Gene Symbol: myhz2
Description: myosin, heavy polypeptide 2, fast muscle specific
Alias: sb:cb38, myosin, heavy polypeptide 2, fast muscle specific, fmyhc2.1, myo2hc2
Species: zebrafish
Products:     myhz2

Top Publications

  1. Tee J, van Rooijen C, Boonen R, Zivkovic D. Regulation of slow and fast muscle myofibrillogenesis by Wnt/beta-catenin and myostatin signaling. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5880 pubmed publisher
    ..Epistatic analyses suggest a possible genetic interaction between Wnt/beta-catenin and Myostatin in regulation of slow and fast twitch muscle myofibrillogenesis...
  2. Bryson Richardson R, Daggett D, Cortes F, Neyt C, Keenan D, Currie P. Myosin heavy chain expression in zebrafish and slow muscle composition. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1018-22 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that zebrafish embryonic slow twitch muscle co-expresses both slow and fast twitch MyHC isoforms, a property that they share with primary fibers of the amniote myotome...
  3. Peng M, Wen H, Shih L, Kuo C, Hwang S. Myosin heavy chain expression in cranial, pectoral fin, and tail muscle regions of zebrafish embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 2002;63:422-9 pubmed
    ..we identified and characterized mRNA expression patterns of an embryonic- and tail muscle-specific MHC gene (named myhz2) during zebrafish development in wild type, spt, and ntl mutant embryos...
  4. McClelland G, Craig P, Dhekney K, Dipardo S. Temperature- and exercise-induced gene expression and metabolic enzyme changes in skeletal muscle of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Physiol. 2006;577:739-51 pubmed
    ..e. CS and PPAR-beta1 mRNA) that contribute to specific temperature- and exercise-induced phenotypes. ..
  5. Ikeda D, Ono Y, Snell P, Edwards Y, Elgar G, Watabe S. Divergent evolution of the myosin heavy chain gene family in fish and tetrapods: evidence from comparative genomic analysis. Physiol Genomics. 2007;32:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis suggests that fast skeletal MYHs evolved independently in teleosts and tetrapods after fast skeletal MYHs had diverged from four ancestral MYHs...
  6. Du S, Li H, Bian Y, Zhong Y. Heat-shock protein 90alpha1 is required for organized myofibril assembly in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:554-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Hsp90alpha1 plays an important role in muscle development, likely through facilitating myosin folding and assembly into organized myofibril filaments...
  7. Groves J, Hammond C, Hughes S. Fgf8 drives myogenic progression of a novel lateral fast muscle fibre population in zebrafish. Development. 2005;132:4211-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Fgf8 drives terminal differentiation of a specific population of lateral muscle precursor cells within the early somite...
  8. van der Meulen T, Schipper H, van den Boogaart J, Huising M, Kranenbarg S, Van Leeuwen J. Endurance exercise differentially stimulates heart and axial muscle development in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R1040-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the heart muscle shifts to a faster phenotype but does not become more aerobic. This suggests that endurance training differentially affects heart and axial muscle. ..
  9. Henke K, Daane J, Hawkins M, Dooley C, Busch Nentwich E, Stemple D, et al. Genetic Screen for Postembryonic Development in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Dominant Mutations Affecting Adult Form. Genetics. 2017;207:609-623 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that dominant screens are a feasible and productive means to identify mutations that can further our understanding of gene function during postembryonic development and in disease. ..

More Information


  1. Qiu J, Fan X, Wang Y, Jin H, Song Y, Han Y, et al. Embryonic hematopoiesis in vertebrate somites gives rise to definitive hematopoietic stem cells. J Mol Cell Biol. 2016;8:288-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the embryonic origin of dHSCs in adults is not restricted to the AGM. ..
  2. Asaduzzaman M, Shakur Ahammad A, Asakawa S, Kinoshita S, Watabe S. 5'-flanking sequences of zebrafish fast myosin heavy chain genes regulate unique expression in the anterior, medial subsection and posterior tail somites of the skeletal muscle. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;191:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..1, myhz1.2 and myhz1.3) and myhz2 during their development by using transient gene and stable transgenic techniques...
  3. Gündel U, Kalkhof S, Zitzkat D, von Bergen M, Altenburger R, Küster E. Concentration-response concept in ecotoxicoproteomics: effects of different phenanthrene concentrations to the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo proteome. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012;76:11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this experimental design based on testing of several exposure concentrations and less replicates might provide a step forward in getting increased output from toxicoproteomics studies. ..
  4. Sittaramane V, Chandrasekhar A. Expression of unconventional myosin genes during neuronal development in zebrafish. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:161-70 pubmed
    ..Specific myosins are expressed in particular neuronal or neuroepithelial cell types in the developing zebrafish nervous system, spanning the periods of neuronal differentiation and migration, and of growth cone guidance and motility. ..
  5. Li H, Randall W, Du S. skNAC (skeletal Naca), a muscle-specific isoform of Naca (nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha), is required for myofibril organization. FASEB J. 2009;23:1988-2000 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis revealed that myosin protein levels were significantly reduced. Collectively, these results demonstrate that skNAC plays a vital role in myofibril assembly and function during muscle cell differentiation. ..
  6. Cambier S, Gonzalez P, Durrieu G, Maury Brachet R, Boudou A, Bourdineaud J. Serial analysis of gene expression in the skeletal muscles of zebrafish fed with a methylmercury-contaminated diet. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this is the first time that the SAGE was used to characterize the effect of a toxicant at the genome scale in an aquatic organism. ..
  7. Deniziak M, Thisse C, Rederstorff M, Hindelang C, Thisse B, Lescure A. Loss of selenoprotein N function causes disruption of muscle architecture in the zebrafish embryo. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:156-67 pubmed
    ..Moreover, alteration of myofibrils architecture and tendon-like structure in embryo deficient for SelN function provide new insights into the pathological mechanism of SelN-related myopathy. ..
  8. Chen K, Cole R, Rees B. Hypoxia-induced changes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal muscle proteome. J Proteomics. 2013;78:477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteomic changes may contribute to the acclimation of zebrafish to hypoxia, thereby increasing their tolerance of low oxygen concentrations. ..
  9. Cortelazzo A, Pietri T, De Felice C, Leoncini S, Guerranti R, Signorini C, et al. Proteomic analysis of the Rett syndrome experimental model mecp2Q63X mutant zebrafish. J Proteomics. 2017;154:128-133 pubmed publisher
    ..This non-mammalian vertebrate model of RTT strongly suggests a broad impact of Mecp2 dysfunction. ..
  10. Nord H, Burguiere A, Muck J, Nord C, Ahlgren U, Von Hofsten J. Differential regulation of myosin heavy chains defines new muscle domains in zebrafish. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..2. In summary, we identify new muscle domains along the anteroposterior axis in the zebrafish that are defined by individual nonoverlapping, differentially regulated expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms. ..
  11. Li Y, Chen H, Li Y, Wu S, Wangta Liu -, Lin G, et al. Progranulin regulates zebrafish muscle growth and regeneration through maintaining the pool of myogenic progenitor cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1176 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrate a critical role for PGRN in the maintenance of MPC and suggest that muscle atrophy under PGRN loss may begin with MPC during postembryonic myogenesis. ..
  12. Lu C, Wu J, Xiong S, Zhang X, Zhang J, Mei J. MicroRNA-203a regulates fast muscle differentiation by targeting dmrt2a in zebrafish embryos. Gene. 2017;625:49-54 pubmed publisher
  13. Bohnsack B, Gallina D, Thompson H, Kasprick D, Lucarelli M, Dootz G, et al. Development of extraocular muscles requires early signals from periocular neural crest and the developing eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:1030-41 pubmed publisher
  14. Holterhoff C, Saunders R, Brito E, Wagner D. Sequence and expression of the zebrafish alpha-actinin gene family reveals conservation and diversification among vertebrates. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2936-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Duplication of actn3 in the zebrafish indicates that variation in actn3 expression may promote physiological diversity in muscle function among vertebrates. ..
  15. van der Meulen T, Schipper H, Van Leeuwen J, Kranenbarg S. Effects of decreased muscle activity on developing axial musculature in nicb107 mutant zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Exp Biol. 2005;208:3675-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, skin stiffness is affected. In conclusion, the lack of muscle fibre activity did not prevent the basal muscle components developing but influenced further organisation and differentiation of these components. ..
  16. Bohnsack B, Kahana A. Thyroid hormone and retinoic acid interact to regulate zebrafish craniofacial neural crest development. Dev Biol. 2013;373:300-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TH regulates both rostral and caudal cranial neural crest. Further, coordinated interactions of TH and RA are required for proper craniofacial and ocular development...
  17. Palstra A, Tudorache C, Rovira M, Brittijn S, Burgerhout E, van den Thillart G, et al. Establishing zebrafish as a novel exercise model: swimming economy, swimming-enhanced growth and muscle growth marker gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14483 pubmed publisher
    ..igf1ra), troponin C (stnnc), slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1), troponin I2 (tnni2), myosin heavy polypeptide 2 (myhz2) and myostatin (mstnb)...
  18. Little A, Seebacher F. Thyroid hormone regulates muscle function during cold acclimation in zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Exp Biol. 2013;216:3514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the role of TH in modulating SERCA1 expression during cold exposure may have predisposed it to regulate endothermic thermogenesis. ..
  19. Li H, Zhong Y, Wang Z, Gao J, Xu J, Chu W, et al. Smyd1b is required for skeletal and cardiac muscle function in zebrafish. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data support the idea that Smyd1b may work together with myosin chaperones to control myosin folding, degradation, and assembly into sarcomeres during myofibrillogenesis...
  20. Doğanlı C, Beck H, Ribera A, Oxvig C, Lykke Hartmann K. ?3Na+/K+-ATPase deficiency causes brain ventricle dilation and abrupt embryonic motility in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8862-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus strongly support the role of ?3Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in zebrafish motility and brain development, associating for the first time the ?3Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase deficiency with brain ventricle dilation. ..
  21. Devakanmalai G, Zumrut H, Ozbudak E. Cited3 activates Mef2c to control muscle cell differentiation and survival. Biol Open. 2013;2:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that Cited3 is a critical transcriptional coactivator functioning during muscle differentiation and its absence leads to defects in terminal differentiation and survival of muscle cells. ..
  22. Ochi H, Westerfield M. Lbx2 regulates formation of myofibrils. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of myofilament genes, including actin and myosin, requires the engrailed repressor domain of Lbx2. Our results elucidate a new function of Lbx2 as a regulator of myofibril formation. ..
  23. Nesan D, Kamkar M, Burrows J, Scott I, Marsden M, Vijayan M. Glucocorticoid receptor signaling is essential for mesoderm formation and muscle development in zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1288-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results for the first time indicate that GR signaling is essential for zebrafish muscle development, and we hypothesize a role for BMP morphogens in this process. ..
  24. Gao J, Li J, Li B, Yagil E, Zhang J, Du S. Expression and functional characterization of Smyd1a in myofibril organization of skeletal muscles. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86808 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that Smyd1a and Smyd1b share similar biological activity in myofibril assembly in zebrafish embryos. However, Smyd1b appears to play a major role in this process. ..
  25. Burghardt T, Ajtai K, Sun X, Takubo N, Wang Y. In vivo myosin step-size from zebrafish skeletal muscle. Open Biol. 2016;6: pubmed publisher
    ..About 17% of the active myosin steps that fall between 2 and 7 nm are implicated as powerstrokes because they are beyond displacements detected from either relaxed or ATP-depleted (rigor) muscle. ..
  26. Ikeda D, Ono Y, Hirano S, Kan no N, Watabe S. Lampreys have a single gene cluster for the fast skeletal myosin heavy chain gene family. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e85500 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the muscle-specific regulatory mechanisms are partially conserved between teleosts and tetrapods but not between cyclostomes and tetrapods, despite the conserved synteny. ..
  27. Doğanlı C, Kjaer Sorensen K, Knoeckel C, Beck H, Nyengaard J, Honoré B, et al. The ?2Na+/K+-ATPase is critical for skeletal and heart muscle function in zebrafish. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:6166-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings show that zebrafish ?2Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is important for skeletal and heart muscle functions. ..