Gene Symbol: mpeg1.1
Description: macrophage expressed 1, tandem duplicate 1
Alias: fj09e08, mpeg1, wu:fb14d06, wu:fj09e08, zgc:66409, macrophage expressed 1, tandem duplicate 1
Species: zebrafish
Products:     mpeg1.1

Top Publications

  1. Hall C, Flores M, Oehlers S, Sanderson L, Lam E, Crosier K, et al. Infection-responsive expansion of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment in zebrafish is dependent upon inducible nitric oxide. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10:198-209 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insights into the reactive capacity of HSPCs and how the blood system is "fine-tuned" in response to inflammatory stress. ..
  2. Harvie E, Green J, Neely M, Huttenlocher A. Innate immune response to Streptococcus iniae infection in zebrafish larvae. Infect Immun. 2013;81:110-21 pubmed publisher
    ..iniae infection and have found that although neutrophils are important for controlling infection with wild-type S. iniae, neutrophils are not necessary for host defense against the cpsA mutant...
  3. Shiau C, Monk K, Joo W, Talbot W. An anti-inflammatory NOD-like receptor is required for microglia development. Cell Rep. 2013;5:1342-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that NLRC3-like prevents inappropriate macrophage activation, thereby allowing normal microglial development. ..
  4. Ellett F, Pase L, Hayman J, Andrianopoulos A, Lieschke G. mpeg1 promoter transgenes direct macrophage-lineage expression in zebrafish. Blood. 2011;117:e49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To remove this roadblock, a macrophage-specific marker was identified (mpeg1) and its promoter used in mpeg1-driven transgenes...
  5. Roh Johnson M, Shah A, Stonick J, Poudel K, Kargl J, Yang G, et al. Macrophage-Dependent Cytoplasmic Transfer during Melanoma Invasion In Vivo. Dev Cell. 2017;43:549-562.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we present a model in which macrophage/tumor cell contact allows for the transfer of cytoplasmic molecules from macrophages to tumor cells corresponding to increased tumor cell motility and dissemination. ..
  6. Svoboda O, Stachura D, Machonova O, Zon L, Traver D, Bartunek P. Ex vivo tools for the clonal analysis of zebrafish hematopoiesis. Nat Protoc. 2016;11:1007-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The present protocol should facilitate such studies on cells derived from zebrafish. ..
  7. Sidik H, Talbot W. A zinc finger protein that regulates oligodendrocyte specification, migration and myelination in zebrafish. Development. 2015;142:4119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results defined the function of a new zinc finger protein with specific function in oligodendrocyte specification, migration and myelination in the developing CNS. ..
  8. Rossi F, Casano A, Henke K, Richter K, Peri F. The SLC7A7 Transporter Identifies Microglial Precursors prior to Entry into the Brain. Cell Rep. 2015;11:1008-17 pubmed publisher
    ..By taking a photoconversion approach, we show that these macrophages give rise to microglia. This study provides direct experimental evidence for the existence of sub-lineages among embryonic macrophages. ..
  9. Hepburn L, Prajsnar T, Klapholz C, Moreno P, Loynes C, Ogryzko N, et al. Innate immunity. A Spaetzle-like role for nerve growth factor β in vertebrate immunity to Staphylococcus aureus. Science. 2014;346:641-646 pubmed publisher
    ..TrkA knockdown in zebrafish increased susceptibility to S. aureus infection, confirming an evolutionarily conserved role for NGFβ-TRKA signaling in pathogen-specific host immunity. ..

More Information


  1. Lam P, Harvie E, Huttenlocher A. Heat shock modulates neutrophil motility in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e84436 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that routine heat shock can alter neutrophil function in zebrafish. The findings suggest that caution should be taken when employing a heat shock-dependent inducible system to study the innate immune response. ..
  2. Bernut A, Herrmann J, Kissa K, Dubremetz J, Gaillard J, Lutfalla G, et al. Mycobacterium abscessus cording prevents phagocytosis and promotes abscess formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E943-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is a description of the crucial role of cording in the in vivo physiopathology of M. abscessus infection and emphasizes cording as a mechanism of immune evasion. ..
  3. Wittamer V, Bertrand J, Gutschow P, Traver D. Characterization of the mononuclear phagocyte system in zebrafish. Blood. 2011;117:7126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that mhc2dab:GFP and cd45:DsRed transgenic lines will be instrumental in elucidating the immune response in the zebrafish. ..
  4. Barros Becker F, Lam P, Fisher R, Huttenlocher A. Live imaging reveals distinct modes of neutrophil and macrophage migration within interstitial tissues. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:3801-3808 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that larval zebrafish neutrophils and macrophage display distinct modes of migration within interstitial tissues in vivo. ..
  5. Petrie T, Strand N, Yang C, Tsung Yang C, Rabinowitz J, Moon R. Macrophages modulate adult zebrafish tail fin regeneration. Development. 2014;141:2581-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To begin to address these questions, we first tracked neutrophils (lyzC(+), mpo(+)) and macrophages (mpeg1(+)) in adult zebrafish following amputation of the tail fin, and detailed a migratory timecourse that revealed ..
  6. Lagos L, Tandberg J, Repnik U, Boysen P, Ropstad E, Varkey D, et al. Characterization and Vaccine Potential of Membrane Vesicles Produced by Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in an Adult Zebrafish Model. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017;24: pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of tnfa, il1b, and ifng, as well as mhcii, mpeg1.1, and ighm, was upregulated, thus confirming the immunogenic properties of F. noatunensis subsp...
  7. Fan H, Liu Y, Wang L, Du T, Dong M, Gao L, et al. miR-142-3p acts as an essential modulator of neutrophil development in zebrafish. Blood. 2014;124:1320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we uncovered a novel role of miR-142-3p in maintaining normal neutrophil development and maturation. ..
  8. Lu J, Hsieh M, Hou H, Chen C, Tien H, Lin L. Overexpression of SOX4 correlates with poor prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia and is leukemogenic in zebrafish. Blood Cancer J. 2017;7:e593 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SOX4 is not only an independent prognostic factor of AML, but also an important molecular factor in leukemogenesis. ..
  9. Benard E, Racz P, Rougeot J, Nezhinsky A, Verbeek F, Spaink H, et al. Macrophage-expressed perforins mpeg1 and mpeg1.2 have an anti-bacterial function in zebrafish. J Innate Immun. 2015;7:136-52 pubmed publisher
    Macrophage-expressed gene 1 (MPEG1) encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein with a predicted membrane attack complex/perforin domain associated with host defence against invading pathogens...
  10. Bojarczuk A, Miller K, Hotham R, Lewis A, Ogryzko N, Kamuyango A, et al. Cryptococcus neoformans Intracellular Proliferation and Capsule Size Determines Early Macrophage Control of Infection. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21489 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, high-content imaging of cryptococcal infection in vivo demonstrates how very early interactions between macrophages and cryptococci are critical in the outcome of cryptococcosis. ..
  11. Varela M, Forn Cuní G, Dios S, Figueras A, Novoa B. Proinflammatory Caspase A Activation and an Antiviral State Are Induced by a Zebrafish Perforin after Possible Cellular and Functional Diversification from a Myeloid Ancestor. J Innate Immun. 2016;8:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, one of the genes, prf19b, which is mainly produced by myeloid cells, seemed to be involved in antiviral defense, conferring protection after an in vivo infection. ..
  12. Shen K, Sidik H, Talbot W. The Rag-Ragulator Complex Regulates Lysosome Function and Phagocytic Flux in Microglia. Cell Rep. 2016;14:547-559 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis reveals an essential role of the Rag-Ragulator complex in proper lysosome function and phagocytic flux in microglia. ..
  13. Tandberg J, Lagos L, Langlete P, Berger E, Rishovd A, Roos N, et al. Comparative Analysis of Membrane Vesicles from Three Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates Reveals Differences in Vesicle Characteristics. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0165099 pubmed publisher
    ..salmonis derived MVs, highlighting strain-specific vesicle characteristics. The results further illustrate that the MV proteome from one bacterial strain is not representative of all bacterial strains within one species. ..
  14. Lagos L, Tandberg J, Becker M, Winther Larsen H. Immunomodulatory properties of Concholepas concholepas hemocyanin against francisellosis in a zebrafish model. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;67:571-574 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data report the immunoregulatory properties of CCH and its potential use as a vaccine adjuvant for aquaculture. ..
  15. Liu X, Wu H, Chang X, Tang Y, Liu Q, Zhang Y. Notable mucosal immune responses induced in the intestine of zebrafish (Danio rerio) bath-vaccinated with a live attenuated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014;40:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the live attenuated V. anguillarum vaccine induced notable mucosal immune responses in the intestine which could be used as a mucosal vaccine vector in the future. ..
  16. He B, Shi X, Man C, Ma A, Ekker S, Chow H, et al. Functions of flt3 in zebrafish hematopoiesis and its relevance to human acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2014;123:2518-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Morpholino knockdown significantly reduced the expression of l-plastin (pan-leukocyte), csf1r, and mpeg1 (macrophage) as well as that of c-myb (definitive HSPCs), lck, and rag1 (T-lymphocyte)...
  17. Vincent W, Freisinger C, Lam P, Huttenlocher A, Sauer J. Macrophages mediate flagellin induced inflammasome activation and host defense in zebrafish. Cell Microbiol. 2016;18:591-604 pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes infections. ..
  18. Tandberg J, Oliver C, Lagos L, Gaarder M, Yañez A, Ropstad E, et al. Membrane vesicles from Piscirickettsia salmonis induce protective immunity and reduce development of salmonid rickettsial septicemia in an adult zebrafish model. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;67:189-198 pubmed publisher the MV immunized group, and the mRNA expression levels of several immune related genes altered, including mpeg1.1, tnf?, il1b, il10 and il6...
  19. Tell R, Kimura K, Palić D. Rac2 expression and its role in neutrophil functions of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:1086-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression pattern and role of Rac2 in zebrafish neutrophil function allows for comparative studies of innate immune responses in this animal model. ..
  20. Mesureur J, Feliciano J, Wagner N, Gomes M, Zhang L, Blanco Gonzalez M, et al. Macrophages, but not neutrophils, are critical for proliferation of Burkholderia cenocepacia and ensuing host-damaging inflammation. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006437 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that paradigm-changing approaches are needed for development of novel antimicrobials to efficiently disarm intracellular bacteria of this group of highly persistent, opportunistic pathogens. ..
  21. Dee C, Nagaraju R, Athanasiadis E, Gray C, Fernandez Del Ama L, Johnston S, et al. CD4-Transgenic Zebrafish Reveal Tissue-Resident Th2- and Regulatory T Cell-like Populations and Diverse Mononuclear Phagocytes. J Immunol. 2016;197:3520-3530 pubmed
  22. Oehlers S, Cronan M, Scott N, Thomas M, Okuda K, Walton E, et al. Interception of host angiogenic signalling limits mycobacterial growth. Nature. 2015;517:612-5 pubmed publisher
  23. Rosowski E, Deng Q, Keller N, Huttenlocher A. Rac2 Functions in Both Neutrophils and Macrophages To Mediate Motility and Host Defense in Larval Zebrafish. J Immunol. 2016;197:4780-4790 pubmed
  24. Fink I, Benard E, Hermsen T, Meijer A, Forlenza M, Wiegertjes G. Molecular and functional characterization of the scavenger receptor CD36 in zebrafish and common carp. Mol Immunol. 2015;63:381-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the putative role for Cd36 in immune responses of fish in the context of other members of the scavenger receptor class B family. ..
  25. Progatzky F, Cook H, Lamb J, Bugeon L, Dallman M. Mucosal inflammation at the respiratory interface: a zebrafish model. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;310:L551-61 pubmed publisher
  26. Theodore L, Hagedorn E, Cortes M, Natsuhara K, Liu S, Perlin J, et al. Distinct Roles for Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in Embryonic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Emergence, Migration, and Niche Colonization. Stem Cell Reports. 2017;8:1226-1241 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate Mmp2 and Mmp9 play distinct but complementary roles in developmental HSPC production and migration. ..
  27. van den Bos R, Mes W, Galligani P, Heil A, Zethof J, Flik G, et al. Further characterisation of differences between TL and AB zebrafish (Danio rerio): Gene expression, physiology and behaviour at day 5 of the larval stage. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175420 pubmed publisher
    ..These results emphasise that differences between strains need to be taken into account to enhance reproducibility both within, and between, laboratories. ..
  28. Elks P, Brizee S, van der Vaart M, Walmsley S, van Eeden F, Renshaw S, et al. Hypoxia inducible factor signaling modulates susceptibility to mycobacterial infection via a nitric oxide dependent mechanism. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003789 pubmed publisher
    ..Stabilization of Hif-1α therefore represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention against tuberculosis. ..
  29. Sanderson L, Chien A, Astin J, Crosier K, Crosier P, Hall C. An inducible transgene reports activation of macrophages in live zebrafish larvae. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;53:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We anticipate the Tg(irg1:EGFP) line will provide a valuable tool to explore macrophage activation and plasticity in the context of different disease models. ..
  30. Shiau C, Kaufman Z, Meireles A, Talbot W. Differential requirement for irf8 in formation of embryonic and adult macrophages in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0117513 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study defines distinct requirement for irf8 in myelopoiesis before and after transition to the adult hematopoietic system. ..
  31. Prajsnar T, Renshaw S, Ogryzko N, Foster S, Serror P, Mesnage S. Zebrafish as a novel vertebrate model to dissect enterococcal pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2013;81:4271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that the zebrafish is a novel, powerful model for studying E. faecalis pathogenesis, enabling us to dissect the mechanism of enterococcal virulence. ..
  32. Nguyen Chi M, Phan Q, Gonzalez C, Dubremetz J, Levraud J, Lutfalla G. Transient infection of the zebrafish notochord with E. coli induces chronic inflammation. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:871-82 pubmed publisher
  33. Nguyen Chi M, Laplace Builhe B, Travnickova J, Luz Crawford P, Tejedor G, Phan Q, et al. Identification of polarized macrophage subsets in zebrafish. elife. 2015;4:e07288 pubmed publisher
    ..factor alpha (tnfa), a key feature of classically activated (M1) macrophages, express fluorescent proteins Tg(mpeg1:mCherryF/tnfa:eGFP-F)...
  34. Hall C, Boyle R, Astin J, Flores M, Oehlers S, Sanderson L, et al. Immunoresponsive gene 1 augments bactericidal activity of macrophage-lineage cells by regulating ?-oxidation-dependent mitochondrial ROS production. Cell Metab. 2013;18:265-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal IRG1 as a key component of the immunometabolism axis, connecting infection, cellular metabolism, and macrophage effector function...
  35. Xu J, Wang T, Wu Y, Jin W, Wen Z. Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine. Dev Cell. 2016;38:214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that microglia colonization of developing zebrafish midbrain is triggered by apoptotic neuronal death, possibly via releasing lysophosphatidylcholine. ..
  36. Pei W, Xu L, Varshney G, Carrington B, Bishop K, Jones M, et al. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases. Sci Rep. 2016;6:29946 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. ..
  37. Hartig E, Zhu S, King B, Coffman J. Cortisol-treated zebrafish embryos develop into pro-inflammatory adults with aberrant immune gene regulation. Biol Open. 2016;5:1134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that chronically elevated glucocorticoid signaling early in life directs development of a pro-inflammatory adult phenotype, at the expense of immunoregulation and somatic regenerative capacity. ..
  38. Tauzin S, Starnes T, Becker F, Lam P, Huttenlocher A. Redox and Src family kinase signaling control leukocyte wound attraction and neutrophil reverse migration. J Cell Biol. 2014;207:589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, redox-SFK signaling in adjacent tissues is essential for coordinated leukocyte wound attraction and repulsion through pathways that involve contact-mediated guidance. ..
  39. Oosterhof N, Holtman I, Kuil L, van der Linde H, Boddeke E, Eggen B, et al. Identification of a conserved and acute neurodegeneration-specific microglial transcriptome in the zebrafish. Glia. 2017;65:138-149 pubmed publisher
    ..glia 2016;65:138-149. ..
  40. Shao T, Zhu L, Nie L, Shi W, Dong W, Xiang L, et al. Characterization of surface phenotypic molecules of teleost dendritic cells. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;49:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings contributed to the current understanding of the evolutionary history of DCs and the DC-regulatory mechanisms of adaptive immunity. ..
  41. Gerri C, Marín Juez R, Marass M, Marks A, Maischein H, Stainier D. Hif-1α regulates macrophage-endothelial interactions during blood vessel development in zebrafish. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15492 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data provide genetic evidence that Hif-1α regulates interactions between macrophages and endothelial cells starting with the mobilization of macrophages from the AGM. ..
  42. Zakrzewska A, Cui C, Stockhammer O, Benard E, Spaink H, Meijer A. Macrophage-specific gene functions in Spi1-directed innate immunity. Blood. 2010;116:e1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Colocalization studies with neutrophil and macrophage markers revealed that genes cxcr3.2, mpeg1, ptpn6, and mfap4 were expressed specifically in early embryonic macrophages...
  43. Tenor J, Oehlers S, Yang J, Tobin D, Perfect J. Live Imaging of Host-Parasite Interactions in a Zebrafish Infection Model Reveals Cryptococcal Determinants of Virulence and Central Nervous System Invasion. MBio. 2015;6:e01425-15 pubmed publisher
  44. Sugimoto K, Hui S, Sheng D, Nakayama M, Kikuchi K. Zebrafish FOXP3 is required for the maintenance of immune tolerance. Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;73:156-162 pubmed publisher
  45. Keatinge M, Bui H, Menke A, Chen Y, Sokol A, Bai Q, et al. Glucocerebrosidase 1 deficient Danio rerio mirror key pathological aspects of human Gaucher disease and provide evidence of early microglial activation preceding alpha-synuclein-independent neuronal cell death. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6640-52 pubmed publisher
  46. Antonio N, Bønnelykke Behrndtz M, Ward L, Collin J, Christensen I, Steiniche T, et al. The wound inflammatory response exacerbates growth of pre-neoplastic cells and progression to cancer. EMBO J. 2015;34:2219-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We find a strong correlation between neutrophil presence at sites of melanoma ulceration and cell proliferation at these sites, which is associated with poor prognostic outcome. ..
  47. Peterman E, Sullivan C, Goody M, Rodriguez Nuñez I, Yoder J, Kim C. Neutralization of mitochondrial superoxide by superoxide dismutase 2 promotes bacterial clearance and regulates phagocyte numbers in zebrafish. Infect Immun. 2015;83:430-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work highlights the importance of mitochondrial ROS regulation by SOD2 in the context of innate immunity and supports the use of mitochondrion-targeted ROS scavengers as potential adjuvant therapies during severe infections. ..
  48. Palha N, Guivel Benhassine F, Briolat V, Lutfalla G, Sourisseau M, Ellett F, et al. Real-time whole-body visualization of Chikungunya Virus infection and host interferon response in zebrafish. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003619 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results show that the zebrafish represents a novel valuable model to dynamically visualize replication, pathogenesis and host responses to a human virus. ..
  49. Travnickova J, Tran Chau V, Julien E, Mateos Langerak J, Gonzalez C, Lelièvre E, et al. Primitive macrophages control HSPC mobilization and definitive haematopoiesis. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6227 pubmed publisher
  50. Svoboda O, Stachura D, Machonova O, Pajer P, Brynda J, Zon L, et al. Dissection of vertebrate hematopoiesis using zebrafish thrombopoietin. Blood. 2014;124:220-8 pubmed publisher