Gene Symbol: msx3
Description: muscle segment homeobox 3
Alias: homeobox, msh-C, mshC, msx-c, msxc, zgc:86596, homeobox protein MSH-C, etID309953.13, muscle segment homeobox C
Species: zebrafish
Products:     msx3

Top Publications

  1. Akimenko M, Johnson S, Westerfield M, Ekker M. Differential induction of four msx homeobox genes during fin development and regeneration in zebrafish. Development. 1995;121:347-57 pubmed
    ..control and pattern formation during fin development and regeneration, we have analysed the expression of four homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC and msxD in zebrafish fins...
  2. Smith A, Avaron F, Guay D, Padhi B, Akimenko M. Inhibition of BMP signaling during zebrafish fin regeneration disrupts fin growth and scleroblasts differentiation and function. Dev Biol. 2006;299:438-54 pubmed
    ..inhibition of regenerate outgrowth due to a decrease of blastema cell proliferation and downregulation of msxb and msxC expression and (2) reduced bone matrix deposition resulting from a defect in the maturation and function of bone-..
  3. Raya A, Koth C, Buscher D, Kawakami Y, Itoh T, Raya R, et al. Activation of Notch signaling pathway precedes heart regeneration in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100 Suppl 1:11889-95 pubmed
    ..zebrafish have a remarkable capacity to regenerate the heart in a process that involves up-regulation of msxB and msxC genes...
  4. Poss K, Shen J, Nechiporuk A, McMahon G, Thisse B, Thisse C, et al. Roles for Fgf signaling during zebrafish fin regeneration. Dev Biol. 2000;222:347-58 pubmed
    ..fgfr1 transcripts colocalize with those of msxb and msxc, putative markers for undifferentiated, proliferating cells...
  5. Kawakami A, Nojima Y, Toyoda A, Takahoko M, Satoh M, Tanaka H, et al. The zebrafish-secreted matrix protein you/scube2 is implicated in long-range regulation of hedgehog signaling. Curr Biol. 2005;15:480-8 pubmed
    ..We further show that Bmp activity can be attenuated by the coexpression of Scube2. Our data support the idea that Scube2 can modulate the long-range action of Bmp-dependent signaling in the neural tube and somites. ..
  6. Gibert Y, Gajewski A, Meyer A, Begemann G. Induction and prepatterning of the zebrafish pectoral fin bud requires axial retinoic acid signaling. Development. 2006;133:2649-59 pubmed
    ..Thus, RA signaling from flanking somites plays a dual early role in the condensing limb bud mesenchyme. ..
  7. Fischer S, Draper B, Neumann C. The zebrafish fgf24 mutant identifies an additional level of Fgf signaling involved in vertebrate forelimb initiation. Development. 2003;130:3515-24 pubmed
    ..We also show that fgf24 activity is necessary for the migration of tbx5-expressing cells to the fin bud, and for the activation of shh, but not hand2, expression in the posterior fin bud. ..
  8. Bonner J, Gribble S, Veien E, Nikolaus O, Weidinger G, Dorsky R. Proliferation and patterning are mediated independently in the dorsal spinal cord downstream of canonical Wnt signaling. Dev Biol. 2008;313:398-407 pubmed
    ..Together, our work demonstrates that proliferation and patterning in the developing spinal cord are separable events that are regulated independently by Wnt signaling. ..
  9. Odelberg S. Unraveling the molecular basis for regenerative cellular plasticity. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E232 pubmed

More Information


  1. Jin Y, Zhang X, Lu D, Fu Z. Proteomic analysis of hepatic tissue in adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to atrazine. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;62:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The information presented in this study will be helpful in fully understanding the mechanism of the potential effects induced by ATZ in fish. ..
  2. Hyatt G, Schmitt E, Marsh Armstrong N, McCaffery P, Drager U, Dowling J. Retinoic acid establishes ventral retinal characteristics. Development. 1996;122:195-204 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these observations suggest that RA is involved in the determination of the ventral retina. ..
  3. Kizil C, Otto G, Geisler R, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, Antos C. Simplet controls cell proliferation and gene transcription during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. Dev Biol. 2009;325:329-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, smp knockdown increased the expression of msxb, msxc, and shh, as well as the later formation of ectopic bone...
  4. Sarras M, Leontovich A, Olsen A, Intine R. Impaired tissue regeneration corresponds with altered expression of developmental genes that persists in the metabolic memory state of diabetic zebrafish. Wound Repair Regen. 2013;21:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aberrant expression of key regulatory genes in the DM state that persist into the MM state provides a plausible explanation on how hyperglycemia induced impaired fin regeneration in the adult zebrafish DM/MM model. ..
  5. Sumanas S, Larson J, Miller Bever M. Zebrafish chaperone protein GP96 is required for otolith formation during ear development. Dev Biol. 2003;261:443-55 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the GP96 chaperone protein is involved in the otolith formation during normal ear development. This is the first report of a specific function during organism development being attributed to a chaperone class molecule. ..
  6. Mackereth M, Kwak S, Fritz A, Riley B. Zebrafish pax8 is required for otic placode induction and plays a redundant role with Pax2 genes in the maintenance of the otic placode. Development. 2005;132:371-82 pubmed
    ..These data show that pax8 is initially required for normal otic induction, and subsequently pax8, pax2a and pax2b act redundantly to maintain otic fate. ..
  7. Bhadra J, Iovine M. Hsp47 mediates Cx43-dependent skeletal growth and patterning in the regenerating fin. Mech Dev. 2015;138 Pt 3:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we suggest that Hsp47 function is necessary for skeletal growth and patterning during fin regeneration. ..
  8. Simões M, Bensimon Brito A, Fonseca M, Farinho A, Valério F, Sousa S, et al. Denervation impairs regeneration of amputated zebrafish fins. BMC Dev Biol. 2014;14:49 pubmed publisher
  9. Hoffman L, Miles J, Avaron F, Laforest L, Akimenko M. Exogenous retinoic acid induces a stage-specific, transient and progressive extension of Sonic hedgehog expression across the pectoral fin bud of zebrafish. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:949-56 pubmed
    ..This study suggests the existence of complex mechanisms controlling the spatial and temporal expression of shh in the developing fin bud. ..
  10. Webb A, Sanderford J, Frank D, Talbot W, Driever W, Kimelman D. Laminin alpha5 is essential for the formation of the zebrafish fins. Dev Biol. 2007;311:369-82 pubmed
    ..The lama5 mutant provides novel insight into the role of laminins in the zebrafish epidermis, and the molecular mechanisms driving fin formation in vertebrates. ..
  11. Postlethwait J. The zebrafish genome: a review and msx gene case study. Genome Dyn. 2006;2:183-97 pubmed publisher
    ..and evolution of duplicate gene function are discussed here using as a case study the zebrafish msxa, msxb, msxc, msxd, and msxe genes, which together constitute zebrafish orthologs of tetrapod Msx1, Msx2, and Msx3...
  12. Hammond K, Whitfield T. The developing lamprey ear closely resembles the zebrafish otic vesicle: otx1 expression can account for all major patterning differences. Development. 2006;133:1347-57 pubmed
  13. Gross J, Dowling J. Tbx2b is essential for neuronal differentiation along the dorsal/ventral axis of the zebrafish retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4371-6 pubmed
    ..Combined, these observations suggest that the cellular mechanisms regulating neuronal differentiation within the retina are asymmetric about the dorsal/ventral axis and that Tbx2b mediates this process within the dorsal retina. ..
  14. Hui S, Nag T, Ghosh S. Characterization of Proliferating Neural Progenitors after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143595 pubmed publisher
    ..Uncovering the molecular mechanism for endogenous regeneration of adult zebrafish spinal cord would give us more clues on important targets for future therapeutic approach in mammalian spinal cord repair and regeneration. ..
  15. Fisher S, Halpern M. Patterning the zebrafish axial skeleton requires early chordin function. Nat Genet. 1999;23:442-6 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that chordin function during gastrulation is important for the correct morphogenesis of the adult zebrafish skeleton. ..
  16. Ma W, Zhang J. Jag1b is essential for patterning inner ear sensory cristae by regulating anterior morphogenetic tissue separation and preventing posterior cell death. Development. 2015;142:763-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Jag1b uses two distinct mechanisms to form three sensory cristae in zebrafish. ..
  17. Tornini V, Puliafito A, Slota L, Thompson J, Nachtrab G, Kaushik A, et al. Live Monitoring of Blastemal Cell Contributions during Appendage Regeneration. Curr Biol. 2016;26:2981-2991 pubmed publisher
    ..Our longitudinal clonal analyses of regenerating zebrafish fins provide evidence that connective tissue progenitors are rapidly organized into a scalable blueprint of lost structures. ..
  18. Lee E, Koo Y, Ng A, Wei Y, Luby Phelps K, Juraszek A, et al. Autophagy is essential for cardiac morphogenesis during vertebrate development. Autophagy. 2014;10:572-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, autophagy plays an essential, conserved role in cardiac morphogenesis during vertebrate development. ..
  19. Murciano C, Pérez Claros J, Smith A, Avaron F, Fernandez T, Duran I, et al. Position dependence of hemiray morphogenesis during tail fin regeneration in Danio rerio. Dev Biol. 2007;312:272-83 pubmed
    ..A morphological study of the developing and regenerating fin of another long fin mutant zebrafish suggests that contralateral hemiblastema interactions are perturbed in this mutant. ..
  20. Rau M, Fischer S, Neumann C. Zebrafish Trap230/Med12 is required as a coactivator for Sox9-dependent neural crest, cartilage and ear development. Dev Biol. 2006;296:83-93 pubmed
    ..Mediator is a coactivator complex transducing the interaction of DNA-binding transcription factors with RNA polymerase II, and our results reveal a critical function of the Trap230 subunit as a coactivator for Sox9. ..
  21. Schibler A, Malicki J. A screen for genetic defects of the zebrafish ear. Mech Dev. 2007;124:592-604 pubmed
    ..As it proved to be the case in past screening efforts of this type, these mutant lines represent an asset in the studies of molecular mechanisms that regulate vertebrate ear development. ..
  22. Gribble S, Nikolaus O, Dorsky R. Regulation and function of Dbx genes in the zebrafish spinal cord. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:3472-83 pubmed
    ..Our data confirm that the dbx1a/1b/2 domain in zebrafish spinal cord development behaves similarly to amniotes, while extending knowledge of Dbx1 function in spinal cord patterning. ..
  23. Lecaudey V, Ulloa E, Anselme I, Stedman A, Schneider Maunoury S, Pujades C. Role of the hindbrain in patterning the otic vesicle: a study of the zebrafish vhnf1 mutant. Dev Biol. 2007;303:134-43 pubmed
    ..They suggest that, despite the evolution of inner ear structure and function, some of the mechanisms underlying the regionalisation of the otic vesicle in fish and amniotes have been conserved. ..
  24. Petko J, Millimaki B, Canfield V, Riley B, Levenson R. Otoc1: a novel otoconin-90 ortholog required for otolith mineralization in zebrafish. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:209-22 pubmed
    ..Knockdown of otoc1 mRNA translation with antisense morpholinos produced a variety of aberrant otolith phenotypes. Our results suggest that Otoc1 may serve to nucleate calcium carbonate mineralization of aragonitic otoliths...
  25. Pittlik S, Domingues S, Meyer A, Begemann G. Expression of zebrafish aldh1a3 (raldh3) and absence of aldh1a1 in teleosts. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:141-7 pubmed publisher
  26. Heude E, Shaikho S, Ekker M. The dlx5a/dlx6a genes play essential roles in the early development of zebrafish median fin and pectoral structures. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98505 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results refocus arguments on the mechanistic basis of paired appendage genesis during vertebrate evolution. ..
  27. Thummel R, Burket C, Hyde D. Two different transgenes to study gene silencing and re-expression during zebrafish caudal fin and retinal regeneration. ScientificWorldJournal. 2006;6 Suppl 1:65-81 pubmed reinitiated and restricted to the blastema of the regenerating caudal fin and colabels with BrdU, PCNA, and msxc-positive cells...
  28. Bouzaffour M, Dufourcq P, Lecaudey V, Haas P, Vriz S. Fgf and Sdf-1 pathways interact during zebrafish fin regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5824 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation supports the idea that the regeneration process involves a delicate balance between multiple pathways. ..
  29. Westcot S, Hatzold J, Urban M, Richetti S, Skuster K, Harm R, et al. Protein-Trap Insertional Mutagenesis Uncovers New Genes Involved in Zebrafish Skin Development, Including a Neuregulin 2a-Based ErbB Signaling Pathway Required during Median Fin Fold Morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130688 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight genes--fras1, grip1, hmcn1, msxc, col4a4, ahnak, capn12, and nrg2a--had been described in an integumentary context to varying degrees, while ..
  30. Omata Y, Nojima Y, Nakayama S, Okamoto H, Nakamura H, Funahashi J. Role of Bone morphogenetic protein 4 in zebrafish semicircular canal development. Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:711-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the protrusions in gallery treated with Noggin were partially rescued. These data indicate that BMP4 plays an important role in the development of protrusions to form semicircular canals. ..
  31. Camarata T, Snyder D, Schwend T, Klosowiak J, Holtrup B, Simon H. Pdlim7 is required for maintenance of the mesenchymal/epidermal Fgf signaling feedback loop during zebrafish pectoral fin development. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:104 pubmed publisher
    ..These new regulatory mechanisms may have important implications how we interpret Tbx5 function in congenital hand/heart syndromes in humans. ..
  32. Hammond K, van Eeden F, Whitfield T. Repression of Hedgehog signalling is required for the acquisition of dorsolateral cell fates in the zebrafish otic vesicle. Development. 2010;137:1361-71 pubmed publisher
  33. Rotllant J, Liu D, Yan Y, Postlethwait J, Westerfield M, Du S. Sparc (Osteonectin) functions in morphogenesis of the pharyngeal skeleton and inner ear. Matrix Biol. 2008;27:561-72 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of the phenotypes of Sparc knockdown and known zebrafish mutants with similar defects places Sparc downstream of sox9 in the genetic network that regulates development of the pharyngeal skeleton and inner ear of vertebrates...
  34. Ekker M, Akimenko M, Allende M, Smith R, Drouin G, Langille R, et al. Relationships among msx gene structure and function in zebrafish and other vertebrates. Mol Biol Evol. 1997;14:1008-22 pubmed
    The zebrafish genome contains at least five msx homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC, msxD, and the newly isolated msxE...
  35. Li Y, Laue K, Temtamy S, Aglan M, Kotan L, Yigit G, et al. Temtamy preaxial brachydactyly syndrome is caused by loss-of-function mutations in chondroitin synthase 1, a potential target of BMP signaling. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;87:757-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we obtained strikingly similar zebrafish phenotypes after chsy1 overexpression, which might explain why, in humans, brachydactyly can be caused by mutations leading either to loss or to gain of BMP signaling. ..
  36. Flowers G, Topczewska J, Topczewski J. A zebrafish Notum homolog specifically blocks the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Development. 2012;139:2416-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Notum 1a does not interact with Glypican 4, an essential component of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Our results suggest a surprising specific role of Notum in the developing vertebrate embryo. ..
  37. Riley B, Grunwald D. A mutation in zebrafish affecting a localized cellular function required for normal ear development. Dev Biol. 1996;179:427-35 pubmed
    ..Expression patterns of several ear marker genes (msxC, msxD, and dlx3) also appear normal in the mutant...
  38. Elsen G, Choi L, Millen K, Grinblat Y, Prince V. Zic1 and Zic4 regulate zebrafish roof plate specification and hindbrain ventricle morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;314:376-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we conclude that Zic1 and Zic4 control zebrafish 4th ventricle morphogenesis by regulating multiple mechanisms including cell proliferation and fate specification in the dorsal hindbrain. ..
  39. Macdonald R, Barth K, Xu Q, Holder N, Mikkola I, Wilson S. Midline signalling is required for Pax gene regulation and patterning of the eyes. Development. 1995;121:3267-78 pubmed
  40. Hadzhiev Y, Lele Z, Schindler S, Wilson S, Ahlberg P, Strahle U, et al. Hedgehog signaling patterns the outgrowth of unpaired skeletal appendages in zebrafish. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:75 pubmed
    ..The median fins evolved before paired fins in early craniates, thus the patterning of the median fins may be an ancestral mechanism that controls the outgrowth of skeletogenic appendages in vertebrates. ..
  41. Kwak S, Vemaraju S, Moorman S, Zeddies D, Popper A, Riley B. Zebrafish pax5 regulates development of the utricular macula and vestibular function. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3026-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, pax5 works in conjunction with fgf3 and pax2a to establish and/or maintain the utricular macula and is essential for vestibular function...
  42. Phillips B, Kwon H, Melton C, Houghtaling P, Fritz A, Riley B. Zebrafish msxB, msxC and msxE function together to refine the neural-nonneural border and regulate cranial placodes and neural crest development. Dev Biol. 2006;294:376-90 pubmed
    The zebrafish muscle segment homeobox genes msxB, msxC and msxE are expressed in partially overlapping domains in the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm. We examined the roles of these msx genes in early development...
  43. Thummel R, Bai S, Sarras M, Song P, McDermott J, Brewer J, et al. Inhibition of zebrafish fin regeneration using in vivo electroporation of morpholinos against fgfr1 and msxb. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:336-46 pubmed
    ..Finally, knock-down of Fgfr1, but not Msxb, affected the blastemal expression of msxc, suggesting this technique can be used to determine epistasis in genetic pathways affecting regeneration...
  44. Kwak S, Phillips B, Heck R, Riley B. An expanded domain of fgf3 expression in the hindbrain of zebrafish valentino mutants results in mis-patterning of the otic vesicle. Development. 2002;129:5279-87 pubmed
    ..This is in sharp contrast to the mouse, in which fgf3 is normally expressed in r5 and r6 because of positive regulation by kreisler, the mouse ortholog of val. Implications for co-evolution of the hindbrain and inner ear are discussed. ..
  45. Ando K, Shibata E, Hans S, Brand M, Kawakami A. Osteoblast Production by Reserved Progenitor Cells in Zebrafish Bone Regeneration and Maintenance. Dev Cell. 2017;43:643-650.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that reserved progenitors are a significant and complementary source of osteoblasts for zebrafish bone regeneration. ..