Gene Symbol: mstnb
Description: myostatin b
Alias: gdf8, mstn, mstn-1, zgc:109749, growth/differentiation factor 8, myostatin-1, myostatin-B
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. McPherron A, Lee S. Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12457-61 pubmed
  2. Xu C, Wu G, Zohar Y, Du S. Analysis of myostatin gene structure, expression and function in zebrafish. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:4067-79 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that Myostatin plays an inhibitory role in hyperplastic muscle growth in zebrafish. ..
  3. van der Meulen T, Schipper H, van den Boogaart J, Huising M, Kranenbarg S, Van Leeuwen J. Endurance exercise differentially stimulates heart and axial muscle development in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R1040-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the heart muscle shifts to a faster phenotype but does not become more aerobic. This suggests that endurance training differentially affects heart and axial muscle. ..
  4. Lee C, Hu S, Gong H, Chen M, Lu J, Wu J. Suppression of myostatin with vector-based RNA interference causes a double-muscle effect in transgenic zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;387:766-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first model zebrafish with a hereditarily stable myostatin-suppressed genotype and a double-muscle phenotype. ..
  5. Amali A, Lin C, Chen Y, Wang W, Gong H, Lee C, et al. Up-regulation of muscle-specific transcription factors during embryonic somitogenesis of zebrafish (Danio rerio) by knock-down of myostatin-1. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:847-56 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that myostatin plays a major role during myogenesis, apart from inhibition of proliferation as well as differentiation. ..
  6. Helterline D, Garikipati D, Stenkamp D, Rodgers B. Embryonic and tissue-specific regulation of myostatin-1 and -2 gene expression in zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;151:90-7 pubmed
    ..a novel paralogue in zebrafish, zfMSTN-2, and prompted the reclassification of the entire subfamily to include MSTN-1 and -2 sister clades in the bony fishes...
  7. Rodgers B, Weber G. Sequence conservation among fish myostatin orthologues and the characterization of two additional cDNA clones from Morone saxatilis and Morone americana. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;129:597-603 pubmed
    Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates mammalian skeletal muscle growth and development by inhibiting myoblast proliferation...
  8. Goodale B, Tilton S, Corvi M, Wilson G, Janszen D, Anderson K, et al. Structurally distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce differential transcriptional responses in developing zebrafish. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;272:656-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures. ..
  9. Mokalled M, Patra C, Dickson A, Endo T, Stainier D, Poss K. Injury-induced ctgfa directs glial bridging and spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Science. 2016;354:630-634 pubmed
    ..Our study reveals that CTGF is necessary and sufficient to stimulate glial bridging and natural spinal cord regeneration. ..

More Information


  1. Ulloa P, Peña A, Lizama C, Araneda C, Iturra P, Neira R, et al. Growth response and expression of muscle growth-related candidate genes in adult zebrafish fed plant and fishmeal protein-based diets. Zebrafish. 2013;10:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of familiar variation on gene expression was observed among families. This study shows that PP diet and family variation have effects on gene expression in fish muscle. ..
  2. Biga P, Meyer J. Growth hormone differentially regulates growth and growth-related gene expression in closely related fish species. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;154:465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further support the role that the zebrafish and giant danio can play important model organisms for determinate and indeterminate growth. ..
  3. Chemello G, Piccinetti C, Randazzo B, Carnevali O, Maradonna F, Magro M, et al. Oxytetracycline Delivery in Adult Female Zebrafish by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Zebrafish. 2016;13:495-503 pubmed
    ..However, the dynamics related to OTC release from the SAMNs@OTC complex are still not clear and need further investigations. ..
  4. Palstra A, Tudorache C, Rovira M, Brittijn S, Burgerhout E, van den Thillart G, et al. Establishing zebrafish as a novel exercise model: swimming economy, swimming-enhanced growth and muscle growth marker gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14483 pubmed publisher
    ..slow myosin heavy chain 1 (smyhc1), troponin I2 (tnni2), myosin heavy polypeptide 2 (myhz2) and myostatin (mstnb)...
  5. Masuda Y, Oku H, Okumura T, Nomura K, Kurokawa T. Feeding restriction alters expression of some ATP related genes more sensitively than the RNA/DNA ratio in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;152:287-91 pubmed publisher
    ..expression levels of NDK-Z2 and GAPDH were upregulated to a greater extent than those for myogenin and myostatin 1 under restricted feeding...
  6. Tee J, van Rooijen C, Boonen R, Zivkovic D. Regulation of slow and fast muscle myofibrillogenesis by Wnt/beta-catenin and myostatin signaling. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5880 pubmed publisher
    ..Epistatic analyses suggest a possible genetic interaction between Wnt/beta-catenin and Myostatin in regulation of slow and fast twitch muscle myofibrillogenesis...
  7. Avella M, PLACE A, Du S, Williams E, Silvi S, Zohar Y, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus accelerates zebrafish backbone calcification and gonadal differentiation through effects on the GnRH and IGF systems. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45572 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a significant role of the microbiota composition on the host organism development profile and open new perspectives in the study of probiotics usage and application. ..
  8. Ye H, Chen S, Sha Z, Liu Y. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the myostatin gene in sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus). Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2007;9:262-72 pubmed
    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals...
  9. Lu J, Lu J, Choo S, Li Y, Yeh H, Shiue J, et al. Cascade effect of cardiac myogenesis gene expression during cardiac looping in tbx5 knockdown zebrafish embryos. J Biomed Sci. 2008;15:779-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggests that the heart failure caused by the knockdown of tbx5 gene might result from the down-regulation of cardiac myogenesis genes. ..
  10. Chang Y, Pai C, Chen Y, Ting H, Martinez P, Telford M, et al. Regulatory circuit rewiring and functional divergence of the duplicate admp genes in dorsoventral axial patterning. Dev Biol. 2016;410:108-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides an excellent example of signaling circuit rewiring and protein functional changes after gene duplications. ..
  11. Acosta J, Carpio Y, Borroto I, Gonzalez O, Estrada M. Myostatin gene silenced by RNAi show a zebrafish giant phenotype. J Biotechnol. 2005;119:324-31 pubmed
    ..The dsRNA injection in early development stage in zebrafish produced hyperplasia or hypertrophy. In addition, the interference of gene function showed a strong dependence on the amount of dsRNA. ..
  12. van der Meulen T, Schipper H, Van Leeuwen J, Kranenbarg S. Effects of decreased muscle activity on developing axial musculature in nicb107 mutant zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Exp Biol. 2005;208:3675-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, skin stiffness is affected. In conclusion, the lack of muscle fibre activity did not prevent the basal muscle components developing but influenced further organisation and differentiation of these components. ..
  13. Wang C, Chen Y, Bian W, Xie S, Qi G, Liu L, et al. Deletion of mstna and mstnb impairs the immune system and affects growth performance in zebrafish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;72:572-580 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, mstna-/- and mstnb-/- homozygous zebrafish were firstly generated using CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered regularly interspaced short ..
  14. Song X, Xu C, Yue Z, Wang L, Wang G, Yang F. Bioinformatic analysis based on the complete coding region of the MSTN gene within and among different species. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    Myostatin, encoded by the MSTN gene (previously GDF8), is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily, which normally acts to limit skeletal muscle mass by regulating the number and growth of muscle fibers...
  15. Amali A, Lin C, Chen Y, Wang W, Gong H, Rekha R, et al. Overexpression of Myostatin2 in zebrafish reduces the expression of dystrophin associated protein complex (DAPC) which leads to muscle dystrophy. J Biomed Sci. 2008;15:595-604 pubmed publisher
  16. Meyer B, Froehlich J, Galt N, Biga P. Inbred strains of zebrafish exhibit variation in growth performance and myostatin expression following fasting. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2013;164:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data can help future research endeavors by highlighting the attributes of each strain with regard to growth performance so that the most fitting strain may be utilized. ..
  17. Rosa C, Kuradomi R, Almeida D, Lannes C, Figueiredo M, Dytz A, et al. GH overexpression modifies muscle expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and increases spinal curvature of old zebrafish. Exp Gerontol. 2010;45:449-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained here indicate that GH overexpression reduces the transcription of anti-oxidant defense system and myogenesis-related genes, which probably accelerates senescence in the zebrafish transgenic model used. ..
  18. Gao Y, Dai Z, Shi C, Zhai G, Jin X, He J, et al. Depletion of Myostatin b Promotes Somatic Growth and Lipid Metabolism in Zebrafish. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2016;7:88 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, two independent mstnb-deficient mutant lines in zebrafish were generated with the TALENs technique...
  19. Biga P, Roberts S, Iliev D, McCauley L, Moon J, Collodi P, et al. The isolation, characterization, and expression of a novel GDF11 gene and a second myostatin form in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;141:218-30 pubmed
    ..This study also cloned a second MSTN form in zebrafish most similar to Salmonid MSTN2 forms...
  20. Nesan D, Kamkar M, Burrows J, Scott I, Marsden M, Vijayan M. Glucocorticoid receptor signaling is essential for mesoderm formation and muscle development in zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1288-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results for the first time indicate that GR signaling is essential for zebrafish muscle development, and we hypothesize a role for BMP morphogens in this process. ..
  21. Radaelli G, Rowlerson A, Mascarello F, Patruno M, Funkenstein B. Myostatin precursor is present in several tissues in teleost fish: a comparative immunolocalization study. Cell Tissue Res. 2003;311:239-50 pubmed
  22. Randazzo B, Chemello G, Tortarolo I, Chiarello G, Zalas M, Santini A, et al. A Novel Photocatalytic Purification System for Fish Culture. Zebrafish. 2017;14:411-421 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant biological alterations were detectable on the cultured fish. ..
  23. Fuentes E, Pino K, Navarro C, Delgado I, Valdés J, Molina A. Transient inactivation of myostatin induces muscle hypertrophy and overcompensatory growth in zebrafish via inactivation of the SMAD signaling pathway. J Biotechnol. 2013;168:295-302 pubmed publisher
    Myostatin (MSTN) is the main negative regulator of muscle growth and development in vertebrates...
  24. Kerr T, Roalson E, Rodgers B. Phylogenetic analysis of the myostatin gene sub-family and the differential expression of a novel member in zebrafish. Evol Dev. 2005;7:390-400 pubmed
    The myostatin (MSTN)-null phenotype in mammals is characterized by extreme gains in skeletal muscle mass or "double muscling" as the cytokine negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth...
  25. Sundarrajan L, Yeung C, Hahn L, Weber L, Unniappan S. Irisin regulates cardiac physiology in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181461 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results identified muscle proteins as novel targets of irisin, and added irisin to the list of peptide modulators of cardiovascular physiology in zebrafish. ..
  26. Vianello S, Brazzoduro L, Dalla Valle L, Belvedere P, Colombo L. Myostatin expression during development and chronic stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Endocrinol. 2003;176:47-59 pubmed
    ..We propose that chronic stunting in fish brings about a general depression of muscle protein synthesis which does not spare myostatin. ..
  27. Kuradomi R, Figueiredo M, Lanes C, da Rosa C, Almeida D, Maggioni R, et al. GH overexpression causes muscle hypertrophy independent from local IGF-I in a zebrafish transgenic model. Transgenic Res. 2011;20:513-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that muscle hypertrophy is independent from muscle igf1, and is likely to be a direct effect of excess circulating GH and/or IGF1 in this transgenic zebrafish lineage. ..