Gene Symbol: myh7
Description: myosin heavy chain 7
Alias: mg:cb02g011, smyhc3, vmhc, myosin heavy chain 7, ventricular myosin heavy chain
Species: zebrafish
Products:     myh7

Top Publications

  1. Peterkin T, Gibson A, Patient R. GATA-6 maintains BMP-4 and Nkx2 expression during cardiomyocyte precursor maturation. EMBO J. 2003;22:4260-73 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that proper maturation of cardiac mesoderm requires GATA-6, which functions to maintain BMP-4 and Nkx2 expression. ..
  2. Lazic S, Scott I. Mef2cb regulates late myocardial cell addition from a second heart field-like population of progenitors in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2011;354:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The late ventricular region has cardiogenic properties, expressing myocardial markers such as vmhc and nkx2.5, but does not express a full complement of differentiated cardiomyocyte markers, lacking myl7 expression...
  3. Chi N, Shaw R, Jungblut B, Huisken J, Ferrer T, Arnaout R, et al. Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e109 pubmed publisher
  4. Waxman J, Keegan B, Roberts R, Poss K, Yelon D. Hoxb5b acts downstream of retinoic acid signaling in the forelimb field to restrict heart field potential in zebrafish. Dev Cell. 2008;15:923-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results offer new perspectives on the mechanisms regulating organ size and the possible causes of congenital syndromes affecting both the heart and forelimb. ..
  5. Qu X, Jia H, Garrity D, Tompkins K, Batts L, Appel B, et al. Ndrg4 is required for normal myocyte proliferation during early cardiac development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2008;317:486-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our studies reveal an essential role of ndrg4 in regulating proliferation and growth of cardiomyocytes, suggesting that ndrg4 may function downstream of tbx5 during heart development and growth. ..
  6. Zhang R, Xu X. Transient and transgenic analysis of the zebrafish ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) promoter: an inhibitory mechanism of ventricle-specific gene expression. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1564-73 pubmed publisher
    The zebrafish ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) gene exhibits restricted expression in the ventricle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this chamber-specific expression is unclear...
  7. Bagatto B, Francl J, Liu B, Liu Q. Cadherin2 (N-cadherin) plays an essential role in zebrafish cardiovascular development. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:23 pubmed
    ..pericardial cavity, disorganized atrium and ventricle, and reduced expression of a ventricular specific marker vmhc. Individual myocardiocytes in the glo mutant embryos became round shaped and loosely aggregated...
  8. Marques S, Lee Y, Poss K, Yelon D. Reiterative roles for FGF signaling in the establishment of size and proportion of the zebrafish heart. Dev Biol. 2008;321:397-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate that a single signaling pathway can act reiteratively to coordinate organ size and proportion. ..
  9. Mitchell I, Brown T, Terada L, Amatruda J, Nwariaku F. Effect of vascular cadherin knockdown on zebrafish vasculature during development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8807 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a significant role for VE-cadherin in cardiac development independent of its effects on the formation of the peripheral vasculature. ..

More Information


  1. Lagendijk A, Goumans M, Burkhard S, Bakkers J. MicroRNA-23 restricts cardiac valve formation by inhibiting Has2 and extracellular hyaluronic acid production. Circ Res. 2011;109:649-57 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-23 in the embryonic heart is required to restrict endocardial cushion formation by inhibiting Has2 expression and extracellular hyaluronic acid production. ..
  2. Keegan B, Meyer D, Yelon D. Organization of cardiac chamber progenitors in the zebrafish blastula. Development. 2004;131:3081-91 pubmed
    ..Indeed, via fate mapping, we demonstrate that Nodal signaling promotes ventricular fate specification near the margin, thereby playing an important early role during myocardial patterning...
  3. Kikuchi K, Holdway J, Major R, Blum N, Dahn R, Begemann G, et al. Retinoic acid production by endocardium and epicardium is an injury response essential for zebrafish heart regeneration. Dev Cell. 2011;20:397-404 pubmed publisher
  4. Yelon D, Horne S, Stainier D. Restricted expression of cardiac myosin genes reveals regulated aspects of heart tube assembly in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 1999;214:23-37 pubmed
    ..expression patterns of two zebrafish cardiac myosin genes, cardiac myosin light chain 2 (cmlc2) and ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc), allow us to distinguish two populations of myocardial precursors at an early stage, well ..
  5. Garrity D, Childs S, Fishman M. The heartstrings mutation in zebrafish causes heart/fin Tbx5 deficiency syndrome. Development. 2002;129:4635-45 pubmed
    ..However, the syndromic deficiencies of tbx5 mutation are remarkably well retained between fish and mammals. ..
  6. Thomas N, Koudijs M, van Eeden F, Joyner A, Yelon D. Hedgehog signaling plays a cell-autonomous role in maximizing cardiac developmental potential. Development. 2008;135:3789-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Hh signaling plays an essential early role in defining the optimal number of cardiomyocytes, making it an attractive target for manipulation of multipotent progenitor cells. ..
  7. Hinits Y, Pan L, Walker C, Dowd J, Moens C, Hughes S. Zebrafish Mef2ca and Mef2cb are essential for both first and second heart field cardiomyocyte differentiation. Dev Biol. 2012;369:199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Mef2cb single mutants have a functional heart and are viable adults. Our results show that the key role of Mef2c in myocardial differentiation is conserved throughout the vertebrate heart. ..
  8. Tu C, Yang T, Tsai H. Nkx2.7 and Nkx2.5 function redundantly and are required for cardiac morphogenesis of zebrafish embryos. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4249 pubmed publisher
    ..7 plays a more critical function, specifically indicated by the gain-of-function and loss-of- function experiments where Nkx2.7 is observed to regulate the expressions of tbx5 and tbx20 through the maturation stage. ..
  9. Feijóo C, Saldias M, De la Paz J, Gomez Skarmeta J, Allende M. Formation of posterior cranial placode derivatives requires the Iroquois transcription factor irx4a. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;40:328-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to irx4a as a critical gene for numerous developmental processes and highlight its role in the formation of placodal derivatives in vertebrates. ..
  10. Camarata T, Krcmery J, Snyder D, Park S, Topczewski J, Simon H. Pdlim7 (LMP4) regulation of Tbx5 specifies zebrafish heart atrio-ventricular boundary and valve formation. Dev Biol. 2010;337:233-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that controlling the correct balance of Tbx5 activity is crucial for the specification of the AV boundary and valve formation. ..
  11. Yelon D, Ticho B, Halpern M, Ruvinsky I, Ho R, Silver L, et al. The bHLH transcription factor hand2 plays parallel roles in zebrafish heart and pectoral fin development. Development. 2000;127:2573-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, these studies reveal early functions for Hand2 in several cellular processes and highlight a genetic parallel between heart and forelimb development. ..
  12. Rottbauer W, Wessels G, Dahme T, Just S, Trano N, Hassel D, et al. Cardiac myosin light chain-2: a novel essential component of thick-myofilament assembly and contractility of the heart. Circ Res. 2006;99:323-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings provide the first in vivo evidence that cardiac MLC-2 is required for thick-filament stabilization and contractility in the vertebrate heart. ..
  13. Mably J, Mohideen M, Burns C, Chen J, Fishman M. heart of glass regulates the concentric growth of the heart in zebrafish. Curr Biol. 2003;13:2138-47 pubmed
    ..Growth of the heart requires addition of myocardial cells along the endocardial-to-myocardial axis. This axis of patterning is driven by heg, a novel transmembrane protein expressed in the endocardium. ..
  14. Auman H, Coleman H, Riley H, Olale F, Tsai H, Yelon D. Functional modulation of cardiac form through regionally confined cell shape changes. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e53 pubmed
    ..Together, these data establish regionally confined cell shape change as a cellular mechanism for chamber emergence and as a link in the relationship between form and function during organ morphogenesis. ..
  15. Shu X, Cheng K, Patel N, Chen F, Joseph E, Tsai H, et al. Na,K-ATPase is essential for embryonic heart development in the zebrafish. Development. 2003;130:6165-73 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, instead of interfering with primitive heart tube formation or cardiac chamber differentiation, blocking the translation of Na,K-ATPase alpha2 isoform leads to cardiac laterality defects. ..
  16. Chi N, Shaw R, De Val S, Kang G, Jan L, Black B, et al. Foxn4 directly regulates tbx2b expression and atrioventricular canal formation. Genes Dev. 2008;22:734-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sli/foxn4 is expressed in the AV canal, and its encoded product binds to a highly conserved tbx2 enhancer domain that contains Foxn4- and T-box-binding sites, both necessary to regulate tbx2b expression in the AV canal. ..
  17. Waxman J, Yelon D. Increased Hox activity mimics the teratogenic effects of excess retinoic acid signaling. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Hox activity mediates the differential effects of ectopic RA on atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes and may underlie the teratogenic effects of RA on the heart. ..
  18. TARGOFF K, Schell T, Yelon D. Nkx genes regulate heart tube extension and exert differential effects on ventricular and atrial cell number. Dev Biol. 2008;322:314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that morphogenetic errors could originate during early stages of heart tube assembly in patients with NKX2-5 mutations. ..
  19. Kawahara A, Nishi T, Hisano Y, Fukui H, Yamaguchi A, Mochizuki N. The sphingolipid transporter spns2 functions in migration of zebrafish myocardial precursors. Science. 2009;323:524-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Spns2 in the YSL functions as a S1P transporter in S1P secretion, thereby regulating myocardial precursor migration. ..
  20. Langenbacher A, Dong Y, Shu X, Choi J, Nicoll D, Goldhaber J, et al. Mutation in sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1) causes cardiac fibrillation in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17699-704 pubmed
    ..These data signify the essential role of calcium homeostasis and NCX1h in establishing rhythmic contraction in the embryonic zebrafish heart. ..
  21. Milan D, Giokas A, Serluca F, Peterson R, Macrae C. Notch1b and neuregulin are required for specification of central cardiac conduction tissue. Development. 2006;133:1125-32 pubmed
  22. Huang H, Zhang B, Hartenstein P, Chen J, Lin S. NXT2 is required for embryonic heart development in zebrafish. BMC Dev Biol. 2005;5:7 pubmed
    ..The defects could be reproduced by morpholino anti-sense oligo knockdown of NXT2. NXT2 has a critical role in maintaining morphogenetic integrity of embryonic heart in vertebrate species. ..
  23. Sultana N, Nag K, Hoshijima K, Laird D, Kawakami A, Hirose S. Zebrafish early cardiac connexin, Cx36.7/Ecx, regulates myofibril orientation and heart morphogenesis by establishing Nkx2.5 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4763-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5 expression, which in turn promotes unidirectional, parallel alignment of myofibrils and the subsequent proper heart morphogenesis. ..
  24. Lu J, Lu J, Choo S, Li Y, Yeh H, Shiue J, et al. Cascade effect of cardiac myogenesis gene expression during cardiac looping in tbx5 knockdown zebrafish embryos. J Biomed Sci. 2008;15:779-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of cardiac myogenesis genes amhc, vmhc and cmlc2 were expressed constantly at the early embryonic development and reached its highest rate right before ..
  25. Berdougo E, Coleman H, Lee D, Stainier D, Yelon D. Mutation of weak atrium/atrial myosin heavy chain disrupts atrial function and influences ventricular morphogenesis in zebrafish. Development. 2003;130:6121-9 pubmed
    ..These findings are relevant to our understanding of congenital defects in cardiac chamber morphogenesis. ..
  26. Ebert A, Hume G, Warren K, Cook N, Burns C, Mohideen M, et al. Calcium extrusion is critical for cardiac morphogenesis and rhythm in embryonic zebrafish hearts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17705-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, the inhibition of NCX1h versus SERCA2 activity differentially affects the pathophysiology of rhythm in the developing heart and suggests that relative levels of NCX1 and SERCA2 function are essential for normal development. ..
  27. Chocron S, Verhoeven M, Rentzsch F, Hammerschmidt M, Bakkers J. Zebrafish Bmp4 regulates left-right asymmetry at two distinct developmental time points. Dev Biol. 2007;305:577-88 pubmed
    ..The identification of these two distinct and opposing activities of BMP signaling provides new insight into how BMP signaling can regulate LR patterning. ..
  28. Garavito Aguilar Z, Riley H, Yelon D. Hand2 ensures an appropriate environment for cardiac fusion by limiting Fibronectin function. Development. 2010;137:3215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data provide a novel example of a tissue creating a favorable environment for its morphogenesis: the Hand2 pathway establishes an appropriate environment for cardiac fusion through negative modulation of Fn1 levels. ..
  29. Kao R, Rurik J, Farr G, Dong X, Majesky M, Maves L. Pbx4 is Required for the Temporal Onset of Zebrafish Myocardial Differentiation. J Dev Biol. 2015;3:93-111 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data show that Pbx4 is required for the proper temporal activation of myocardial differentiation and establish a basis for studying additional roles of Pbx factors in heart development. ..
  30. Wang X, Chong M, Wang X, Wang H, Zhang J, Xu H, et al. Block the function of nonmuscle myosin II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2015;51:211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both ..
  31. Lu G, Ren S, Korge P, Choi J, Dong Y, Weiss J, et al. A novel mitochondrial matrix serine/threonine protein phosphatase regulates the mitochondria permeability transition pore and is essential for cellular survival and development. Genes Dev. 2007;21:784-96 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PP2Cm is a novel mitochondrial protein phosphatase that has a critical function in cell death and survival, and may play a role in regulating the MPTP opening. ..
  32. Martin E, Moriarty M, Byrnes L, Grealy M. Plakoglobin has both structural and signalling roles in zebrafish development. Dev Biol. 2009;327:83-96 pubmed publisher
    ..5 at 24 hours post fertilisation (hpf), and cmlc2 and vmhc at 48 hpf, while there is lack of restriction of the valve markers notch1b and bmp4 at 48 hpf...
  33. Miyasaka K, Kida Y, Sato T, Minami M, Ogura T. Csrp1 regulates dynamic cell movements of the mesendoderm and cardiac mesoderm through interactions with Dishevelled and Diversin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11274-9 pubmed
    ..Our data highlight Csrp1 as a key molecule of the noncanonical Wnt pathway, which orchestrates cell behaviors during dynamic morphogenetic movements of tissues and organs. ..
  34. Bühler A, Kustermann M, Bummer T, Rottbauer W, Sandri M, Just S. Atrogin-1 Deficiency Leads to Myopathy and Heart Failure in Zebrafish. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
  35. Maves L, Waskiewicz A, Paul B, Cao Y, Tyler A, Moens C, et al. Pbx homeodomain proteins direct Myod activity to promote fast-muscle differentiation. Development. 2007;134:3371-82 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that Pbx proteins modulate Myod activity to drive fast-muscle gene expression, thus showing that homeodomain proteins can direct bHLH proteins to establish a specific cell-type identity. ..
  36. Poon K, Tan K, Wei Y, Ng C, Colman A, Korzh V, et al. RNA-binding protein RBM24 is required for sarcomere assembly and heart contractility. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94:418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers a potential novel pathway to cardiomyopathy through down-regulation of the RBP Rbm24. ..
  37. Dohn T, Waxman J. Distinct phases of Wnt/?-catenin signaling direct cardiomyocyte formation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2012;361:364-76 pubmed publisher
  38. Li M, Wang X, Zhu J, Zhu S, Hu X, Zhu C, et al. Toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on cardiac development in zebrafish. Mol Biol Rep. 2014;41:7973-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PCBs can induce developmental defects in the zebrafish heart, which may be mediated by abnormal RA signaling. ..
  39. Smith K, Lagendijk A, Courtney A, Chen H, Paterson S, Hogan B, et al. Transmembrane protein 2 (Tmem2) is required to regionally restrict atrioventricular canal boundary and endocardial cushion development. Development. 2011;138:4193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that immature AVC expansion in wkm mutants is rescued by depleting Bmp4, indicating that Tmem2 restricts bmp4 expression to delimit the AVC primordium during cardiac development. ..
  40. Bonetti M, Paardekooper Overman J, Tessadori F, Noël E, Bakkers J, den Hertog J. Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome Shp2 variants induce heart displacement defects in zebrafish. Development. 2014;141:1961-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NS and LS Shp2 variant-mediated hyperactivation of MAPK signaling leads to impaired cilia function in Kupffer's vesicle, causing left-right asymmetry defects and defective early cardiac development. ..
  41. Just S, Berger I, Meder B, Backs J, Keller A, Marquart S, et al. Protein kinase D2 controls cardiac valve formation in zebrafish by regulating histone deacetylase 5 activity. Circulation. 2011;124:324-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate for the first time that proper heart valve formation critically depends on Protein kinase D2-Histone deacetylase 5-Krüppel-like factor signaling. ..
  42. Zhang R, Han P, Yang H, Ouyang K, Lee D, Lin Y, et al. In vivo cardiac reprogramming contributes to zebrafish heart regeneration. Nature. 2013;498:497-501 pubmed publisher
  43. Jin D, Ni T, Hou J, Rellinger E, Zhong T. Promoter analysis of ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) in zebrafish embryos. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1760-7 pubmed publisher
    In zebrafish, ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) gene is initially expressed at the anterior lateral mesoderm and thereafter its expression is restricted to the cardiac ventricle...
  44. Yang J, Wang J, Zeng Z, Qiao L, Zhuang L, Jiang L, et al. Smad4 is required for the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle in zebrafish. Differentiation. 2016;92:161-168 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, these phenotypes were associated with abnormal expression of the two heart-chamber markers, cmlc2 and vmhc, as well as abnormal expression of three makers of myogenic terminal differentiation, mylz2, smyhc1 and mck...
  45. Trinh L, Chong Morrison V, Gavriouchkina D, Hochgreb Hägele T, Senanayake U, Fraser S, et al. Biotagging of Specific Cell Populations in Zebrafish Reveals Gene Regulatory Logic Encoded in the Nuclear Transcriptome. Cell Rep. 2017;19:425-440 pubmed publisher
    ..By eliminating background inherent to complex embryonic environments, biotagging allows analyses of molecular interactions at high resolution. ..
  46. Takeuchi J, Lou X, Alexander J, Sugizaki H, Delgado Olguin P, Holloway A, et al. Chromatin remodelling complex dosage modulates transcription factor function in heart development. Nat Commun. 2011;2:187 pubmed publisher
  47. Zhang L, Gui Y, Wang Y, Jiang Q, Song H. Effect of Tbx1 knock-down on cardiac performance in zebrafish. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1182-9 pubmed
    ..Tbx1 might play an essential role in the development of pharyngeal neural crest cells in zebrafish. Cardiac performance is impaired by Tbx1 knock down in zebrafish. ..
  48. Wang Y, Qian L, Yu Z, Jiang Q, Dong Y, Liu X, et al. Requirements of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A in zebrafish cardiac contractility. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:4843-50 pubmed
    ..Dysregulation of cardiac genes in MEF2A morphants suggests that sarcomere assembly disturbances account for the cardiac contractile deficiency. Our studies suggested that MEF2A is essential in cardiac contractility. ..
  49. van der Meer D, Marques I, Leito J, Besser J, Bakkers J, Schoonheere E, et al. Zebrafish cypher is important for somite formation and heart development. Dev Biol. 2006;299:356-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that cypher may play a role downstream of sonic hedgehog, in a late stage of somite development, when slow muscle fibers differentiate and migrate from the adaxial cells. ..
  50. Zhang T, Zhou X, Ma X, Liu J. Mechanisms of cadmium-caused eye hypoplasia and hypopigmentation in zebrafish embryos. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;167:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found that compounds BIO or RA could neutralize the toxic effects of Cd. ..
  51. Sasagawa S, Nishimura Y, Okabe S, Murakami S, Ashikawa Y, Yuge M, et al. Downregulation of GSTK1 Is a Common Mechanism Underlying Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:162 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutathione S-transferase kappa 1 (Gstk1) was significantly downregulated in the five models, whereas myosin heavy chain 7 (Myh7), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), periostin (Postn), and reticulon 4 (Rtn4) were ..
  52. Monte E, Mouillesseaux K, Chen H, Kimball T, Ren S, Wang Y, et al. Systems proteomics of cardiac chromatin identifies nucleolin as a regulator of growth and cellular plasticity in cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305:H1624-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Validation studies in the complementary model system of zebrafish examine the role of Nucleolin to orchestrate genomic reprogramming events shared between development and disease. ..
  53. Novikov N, Evans T. Tmem88a mediates GATA-dependent specification of cardiomyocyte progenitors by restricting WNT signaling. Development. 2013;140:3787-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Tmem88a is a novel component of the regulatory mechanism controlling the second phase of biphasic WNT activity essential for embryonic cardiogenesis. ..
  54. George V, Colombo S, TARGOFF K. An early requirement for nkx2.5 ensures the first and second heart field ventricular identity and cardiac function into adulthood. Dev Biol. 2015;400:10-22 pubmed publisher
  55. Li J, Jia W, Zhao Q. Excessive nitrite affects zebrafish valvulogenesis through yielding too much NO signaling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92728 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results show that excessive nitrite affects early valve leaflet formation by producing too much NO signaling. ..
  56. Dong W, Yang Z, Yang F, Wang J, Zhuang Y, Xu C, et al. Suppression of Rap1 impairs cardiac myofibrils and conduction system in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50960 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a proper level of Rap1 is crucial for heart morphogenesis and function, and suggest that Rap1 and/or their downstream factor genes are potential candidates for genetic screening for human heart diseases. ..
  57. Hu X, Gan S, Xie G, Li L, Chen C, Ding X, et al. KCTD10 is critical for heart and blood vessel development of zebrafish. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2014;46:377-86 pubmed publisher
    ..edema and loss of heart formation indicated by morphological observation and crucial heart markers like amhc, vmhc, and cmlc2. The heart defect caused by KCTD10 is linked to RhoA and PCNA...
  58. Wang X, Zhou L, Jin J, Yang Y, Song G, Shen Y, et al. Knockdown of FABP3 impairs cardiac development in Zebra?sh through the retinoic acid signaling pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:13826-41 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, these studies identify FABP3 as a candidate gene underlying the etiology of congenital heart defects. ..
  59. Tobia C, Chiodelli P, Nicoli S, Dell Era P, Buraschi S, Mitola S, et al. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 controls venous endothelial barrier integrity in zebrafish. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:e104-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate a nonredundant role of zS1P(1) in the regulation of venous endothelial barrier in zebrafish and identify a S1P(1)/VE-cadherin/EphB4a genetic pathway that controls venous vascular integrity. ..
  60. Holtzinger A, Evans T. Gata5 and Gata6 are functionally redundant in zebrafish for specification of cardiomyocytes. Dev Biol. 2007;312:613-22 pubmed
    ..In contrast, embryos depleted of Gata4 and Gata6, or Gata4 and Gata5, develop defective heart tubes. Our study identifies a specific pair of vertebrate transcription factor paralogs that is essential for cardiomyocyte specification. ..
  61. Gering M, Yamada Y, Rabbitts T, Patient R. Lmo2 and Scl/Tal1 convert non-axial mesoderm into haemangioblasts which differentiate into endothelial cells in the absence of Gata1. Development. 2003;130:6187-99 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in the absence of inducers of erythroid or myeloid haematopoiesis, Scl/Tal1-Lmo2-induced haemangioblasts differentiate into endothelial cells. ..
  62. Li M, Hu X, Zhu J, Zhu C, Zhu S, Liu X, et al. Overexpression of miR-19b impairs cardiac development in zebrafish by targeting ctnnb1. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014;33:1988-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that miR-19b regulates laterality development and heart looping in zebrafish embryos by targeting ctnnb1. ..
  63. Sun S, Gui Y, Wang Y, Qian L, Liu X, Jiang Q, et al. Effects of methotrexate on the developments of heart and vessel in zebrafish. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:86-96 pubmed
    ..Our results indicated that the disrupted development of the heart and vessels in MTX-treated embryos is related to the reduced transcript levels of hand2, mef2a, mef2c, and flk-1. ..
  64. D Aniello E, Ravisankar P, Waxman J. Rdh10a Provides a Conserved Critical Step in the Synthesis of Retinoic Acid during Zebrafish Embryogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0138588 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results demonstrate that Rdh10a has a conserved requirement in the first step of RA production within vertebrate embryos. ..
  65. Nguyen C, Langenbacher A, Hsieh M, Chen J. The PAF1 complex component Leo1 is essential for cardiac and neural crest development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2010;341:167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results provide the first genetic evidence of the requirement for Leo1 in the development of the heart and neural crest cell populations. ..
  66. Ocaña O, Coskun H, Minguillón C, Murawala P, Tanaka E, Galcerán J, et al. A right-handed signalling pathway drives heart looping in vertebrates. Nature. 2017;549:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a differential L/R EMT produces asymmetric cell movements and forces, more prominent from the right, that drive heart laterality in vertebrates. ..
  67. Cheng F, Miao L, Wu Q, Gong X, Xiong J, Zhang J. Vinculin b deficiency causes epicardial hyperplasia and coronary vessel disorganization in zebrafish. Development. 2016;143:3522-3531 pubmed
    ..Together, our results reveal a previously unappreciated function of vinculin in epicardium and endocardium and reinforce the notion that well-balanced FAK activity is essential for coronary vessel development. ..
  68. Müller I, Melville D, Tanwar V, Rybski W, Mukherjee A, Shoemaker M, et al. Functional modeling in zebrafish demonstrates that the atrial-fibrillation-associated gene GREM2 regulates cardiac laterality, cardiomyocyte differentiation and atrial rhythm. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:332-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate, for the first time, regulators of BMP signaling in human AF, providing mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of the disease and identifying potential new therapeutic targets. ..
  69. Palencia Desai S, Kohli V, Kang J, Chi N, Black B, Sumanas S. Vascular endothelial and endocardial progenitors differentiate as cardiomyocytes in the absence of Etsrp/Etv2 function. Development. 2011;138:4721-32 pubmed publisher
  70. Kim J, Kim H, Koun S, Ham H, Kim M, Rhee M, et al. Zebrafish Crip2 plays a critical role in atrioventricular valve development by downregulating the expression of ECM genes in the endocardial cushion. Mol Cells. 2014;37:406-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that crip2 plays an important role in AV valve development by downregulating the expression of ECM components in the endocardial cushion. ..
  71. Ko S, Jin H, Jung D, Tian X, Shin I. Cardiosulfa, a small molecule that induces abnormal heart development in zebrafish, and its biological implications. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2009;48:7809-12 pubmed publisher
  72. Scott I, Masri B, D Amico L, Jin S, Jungblut B, Wehman A, et al. The g protein-coupled receptor agtrl1b regulates early development of myocardial progenitors. Dev Cell. 2007;12:403-13 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which agtrl1b regulates the migration of cells fated to form myocardial progenitors...
  73. Antkiewicz D, Burns C, Carney S, Peterson R, Heideman W. Heart malformation is an early response to TCDD in embryonic zebrafish. Toxicol Sci. 2005;84:368-77 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the developing heart is an important target for TCDD in zebrafish. ..
  74. Peterkin T, Gibson A, Patient R. Redundancy and evolution of GATA factor requirements in development of the myocardium. Dev Biol. 2007;311:623-35 pubmed
  75. Sedletcaia A, Evans T. Heart chamber size in zebrafish is regulated redundantly by duplicated tbx2 genes. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1548-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in zebrafish, two tbx2 genes are functionally redundant for regulating chamber development, while each gene is required independently for development of the AVC. ..