Gene Symbol: mxa
Description: myxovirus (influenza) resistance A
Alias: fj23d12, wu:fj23d12, zgc:136725, interferon-induced GTP-binding protein MxA, IFN-inducible antiviral protein MxA, interferon-inducible MxA protein
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Altmann S, Mellon M, Distel D, Kim C. Molecular and functional analysis of an interferon gene from the zebrafish, Danio rerio. J Virol. 2003;77:1992-2002 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that zebrafish can be used as an effective model for studying innate immunity and immune response to infectious disease. ..
  2. Novoa B, Romero A, Mulero V, Rodriguez I, Fernandez I, Figueras A. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for the study of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Vaccine. 2006;24:5806-16 pubmed
    ..In addition, the high protection obtained with the live attenuated virus demonstrates that the zebrafish is able to mount an efficient antiviral immune response at 15 degrees C...
  3. Kavaliauskis A, Arnemo M, Speth M, Lagos L, Rishovd A, Estepa A, et al. Protective effect of a recombinant VHSV-G vaccine using poly(I:C) loaded nanoparticles as an adjuvant in zebrafish (Danio rerio) infection model. Dev Comp Immunol. 2016;61:248-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that chitosan-poly(I:C) NPs are a promising adjuvant candidate for future vaccine formulations. ..
  4. Zou P, Chang M, Xue N, Liu X, Li J, Fu J, et al. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 in zebrafish provoking higher interferon-promoter activity through signalling enhancing of its shorter splicing variant. Immunology. 2014;141:192-202 pubmed publisher
  5. Nie L, Zhang Y, Dong W, Xiang L, Shao J. Involvement of zebrafish RIG-I in NF-κB and IFN signaling pathways: insights into functional conservation of RIG-I in antiviral innate immunity. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;48:95-101 pubmed publisher
  6. Brudal E, Ulanova L, O Lampe E, Rishovd A, Griffiths G, Winther Larsen H. Establishment of three Francisella infections in zebrafish embryos at different temperatures. Infect Immun. 2014;82:2180-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate the usefulness of the zebrafish embryo model for studying infections caused by different Francisella species at a wide range of temperatures and highlight their interactions with immune cells. ..
  7. Lagos L, Tandberg J, Repnik U, Boysen P, Ropstad E, Varkey D, et al. Characterization and Vaccine Potential of Membrane Vesicles Produced by Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in an Adult Zebrafish Model. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017;24: pubmed publisher
    ..1, and ighm, was upregulated, thus confirming the immunogenic properties of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis-derived MVs. ..
  8. Zou P, Chang M, Li Y, Huan Zhang S, Fu J, Chen S, et al. Higher antiviral response of RIG-I through enhancing RIG-I/MAVS-mediated signaling by its long insertion variant in zebrafish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;43:13-24 pubmed publisher
  9. Garcia Valtanen P, Martínez López A, López Muñoz A, Bello Perez M, Medina Gali R, Ortega Villaizan M, et al. Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression of Apoptosis, Multigene Families, and Interferon-Related Genes. Front Immunol. 2017;8:121 pubmed publisher
    ..From this and other studies, it might be concluded that some of the characteristics of mammalian trained immunity are present in lower vertebrates. ..

More Information


  1. Xu H, Yang M, Qiu W, Pan C, Wu M. The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on oxidative stress and innate immune response in zebrafish embryos. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:1793-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors' results demonstrate that exposure to BPA and NP significantly affects the expression of genes related to immune response in zebrafish embryos following oxidative stress. ..
  2. Lutfalla G, Roest Crollius H, Stange Thomann N, Jaillon O, Mogensen K, Monneron D. Comparative genomic analysis reveals independent expansion of a lineage-specific gene family in vertebrates: the class II cytokine receptors and their ligands in mammals and fish. BMC Genomics. 2003;4:29 pubmed
    ..Despite the report of a near complete pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) genome sequence, these genes remain undescribed in fish...
  3. Zhang L, Chen W, Hu Y, Wu X, Nie P, Chang M. TBK1-like transcript negatively regulates the production of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes through RLRs-MAVS-TBK1 pathway. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;54:135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data support that zebrafish TBK1L negatively regulates RLRs-MAVS-TBK1 pathway. ..
  4. Kavaliauskis A, Arnemo M, Kim S, Ulanova L, Speth M, Novoa B, et al. Use of Poly(I:C) Stabilized with Chitosan As a Vaccine-Adjuvant Against Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Infection in Zebrafish. Zebrafish. 2015;12:421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..of the genes of viral sensors: toll-like receptors, interferons, and interferon-stimulated genes, such as MXa within 48 h after injection...
  5. Chen H, Liu W, Wu S, Chiou P, Li Y, Chen Y, et al. RIG-I specifically mediates group II type I IFN activation in nervous necrosis virus infected zebrafish cells. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;43:427-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that RIG-I plays an essential role in zebrafish group II type I IFN induction and the inflammatory response to NNV infection. ..
  6. Ruyra A, Torrealba D, Morera D, Tort L, MacKenzie S, Roher N. Zebrafish liver (ZFL) cells are able to mount an anti-viral response after stimulation with Poly (I:C). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;182:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We can conclude that ZFL could be used not only in toxicological studies, but also in studying anti-viral responses in zebrafish. ..
  7. Chen W, Hu Y, Zou P, Ren S, Nie P, Chang M. MAVS splicing variants contribute to the induction of interferon and interferon-stimulated genes mediated by RIG-I-like receptors. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;49:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..MAVS_tv1 overexpression induced a slow (48 hpf) increased expression of IFN1, mxa, mxb, mxe and RSAD2...
  8. Huang B, Huang W, Nie P. Characterization of four Mx isoforms in the European eel, Anguilla anguilla. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;35:1048-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, cDNA sequences of four Mx isoforms, designated as MxA, B, C and D were characterized in the European eel, Anguilla anguilla...
  9. Ludwig M, Palha N, Torhy C, Briolat V, Colucci Guyon E, Bremont M, et al. Whole-body analysis of a viral infection: vascular endothelium is a primary target of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in zebrafish larvae. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001269 pubmed publisher
    ..This tractable system will allow the in vivo dissection of host-virus interactions at the whole organism scale, a feature unrivalled by other vertebrate models. ..
  10. Estepa A, Coll J. Innate Multigene Family Memories Are Implicated in the Viral-Survivor Zebrafish Phenotype. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0135483 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of the so-called "trained immunity" for future research in this field are also discussed. ..
  11. Huang C, Chou C, Lien H, Chu C, Ho J, Wu Y, et al. IRF9-Stat2 Fusion Protein as an Innate Immune Inducer to Activate Mx and Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression in Zebrafish Larvae. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2017;19:310-319 pubmed publisher
    ..zIRF9-S2C raises transcription of Mxa, Mxb, Mxc, Ifnφ1, Ifnφ2, and Ifnφ3 in zebrafish liver ((ZFL) cell line) cells and zebrafish larvae...
  12. Yoon S, Alnabulsi A, Wang T, Lee P, Chen T, Bird S, et al. Analysis of interferon gamma protein expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;57:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We show the IFN-? protein is produced as a dimer, and that a good correlation exists between transcript expression levels and protein levels. ..
  13. Morick D, Saragovi A. Inhibition of nervous necrosis virus by ribavirin in a zebrafish larvae model. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;60:537-544 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, cost-effective ribavirin treatment should be considered as an efficient means to reduce the peril of NNV. ..
  14. Xiong R, Nie L, Xiang L, Shao J. Characterization of a PIAS4 homologue from zebrafish: insights into its conserved negative regulatory mechanism in the TRIF, MAVS, and IFN signaling pathways during vertebrate evolution. J Immunol. 2012;188:2653-68 pubmed publisher
    ..It presents valuable clues for improving the understanding of not only the negative regulation of cytokine signaling in fish but also the evolutionary history of the PIAS family from fish to mammals as a whole. ..
  15. Wang W, Asim M, Yi L, Hegazy A, Hu X, Zhou Y, et al. Abortive infection of snakehead fish vesiculovirus in ZF4 cells was associated with the RLRs pathway activation by viral replicative intermediates. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:6235-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the abortive infection of SHVV in ZF4 cells was associated with the activation of RLRs pathway, which was activated by viral replicative intermediates. ..
  16. Hermann A, Kim C. Effects of arsenic on zebrafish innate immune system. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2005;7:494-505 pubmed
    ..Differences in IFN and MX : expression in arsenic-exposed larvae point toward an interruption of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. ..
  17. Muire P, Hanson L, Wills R, Petrie Hanson L. Differential gene expression following TLR stimulation in rag1-/- mutant zebrafish tissues and morphological descriptions of lymphocyte-like cell populations. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184077 pubmed publisher
  18. Xu H, Shao X, Zhang Z, Zou Y, Wu X, Yang L. Oxidative stress and immune related gene expression following exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in zebrafish embryos. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;93:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, co-exposure to DBP-DEP also induced antioxidant defense and immune response in zebrafish embryo. The results demonstrat that DBP/DEP exposure could induce the antioxidant and immune responses in zebrafish embryos...
  19. Morick D, Faigenbaum O, Smirnov M, Fellig Y, Inbal A, Kotler M. Mortality Caused by Bath Exposure of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Larvae to Nervous Necrosis Virus Is Limited to the Fourth Day Postfertilization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015;81:3280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The zebrafish larvae succumbed to NNV infection during a narrow time window around the 4th dpf, while 6- and 8-day-old larvae were much less sensitive, with mortalities of 24% and 28%, respectively. ..
  20. Clarke B, McColl K, Ward A, Doran T. shRNAs targeting either the glycoprotein or polymerase genes inhibit Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus replication in zebrafish ZF4 cells. Antiviral Res. 2017;141:124-132 pubmed publisher
    ..when analysed in silico, induced an antiviral response as measured by induction of interferon (ifnphi1) and Mx (MxA) genes...
  21. Ai K, Luo K, Li Y, Hu W, Gao W, Fang L, et al. Expression pattern analysis of IRF4 and its related genes revealed the functional differentiation of IRF4 paralogues in teleost. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;60:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..01). IRF4a and IRF4b displayed a distinct tissue expression pattern, embryonic stages expression and inducible expression in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that IRF4 paralogues might play different roles in immune system. ..
  22. Brun N, Lenz M, Wehrli B, Fent K. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: importance of zinc ions. Sci Total Environ. 2014;476-477:657-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, transcriptional alterations were higher in embryos than eleuthero-embryos. The similarities of the effects lead to the conclusion that effects of nZnO are mainly related to the release of Zn(II). ..
  23. Nie L, Xu X, Xiang L, Shao J, Chen J. Mutual Regulation of NOD2 and RIG-I in Zebrafish Provides Insights into the Coordination between Innate Antibacterial and Antiviral Signaling Pathways. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism reflects the coordination between cytosolic antibacterial and antiviral PRRs in the complex network of innate immunity. ..
  24. Garcia Valtanen P, Martinez Lopez A, Ortega Villaizan M, Perez L, Coll J, Estepa A. In addition to its antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, the zebrafish ?-defensin 2 (zfBD2) is a potent viral DNA vaccine molecular adjuvant. Antiviral Res. 2014;101:136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..To note that psoriasis can be induced in zebrafish and the over-expression of ?-defensin 2 is implicated in the inflammatory response associated with this human skin disorder. ..
  25. Gabor K, Goody M, Mowel W, Breitbach M, Gratacap R, Witten P, et al. Influenza A virus infection in zebrafish recapitulates mammalian infection and sensitivity to anti-influenza drug treatment. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:1227-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate a novel use of this species for IAV research. This model has great potential to advance our understanding of influenza infection and the associated host innate immune response. ..
  26. Zou P, Chang M, Li Y, Xue N, Li J, Chen S, et al. NOD2 in zebrafish functions in antibacterial and also antiviral responses via NF-?B, and also MDA5, RIG-I and MAVS. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;55:173-85 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that teleost fish NOD2 can not only sense MDP for activating innate immunity as reported in mammals, but can also interact with other PRRs to form a network in antiviral innate response. ..
  27. Nayak A, Lage C, Kim C. Effects of low concentrations of arsenic on the innate immune system of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicol Sci. 2007;98:118-24 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the effects of such low levels of arsenic on host resistance to infection. ..
  28. Altmann S, Mellon M, Johnson M, Paw B, Trede N, Zon L, et al. Cloning and characterization of an Mx gene and its corresponding promoter from the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Dev Comp Immunol. 2004;28:295-306 pubmed
    ..domain, dynamin family signature, and leucine zipper motif common to Mx proteins, and shows a 50% identity to human MxA and 69% identity both to rainbow trout and to Atlantic salmon...
  29. Li Z, Xu X, Huang L, Wu J, Lu Q, Xiang Z, et al. Administration of recombinant IFN1 protects zebrafish (Danio rerio) from ISKNV infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;29:399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows the protective effects of interferon against a DNA-virus in fish for the first time and provides information about the efficacy of fish interferon that will prove useful in possible therapeutic applications. ..
  30. Dong X, Zhang Z, Meng S, Pan C, Yang M, Wu X, et al. Parental exposure to bisphenol A and its analogs influences zebrafish offspring immunity. Sci Total Environ. 2018;610-611:291-297 pubmed publisher