Gene Symbol: myd88
Description: myeloid differentiation primary response 88
Alias: zgc:103541, myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88, myeloid differentiation primary response factor 88, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88), zMyD88
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Liu Y, Li M, Fan S, Lin Y, Lin B, Luo F, et al. A unique feature of Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein is partially responsible for lipopolysaccharide insensitivity in zebrafish with a highly conserved function of MyD88. J Immunol. 2010;185:3391-400 pubmed publisher
    b>MyD88 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) are required for the TLR4 response to LPS stimulation in mammals, but the functions of the two adaptors and their involvement in zebrafish insensitivity to LPS remains ..
  2. van der Sar A, Stockhammer O, van der Laan C, Spaink H, Bitter W, Meijer A. MyD88 innate immune function in a zebrafish embryo infection model. Infect Immun. 2006;74:2436-41 pubmed
    ..serovar Typhimurium Ra bacteria was significantly impaired after knockdown of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), a common adaptor protein in TLR and interleukin-1 receptor signaling...
  3. Bates J, Akerlund J, Mittge E, Guillemin K. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase detoxifies lipopolysaccharide and prevents inflammation in zebrafish in response to the gut microbiota. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;2:371-82 pubmed
    ..Both of these Iap mutant phenotypes are dependent on Myd88 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (Tnfr), proteins also involved in LPS sensitivity in mammals...
  4. Stockhammer O, Zakrzewska A, Hegedus Z, Spaink H, Meijer A. Transcriptome profiling and functional analyses of the zebrafish embryonic innate immune response to Salmonella infection. J Immunol. 2009;182:5641-53 pubmed publisher
    ..we showed that this gene was downstream of the zebrafish homologs of the flagellin receptor TLR5 and the adaptor MyD88. Additionally, flagellin-mediated induction of other inflammation markers, including il1b, il8, and cxcl-C1c, was ..
  5. van der Vaart M, van Soest J, Spaink H, Meijer A. Functional analysis of a zebrafish myd88 mutant identifies key transcriptional components of the innate immune system. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:841-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In human and mammalian models, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88) is known for its central role as an adaptor molecule in interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) and TLR signaling...
  6. Cheesman S, Neal J, Mittge E, Seredick B, Guillemin K. Epithelial cell proliferation in the developing zebrafish intestine is regulated by the Wnt pathway and microbial signaling via Myd88. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108 Suppl 1:4570-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the response to microbial proliferation-promoting signals requires Myd88 but not TNF receptor, implicating host innate immune pathways but not inflammation in the establishment of ..
  7. Hall C, Flores M, Chien A, Davidson A, Crosier K, Crosier P. Transgenic zebrafish reporter lines reveal conserved Toll-like receptor signaling potential in embryonic myeloid leukocytes and adult immune cell lineages. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:751-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, MyD88 is required for the majority of TLR signaling...
  8. Troll J, Hamilton M, Abel M, Ganz J, Bates J, Stephens W, et al. Microbiota promote secretory cell determination in the intestinal epithelium by modulating host Notch signaling. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    ..We also investigated whether innate immune signaling transduces microbiota cues via the Myd88 adaptor protein...
  9. Mottaz H, Schönenberger R, Fischer S, Eggen R, Schirmer K, Groh K. Dose-dependent effects of morphine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, and involvement of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transporters in LPS efflux in teleost fish. Environ Pollut. 2017;221:105-115 pubmed publisher pronounced immunosuppression, reflected in downregulation of several inflammation-related genes, including myd88, trif, traf6, p38, nf?b2, il-1?, il-8 and ccl34a. Fish exposed to 1 mg/L MO accumulated 11...

More Information


  1. Hsieh J, Pan C, Chen J. Tilapia hepcidin (TH)2-3 as a transgene in transgenic fish enhances resistance to Vibrio vulnificus infection and causes variations in immune-related genes after infection by different bacterial species. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;29:430-9 pubmed publisher using a real-time RT-PCR revealed that transgenic TH2-3 zebrafish showed increased endogenous expressions of Myd88, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and TRAM1 in vivo. After transgenic TH2-3 zebrafish were infected with V...
  2. Meijer A, Gabby Krens S, Medina Rodriguez I, He S, Bitter W, Ewa Snaar Jagalska B, et al. Expression analysis of the Toll-like receptor and TIR domain adaptor families of zebrafish. Mol Immunol. 2004;40:773-83 pubmed
    ..the human TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, IL-1R and IL-18R genes and one copy of the adaptor genes MyD88, MAL, TRIF and SARM...
  3. Lebert D, Squirrell J, Rindy J, Broadbridge E, Lui Y, Zakrzewska A, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 modulates collagen matrices and wound repair. Development. 2015;142:2136-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Mmp9 regulates both acute and chronic tissue damage and plays an essential role in collagen reorganization during wound repair. ..
  4. Wang K, Fang X, Ma N, Lin Q, Huang Z, Liu W, et al. Myeloperoxidase-deficient zebrafish show an augmented inflammatory response to challenge with Candida albicans. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;44:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans infection. These findings indicate that myeloperoxidase deficiency alters the inflammatory response to fungal infection. ..
  5. Yang D, Liu Q, Ni C, Li S, Wu H, Wang Q, et al. Gene expression profiling in live attenuated Edwardsiella tarda vaccine immunized and challenged zebrafish: insights into the basic mechanisms of protection seen in immunized fish. Dev Comp Immunol. 2013;40:132-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism involved the induction of the TLR-5 signaling pathway, the MHC-I antigen processing pathway and CTL effector function, and CTL function seems play a major role in the protection against E. tarda infection in zebrafish. ..
  6. Lee S, Peng K, Lee L, Pan C, Hour A, Her G, et al. Characterization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) viperin expression, and inhibition of bacterial growth and modulation of immune-related gene expression by electrotransfer of viperin DNA into zebrafish muscle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;151:217-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that such altered expression may account for the improvement in bacterial clearance following electroporation of viperin, suggesting that fish viperin has antiviral and antibacterial activities. ..
  7. Peng K, Pan C, Chou H, Chen J. Using an improved Tol2 transposon system to produce transgenic zebrafish with epinecidin-1 which enhanced resistance to bacterial infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:905-17 pubmed publisher
    ..A gene expression study using real-time RT-PCR revealed that Epi-1/DsRed itself induced endogenous MyD88 expression in vivo. After Epi-1/DsRed transgenic zebrafish were infected with V...
  8. Kanther M, Sun X, Muhlbauer M, Mackey L, Flynn E, Bagnat M, et al. Microbial colonization induces dynamic temporal and spatial patterns of NF-?B activation in the zebrafish digestive tract. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed patterns of NF-?B-dependent responses to microbial colonization indicate that cells in the gastrointestinal tract respond robustly to the microbial environment. ..
  9. Philip A, Wang Y, Mauro A, El Rass S, Marshall J, Lee W, et al. Development of a zebrafish sepsis model for high-throughput drug discovery. Mol Med. 2017;23:134-148 pubmed publisher
  10. Gioacchini G, Rossi G, Carnevali O. Host-probiotic interaction: new insight into the role of the endocannabinoid system by in vivo and ex vivo approaches. Sci Rep. 2017;7:1261 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here strengthen the molecular mechanisms activated by probiotic mix controlling immune response and inflammation. ..
  11. Yan B, Han P, Pan L, Lu W, Xiong J, Zhang M, et al. IL-1? and reactive oxygen species differentially regulate neutrophil directional migration and Basal random motility in a zebrafish injury-induced inflammation model. J Immunol. 2014;192:5998-6008 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that, similar to that of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS signaling, the Il-1?-Myd88 pathway is required for the recruitment of neutrophils, but not macrophages, to the injury-induced inflammatory ..
  12. Ai K, Luo K, Li Y, Hu W, Gao W, Fang L, et al. Expression pattern analysis of IRF4 and its related genes revealed the functional differentiation of IRF4 paralogues in teleost. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;60:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..It can regulate immune pathway through IRF5, MyD88, IL21, PGC1?, and NOD2...
  13. Liu X, Wu H, Chang X, Tang Y, Liu Q, Zhang Y. Notable mucosal immune responses induced in the intestine of zebrafish (Danio rerio) bath-vaccinated with a live attenuated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014;40:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a significant up-regulation of TLR5 triggering a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway was observed in the intestine, which implied that flagella were the crucial antigenic ..
  14. Feng H, Zhang Y, Zhang Q, Li Z, Zhang Q, Gui J. Zebrafish IRF1 regulates IFN antiviral response through binding to IFNÏ•1 and IFNÏ•3 promoters downstream of MyD88 signaling. J Immunol. 2015;194:1225-38 pubmed publisher
    ..and IFNÏ•3 through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor pathway, DrIRF1 works in concert with MyD88 to activate zebrafish IFNÏ•3 but not IFNÏ•1...
  15. Dong X, Zhang Z, Meng S, Pan C, Yang M, Wu X, et al. Parental exposure to bisphenol A and its analogs influences zebrafish offspring immunity. Sci Total Environ. 2018;610-611:291-297 pubmed publisher
  16. Hidasi A, Groh K, Suter M, Schirmer K. Clobetasol propionate causes immunosuppression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;138:16-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This may reduce the chances of fish to survive in the environment, as their defense against pathogens is weakened. ..
  17. Fehr A, Ruetten M, Seth Smith H, Nufer L, Voegtlin A, Lehner A, et al. A Zebrafish Model for Chlamydia Infection with the Obligate Intracellular Pathogen Waddlia chondrophila. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:1829 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we present evidence that myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) mediated signaling plays a role in the innate immune reaction to W...
  18. Gao Y, Wu H, Wang Q, Qu J, Liu Q, Xiao J, et al. A live attenuated combination vaccine evokes effective immune-mediated protection against Edwardsiella tarda and Vibrio anguillarum. Vaccine. 2014;32:5937-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, a combination vaccine of live attenuated E. tarda WED and V. anguillarum MVAV6203 is effective and could be used widely in the future. ..
  19. Alcaraz Pérez F, Mulero V, Cayuela M. Application of the dual-luciferase reporter assay to the analysis of promoter activity in Zebrafish embryos. BMC Biotechnol. 2008;8:81 pubmed publisher
    ..Among others, the assay allows a rapid and quantitative measurement of the effects of particular genes or drugs in a given promoter in the context of a whole organism and it can also be used in high throughput screening experiments. ..
  20. Cambier C, Takaki K, Larson R, Hernandez R, Tobin D, Urdahl K, et al. Mycobacteria manipulate macrophage recruitment through coordinated use of membrane lipids. Nature. 2014;505:218-22 pubmed publisher
  21. Roh Johnson M, Shah A, Stonick J, Poudel K, Kargl J, Yang G, et al. Macrophage-Dependent Cytoplasmic Transfer during Melanoma Invasion In Vivo. Dev Cell. 2017;43:549-562.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we present a model in which macrophage/tumor cell contact allows for the transfer of cytoplasmic molecules from macrophages to tumor cells corresponding to increased tumor cell motility and dissemination. ..
  22. Li S, Lu L, Wang Z, Chen D, Zhang Y. Fish IRF6 is a positive regulator of IFN expression and involved in both of the MyD88 and TBK1 pathways. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;57:262-268 pubmed publisher
    ..identified that zebrafish IRF6 was a positive regulator of IFN transcription and could be phosphorylated by both MyD88 and TBK1...
  23. Chen H, Liu W, Wu S, Chiou P, Li Y, Chen Y, et al. RIG-I specifically mediates group II type I IFN activation in nervous necrosis virus infected zebrafish cells. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;43:427-35 pubmed publisher
    ..qPCR revealed signaling activation of two pattern recognition receptors (PRRs): RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) and MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
  24. Sun Z, Shen B, Wu H, Zhou X, Wang Q, Xiao J, et al. The secreted fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase as a broad spectrum vaccine candidate against pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;46:638-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that FBA can be utilized as a broad-spectrum vaccine against various pathogenic bacteria of aquaculture in the future. ..
  25. Hall C, Boyle R, Sun X, Wicker S, Misa J, Krissansen G, et al. Epidermal cells help coordinate leukocyte migration during inflammation through fatty acid-fuelled matrix metalloproteinase production. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3880 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting of this metabolic-immunologic interface within keratinocytes may prove useful in treating inflammatory dermatoses. ..
  26. Pan C, Wu J, Hui C, Lin C, Chen J. Insights into the antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions of the antimicrobial peptide, epinecidin-1, against Vibrio vulnificus infection in zebrafish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;31:1019-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the use of epinecidin-1 to develop inactivated material for fish bacterial infections which can provide guidelines for the future design of epinecidin-1-bacterial formulations for various in vivo applications. ..
  27. Jheng Y, Lee L, Ting C, Pan C, Hui C, Chen J. Zebrafish fed on recombinant Artemia expressing epinecidin-1 exhibit increased survival and altered expression of immunomodulatory genes upon Vibrio vulnificus infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;42:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that feeding transgenic Artemia expressing CMV-gfp-epi to larval fish has antimicrobial effects, without the drawbacks of introducing drug residues or inducing bacterial drug resistance. ..
  28. Xu H, Yang M, Qiu W, Pan C, Wu M. The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on oxidative stress and innate immune response in zebrafish embryos. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:1793-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Expressions of TLR3, TRIF, MyD88, SARM, IRAK4, and TRAF6 were altered on exposure to EDCs...
  29. Feng H, Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Li Z, Zhang J, Xiong Y, et al. Zebrafish IRF1, IRF3, and IRF7 Differentially Regulate IFN?1 and IFN?3 Expression through Assembly of Homo- or Heteroprotein Complexes. J Immunol. 2016;197:1893-904 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that fish and mammals have evolved a similar IRF-dependent regulatory mechanism fine-tuning IFN gene activation. ..
  30. Srivastava N, Shelly A, Kumar M, Pant A, Das B, Majumdar T, et al. Aeromonas hydrophila utilizes TLR4 topology for synchronous activation of MyD88 and TRIF to orchestrate anti-inflammatory responses in zebrafish. Cell Death Discov. 2017;3:17067 pubmed publisher
    ..It transduces signals through two distinct TIR-domain-containing adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF, which function at the plasma membrane and endosomes, respectively...
  31. Hall C, Boyle R, Astin J, Flores M, Oehlers S, Sanderson L, et al. Immunoresponsive gene 1 augments bactericidal activity of macrophage-lineage cells by regulating ?-oxidation-dependent mitochondrial ROS production. Cell Metab. 2013;18:265-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal IRG1 as a key component of the immunometabolism axis, connecting infection, cellular metabolism, and macrophage effector function...
  32. Kallakuri S, Yu J, Li J, Li Y, Weinstein B, Nicoli S, et al. Endothelial cilia are essential for developmental vascular integrity in zebrafish. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;26:864-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Hedgehog signaling is a major mechanism for this novel role of endothelial cilia in establishing vascular integrity. ..
  33. Valanne S, Myllymäki H, Kallio J, Schmid M, Kleino A, Murumägi A, et al. Genome-wide RNA interference in Drosophila cells identifies G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 as a conserved regulator of NF-kappaB signaling. J Immunol. 2010;184:6188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Gprk2/GRK5 has an evolutionarily conserved role in regulating NF-kappaB signaling. ..
  34. Zhang H, Fang W, Wang D, Gao N, Ding Y, Chen C. The role of interleukin family in perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced immunotoxicity. J Hazard Mater. 2014;280:552-60 pubmed publisher
    ..1mg/L). The results of linear correlation analysis indicate that Myd88/NF-κB pathway is one of the important pathways to mediate inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β and IL-21) in ..
  35. Jault C, Pichon L, Chluba J. Toll-like receptor gene family and TIR-domain adapters in Danio rerio. Mol Immunol. 2004;40:759-71 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate here that TIR-domain containing adapters MyD88 and SARM are present in zebrafish, showing that TLR adapter molecules are highly conserved in evolution.
  36. Burns A, Miller E, Agarwal M, Rolig A, Milligan Myhre K, Seredick S, et al. Interhost dispersal alters microbiome assembly and can overwhelm host innate immunity in an experimental zebrafish model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:11181-11186 pubmed publisher
    ..We manipulated dispersal among wild-type and immune-deficient myd88 knockout zebrafish and observed that interhost dispersal had a large effect on the diversity and composition ..
  37. Wang C, Chen Y, Bian W, Xie S, Qi G, Liu L, et al. Deletion of mstna and mstnb impairs the immune system and affects growth performance in zebrafish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;72:572-580 pubmed publisher
    ..While each paralogue contributes to the response to bacterial insult, mstnb affects the immune system through activation of the NF-?B pathway, and mstna is likely to act upstream of NF-?B at some as yet unidentified target. ..
  38. Feng W, Gu Y, Nie L, Guo D, Xiang L, Shao J. Characterization of SIGIRR/IL-1R8 Homolog from Zebrafish Provides New Insights into Its Inhibitory Role in Hepatic Inflammation. J Immunol. 2016;197:151-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecule is essential to establish liver homeostasis under inflammatory stimuli. Overall, the results will enrich the current knowledge about SIGIRR-mediated immunity and disorders in the liver. ..
  39. Pan C, Peng K, Lin C, Chen J. Transgenic expression of tilapia hepcidin 1-5 and shrimp chelonianin in zebrafish and their resistance to bacterial pathogens. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;31:275-85 pubmed publisher real-time PCR studies showed the modulation of several genes including interleukin (IL)-10, IL-22, IL-26, MyD88, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-1, TLR-3, TLR-4, nuclear factor (NF)-?B, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and lysozyme, ..
  40. Cambier C, O Leary S, O Sullivan M, Keane J, Ramakrishnan L. Phenolic Glycolipid Facilitates Mycobacterial Escape from Microbicidal Tissue-Resident Macrophages. Immunity. 2017;47:552-565.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Human alveolar macrophages produced CCL2 in a PGL-dependent fashion following infection, arguing for the potential of PGL-blocking interventions or PGL-targeting vaccine strategies in the prevention of tuberculosis. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  41. He Q, Zhang C, Wang L, Zhang P, Ma D, Lv J, et al. Inflammatory signaling regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell emergence in vertebrates. Blood. 2015;125:1098-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish a previously unrecognized link between inflammatory signaling and HSPC emergence, and provide new insights into regenerative medicine and novel therapies to treat innate immune-related diseases. ..
  42. Marín Juez R, Jong Raadsen S, Yang S, Spaink H. Hyperinsulinemia induces insulin resistance and immune suppression via Ptpn6/Shp1 in zebrafish. J Endocrinol. 2014;222:229-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our data will be very useful in further studies of the function of immunological determinants in a non-obese model system. ..