current findings support the use of the larval zebrafish model to study the impact of stress and stress hormone exposure in immature organisms on health risks in later life. ..
  6. Rossier N, Chew G, Zhang K, Riva F, Fent K. Activity of binary mixtures of drospirenone with progesterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol in vitro and in vivo. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;174:109-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The receptor-based responses did not correspond well to the transcriptional responses in embryos which are much more complex due to the interplay between hormonal pathways, receptor crosstalk, and hormonal feedback loops. ..
  7. van den Bos R, Mes W, Galligani P, Heil A, Zethof J, Flik G, et al. Further characterisation of differences between TL and AB zebrafish (Danio rerio): Gene expression, physiology and behaviour at day 5 of the larval stage. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175420 pubmed publisher
    ..These results emphasise that differences between strains need to be taken into account to enhance reproducibility both within, and between, laboratories. ..
  8. Nesan D, Vijayan M. Maternal Cortisol Mediates Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis Development in Zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22582 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings for the first time underscore a critical role for maternally deposited cortisol in programming HPI axis development and function in zebrafish. ..
  9. Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Du J, Zhao M. Environmentally relevant levels of ?-cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin cause developmental toxicity and disrupt endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. Chemosphere. 2017;185:1173-1180 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that these 3 SPs may cause developmental toxicity to zebrafish larvae by disrupting endocrine signaling at environmentally relevant concentrations. ..

More Information


  1. Theodoridi A, Tsalafouta A, Pavlidis M. Acute Exposure to Fluoxetine Alters Aggressive Behavior of Zebrafish and Expression of Genes Involved in Serotonergic System Regulation. Front Neurosci. 2017;11:223 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, an acute administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor alters aggressive behavior in male zebrafish in association with changes in the neuroendocrine mediators of coping styles. ..
  2. Cruz S, Lin C, Chao P, Hwang P. Glucocorticoid receptor, but not mineralocorticoid receptor, mediates cortisol regulation of epidermal ionocyte development and ion transport in zebrafish (danio rerio). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77997 pubmed publisher
    ..function as mineralocorticoid (MC); but whether it acts through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) remains a subject of debate...
  3. Manuel R, Gorissen M, Zethof J, Ebbesson L, van de Vis H, Flik G, et al. Unpredictable chronic stress decreases inhibitory avoidance learning in Tuebingen long-fin zebrafish: stronger effects in the resting phase than in the active phase. J Exp Biol. 2014;217:3919-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data warrant further studies on the effect of UCS on stress axis-related genes, especially grβ; in mammals this receptor has been implicated in glucocorticoid resistance and depression. ..
  4. Jeffrey J, Gilmour K. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis by maternal social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Exp Biol. 2016;219:1734-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest programming of stress axis function in zebrafish offspring by maternal social status, emphasizing the importance of maternal environment and experience on offspring stress axis activity...
  5. Pikulkaew S, De Nadai A, Belvedere P, Colombo L, Dalla Valle L. Expression analysis of steroid hormone receptor mRNAs during zebrafish embryogenesis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;165:215-20 pubmed publisher
  6. Manuel R, Zethof J, Flik G, van den Bos R. Providing a food reward reduces inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish. Behav Processes. 2015;120:69-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that providing rewards at fixed intervals alters fear avoidance behaviour, albeit modestly, in zebrafish. We discuss the data in the context of similar underlying brain structures in mammals and fish. ..
  7. Manuel R, Gorissen M, Roca C, Zethof J, van de Vis H, Flik G, et al. Inhibitory avoidance learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio): effects of shock intensity and unraveling differences in task performance. Zebrafish. 2014;11:341-52 pubmed publisher
    ..glucocorticoid receptor alpha [nr3c1(alpha)], cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart4), and mineralocorticoid receptor (nr3c2), while avoidance behavior was associated with whole-body cortisol content only...
  8. Siegenthaler P, Bain P, Riva F, Fent K. Effects of antiandrogenic progestins, chlormadinone and cyproterone acetate, and the estrogen 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and their mixtures: Transactivation with human and rainbowfish hormone receptors and transcriptional effects in zebrafish (Danio. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;182:142-162 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of agonistic activities of both progestins to rainbowfish PGR and AR is the probable reason for the low activity found in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos. ..
  9. Manuel R, Gorissen M, Stokkermans M, Zethof J, Ebbesson L, van de Vis H, et al. The effects of environmental enrichment and age-related differences on inhibitory avoidance in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton). Zebrafish. 2015;12:152-65 pubmed publisher
    ..4 (cart4), and cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) were lower in enriched-housed fish, while the ratios of mineralocorticoid receptor (nr3c2)/glucocorticoid receptor α [nr3c1(α)] and glucocorticoid receptor β [nr3c1(β)]/..
  10. Tokarz J, Norton W, Moller G, Hrabe de Angelis M, Adamski J. Zebrafish 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 is important for glucocorticoid catabolism in stress response. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54851 pubmed publisher
    ..that 20?-hydroxycortisone was not a physiological ligand for the zebrafish glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptor but was excreted into the fish holding water...
  11. Pavlidis M, Sundvik M, Chen Y, Panula P. Adaptive changes in zebrafish brain in dominant-subordinate behavioral context. Behav Brain Res. 2011;225:529-37 pubmed publisher
    ..axis (corticotropin releasing factor, CRF; glucocorticoid receptor, GR; mineralocorticoid receptor, MR); arginine vasotocin, AVT), in the biosynthesis and catabolism of catecholamines (tyrosine ..
  12. van den Bos R, Zethof J, Flik G, Gorissen M. Light regimes differentially affect baseline transcript abundance of stress-axis and (neuro)development-related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton 1822) AB and TL larvae. Biol Open. 2017;6:1692-1697 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter finding adds to the growing database of phenotypical differences between zebrafish of the AB and TL strain...
  13. Lin C, Hu H, Hwang P. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;422:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake. ..
  14. Pavlidis M, Theodoridi A, Tsalafouta A. Neuroendocrine regulation of the stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2015;60:121-31 pubmed publisher
  15. Lin C, Shih T, Liu S, Hsu H, Hwang P. Cortisol Regulates Acid Secretion of H(+)-ATPase-rich Ionocytes in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos. Front Physiol. 2015;6:328 pubmed publisher
    ..and decreased acid secretion function at both the organism and cellular levels; on the other hand, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) MO did not induce any effects...
  16. Gorissen M, Manuel R, Pelgrim T, Mes W, de Wolf M, Zethof J, et al. Differences in inhibitory avoidance, cortisol and brain gene expression in TL and AB zebrafish. Genes Brain Behav. 2015;14:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that AB fish show higher cortisol levels and no inhibitory avoidance than TL fish. The differential learning responses of these Danio strains may unmask genetically defined risks for stress-related disorders. ..
  17. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S, et al. The effects of progesterone on transcriptional expression profiles of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes during the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2015;128:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall results from the present study indicate that P4 at environmentally relevant concentrations could cause the potential effects on zebrafish reproductive and adrenal endocrine systems by interfering with the HPG and HPA axes. ..
  18. Alderman S, Vijayan M. 11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in zebrafish brain: a functional role in hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis regulation. J Endocrinol. 2012;215:393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..whole-body cortisol levels and preoptic area mRNA abundance of corticotropin-releasing factor and mineralocorticoid receptor. Taken together, our results underscore an important role for brain Hsd11b2 involvement in the negative ..
  19. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S, et al. A time-course transcriptional kinetics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes in zebrafish eleutheroembryos after exposure to norgestrel. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015;34:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the overall results imply that the transcriptional changes in zebrafish eleutheroembryos may pose a potential effect on embryonic development, in particular in the brain and gonadogenesis. ..
  20. Lee H, Schwab T, Koleilat A, Ata H, Daby C, Cervera R, et al. Allele-Specific Quantitative PCR for Accurate, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Genotyping. Hum Gene Ther. 2016;27:425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..ASQ is time-saving because a single qPCR without post-PCR handling suffices to score genotypes. ASQ is cost-effective because universal fluorescent probes negate the necessity of designing expensive probes for each locus. ..
  21. Wilson K, Tucker C, Al Dujaili E, Holmes M, Hadoke P, Kenyon C, et al. Early-life glucocorticoids programme behaviour and metabolism in adulthood in zebrafish. J Endocrinol. 2016;230:125-42 pubmed publisher
  22. Oka K, Kohno S, Urushitani H, Guillette L, Ohta Y, Iguchi T, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of the corticoid receptors from the American alligator. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;365:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..mississippiensis), following the isolation of cDNAs encoding a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)...
  23. Brown A, Gunnarsson L, Kristiansson E, Tyler C. Assessing variation in the potential susceptibility of fish to pharmaceuticals, considering evolutionary differences in their physiology and ecology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014;369: pubmed publisher
    ..This justifies the conventional use of at least a 10× assessment factor in pharmaceutical risk assessment, to account for differences in species susceptibility. ..
  24. Terrien X, Fini J, Demeneix B, Schramm K, Prunet P. Generation of fluorescent zebrafish to study endocrine disruption and potential crosstalk between thyroid hormone and corticosteroids. Aquat Toxicol. 2011;105:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a new rapid diagnostic tool for characterizing the disrupting effects of toxicants on thyroid function and suggests possible crosstalk between the TR and Corticoid Signaling system. ..
  25. Cortés R, Teles M, Oliveira M, Fierro Castro C, Tort L, Cerdá Reverter J. Effects of acute handling stress on short-term central expression of orexigenic/anorexigenic genes in zebrafish. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2018;44:257-272 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the anorexigenic precursors tested, i.e., cart peptides and pomc, exhibited increased expression after acute stress, suggesting their involvement in the anorexigenic effects. ..
  26. Dhanasiri A, Fernandes J, Kiron V. Acclimation of zebrafish to transport stress. Zebrafish. 2013;10:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..HPI) axis (crf in brain, mc2r, star, cyp11c1, and hsd11b2 in kidney), including that of mineralocorticoid receptor (mr in kidney), were studied...
  27. Zucchi S, Castiglioni S, Fent K. Progestins and antiprogestins affect gene expression in early development in zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmental concentrations. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:5183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..NET and LNG modulated some transcripts mainly above 2 ng/L. The expressional chances occurring at environmental levels may translate to negative interference with differentiation of brain and gonads, and consequently reproduction. ..