Gene Symbol: mef2ca
Description: myocyte enhancer factor 2ca
Alias: id:ibd5026, mef2c, wu:fc05b06, zgc:64184, zgc:85726, myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C, hoo, hoover, myocyte enhancer factor 2c, myocyte enhancer factor 2ca 4'-6', myocyte enhancer factor 2ca delta gamma-like, myocyte enhancer factor 2ca variant 4, myocyte enhancer factor 2ca variant 5, myocyte enhancer factor 2ca variant 6
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Piotrowski T, Schilling T, Brand M, Jiang Y, Heisenberg C, Beuchle D, et al. Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish II: anterior arches and cartilage differentiation. Development. 1996;123:345-56 pubmed the first two arches and leave the more posterior pharyngeal arches largely unaffected (schmerle, sucker, hoover and sturgeon)...
  2. Wang Y, Qian L, Liu D, Yao L, Jiang Q, Yu Z, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 acts upstream of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2a to control embryonic cardiac contractility. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;74:290-303 pubmed
  3. Ticho B, Stainier D, Fishman M, Breitbart R. Three zebrafish MEF2 genes delineate somitic and cardiac muscle development in wild-type and mutant embryos. Mech Dev. 1996;59:205-18 pubmed
    ..Alteration of MEF2 expression in two mutants affecting somitogenesis provides insight into the control of muscle formation in the embryo. ..
  4. Lazic S, Scott I. Mef2cb regulates late myocardial cell addition from a second heart field-like population of progenitors in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2011;354:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that mef2cb, a zebrafish homolog of the mouse second heart field marker Mef2c, is expressed in the late ventricular region, and is necessary for late myocardial addition to the arterial pole...
  5. Hinits Y, Hughes S. Mef2s are required for thick filament formation in nascent muscle fibres. Development. 2007;134:2511-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that zebrafish Mef2d and Mef2c proteins are required redundantly for assembly of myosin-containing thick filaments in nascent muscle fibres, but ..
  6. Miller C, Swartz M, Khuu P, Walker M, Eberhart J, Kimmel C. mef2ca is required in cranial neural crest to effect Endothelin1 signaling in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2007;308:144-57 pubmed
    ..In mice, mef2c is required for heart and vascular development. We show that a zebrafish mef2c gene (mef2ca) is required in cranial neural crest (CNC) for proper head skeletal patterning...
  7. Hinits Y, Osborn D, Hughes S. Differential requirements for myogenic regulatory factors distinguish medial and lateral somitic, cranial and fin muscle fibre populations. Development. 2009;136:403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Mrf4 does not contribute to early myogenesis in zebrafish. We suggest that the differential use of duplicated MRF paralogues in this novel two-component myogenic system facilitated the diversification of vertebrates...
  8. Yogev O, Williams V, Hinits Y, Hughes S. eIF4EBP3L acts as a gatekeeper of TORC1 in activity-dependent muscle growth by specifically regulating Mef2ca translational initiation. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001679 pubmed publisher
    ..Polysomal fractionation showed that Mef2c decrease was due to reduced translation of mef2ca mRNA...
  9. Hinits Y, Pan L, Walker C, Dowd J, Moens C, Hughes S. Zebrafish Mef2ca and Mef2cb are essential for both first and second heart field cardiomyocyte differentiation. Dev Biol. 2012;369:199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examine Mef2 function in early heart development in zebrafish. Two Mef2c genes exist in zebrafish, mef2ca and mef2cb...

More Information


  1. Ghosh T, Song F, Packham E, Buxton S, Robinson T, Ronksley J, et al. Physical interaction between TBX5 and MEF2C is required for early heart development. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2205-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a physical interaction between TBX5 and MEF2C leading to a synergistic activation of the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain (MYH6)...
  2. Rawnsley D, Xiao J, Lee J, Liu X, Mericko Ishizuka P, Kumar V, et al. The transcription factor Atonal homolog 8 regulates Gata4 and Friend of Gata-2 during vertebrate development. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:24429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether ATOH8 modulates GATA-FOG function at other sites or in more subtle ways in mammals is not yet known...
  3. Simões F, Peterkin T, Patient R. Fgf differentially controls cross-antagonism between cardiac and haemangioblast regulators. Development. 2011;138:3235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that elevation of Fgf signalling in the anterior haemangioblast territory could have led to its recruitment into the heart field during evolution, increasing the size of the heart. ..
  4. Adrião A, Conceição N, Cancela M. MEF2C orthologues from zebrafish: Evolution, expression and promoter regulation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016;591:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Zebrafish presents two MEF2C orthologues, mef2ca and mef2cb...
  5. Devakanmalai G, Zumrut H, Ozbudak E. Cited3 activates Mef2c to control muscle cell differentiation and survival. Biol Open. 2013;2:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..into a gene regulatory network, where it acts downstream of Hedgehog signaling and myoD/myf5 but upstream of mef2c. Knockdown of expression of cited3 by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides impaired muscle cell differentiation ..
  6. Sun S, Gui Y, Jiang Q, Song H. Dihydrofolate reductase is required for the development of heart and outflow tract in zebrafish. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2011;43:957-69 pubmed publisher
    ..DHFR knockdown had negative impacts on the expressions of NKX2.5 (NK2 transcription factor-related 5), MEF2C (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C), TBX20 (T-box 20), and TBX1 (T-box 1) which are important transcriptional ..
  7. Batut J, Duboé C, Vandel L. The methyltransferases PRMT4/CARM1 and PRMT5 control differentially myogenesis in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25427 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our results show that PRMT4/CARM1 is required for proper slow myosin heavy chain localization. Altogether, our results reveal a combinatorial role of PRMT4/CARM1 and PRMT5 for proper myogenesis in zebrafish. ..
  8. Wang Y, Zhong H, Wang C, Gao D, Zhou Y, Zuo Z. Maternal exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil, lead and their mixture induces autism-like behavioral deficits in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016;134P1:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The information from the network could provide a clue for further mechanistic studies explaining molecular events regulating WSF/Pb mediated ASD. ..
  9. Gurung R, Ono Y, Baxendale S, Lee S, Moore S, Calvert M, et al. A Zebrafish Model for a Human Myopathy Associated with Mutation of the Unconventional Myosin MYO18B. Genetics. 2017;205:725-735 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that sarcomeric assembly is blocked at an early stage in fro mutants, leading to the disorganized accumulation of actin, myosin, and ?-actinin and a complete loss of myofibrillar organization in fast-twitch muscles. ..
  10. Wilson K, Baily J, Tucker C, Matrone G, Vass S, Moran C, et al. Early-life perturbations in glucocorticoid activity impacts on the structure, function and molecular composition of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;414:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..07 μg/mg vs controls 0.63 ± 0.06 μg/mg, p = 0.0007), had increased vmhc and gr mRNA levels. Perturbations in GR activity during embryonic development results in short and long-term alterations in the heart. ..
  11. Fazenda C, Conceição N, Cancela M. Transcription factors from Sox family regulate expression of zebrafish Gla-rich protein 2 gene. Gene. 2015;572:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a functional promoter for zebrafish grp2 gene regulated by Sox9b, Sox10, Ets1 and Mef2ca as determined by in vitro assays. This was confirmed in vivo for Sox9b and Sox10...
  12. Rottbauer W, Baker K, Wo Z, Mohideen M, Cantiello H, Fishman M. Growth and function of the embryonic heart depend upon the cardiac-specific L-type calcium channel alpha1 subunit. Dev Cell. 2001;1:265-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, calcium signaling via C-LTCC can regulate heart growth independently of contraction, and plays distinctive roles in fashioning both form and function of the two developing chambers. ..
  13. Roy N, Ochs J, Zambrzycka E, Anderson A. Glyphosate induces cardiovascular toxicity in Danio rerio. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;46:292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..alterations in myocardial precursors, we also investigate cardiomyocyte development with a Mef2 antibody and by mef2ca in situ hybridization and find alterations in the Mef2/mef2ca staining patterns during early cardiac patterning ..
  14. Palencia Desai S, Kohli V, Kang J, Chi N, Black B, Sumanas S. Vascular endothelial and endocardial progenitors differentiate as cardiomyocytes in the absence of Etsrp/Etv2 function. Development. 2011;138:4721-32 pubmed publisher
  15. Witzel H, Jungblut B, Choe C, Crump J, Braun T, Dobreva G. The LIM protein Ajuba restricts the second heart field progenitor pool by regulating Isl1 activity. Dev Cell. 2012;23:58-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Ajuba plays a central role in regulating the SHF during heart development by linking RA signaling to the function of Isl1, a key transcription factor in cardiac progenitor cells. ..
  16. Kazakova N, Li H, Mora A, Jessen K, Mirsky R, Richardson W, et al. A screen for mutations in zebrafish that affect myelin gene expression in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. Dev Biol. 2006;297:1-13 pubmed
    ..Timed application of the RA synthesis inhibitor DEAB to wild type embryos showed that RA signalling is required at least 48 h before the onset of myelin protein synthesis in both CNS and PNS...
  17. Hammond D, Udvadia A. Cabin1 expression suggests roles in neuronal development. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Cabin1 could act as a regulator of MEF2 and calcineurin activity in the developing nervous system, given their roles in neuronal differentiation and synaptic refinement. ..
  18. Kikuta H, Laplante M, Navratilova P, Komisarczuk A, Engström P, Fredman D, et al. Genomic regulatory blocks encompass multiple neighboring genes and maintain conserved synteny in vertebrates. Genome Res. 2007;17:545-55 pubmed
    ..These findings explain the absence of evolutionary breakpoints from large vertebrate chromosomal segments and will aid in the recognition of position effect mutations within human GRBs. ..
  19. Ignatius M, Hayes M, Lobbardi R, Chen E, McCarthy K, Sreenivas P, et al. The NOTCH1/SNAIL1/MEF2C Pathway Regulates Growth and Self-Renewal in Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma. Cell Rep. 2017;19:2304-2318 pubmed publisher
    ..repressor, to increase TPC number in human ERMS and to block muscle differentiation through suppressing MEF2C, a myogenic differentiation transcription factor...
  20. Palpant N, Hofsteen P, Pabon L, Reinecke H, Murry C. Cardiac development in zebrafish and human embryonic stem cells is inhibited by exposure to tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0126259 pubmed publisher
    ..Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than E-cigarettes and exhibit a broader spectrum of cardiac developmental defects. ..
  21. Marques C, Cancela M, Laizé V. Transcriptional regulation of gilthead seabream bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 gene by bone- and cartilage-related transcription factors. Gene. 2016;576:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Although to a lesser extent, myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) had also a negative effect on the regulation of BMP2 gene transcription, when associated with ..
  22. D Aurizio R, Russo F, Chiavacci E, Baumgart M, Groth M, D Onofrio M, et al. Discovering miRNA Regulatory Networks in Holt-Oram Syndrome Using a Zebrafish Model. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2016;4:60 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach allowed to discover complex regulatory circuits involving novel miRNAs and protein coding genes not considered before in the HOS such as miR-34a and miR-30 and their targets. ..
  23. Lu F, Langenbacher A, Chen J. Tbx20 drives cardiac progenitor formation and cardiomyocyte proliferation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2017;421:139-148 pubmed publisher
  24. Witzel H, Cheedipudi S, Gao R, Stainier D, Dobreva G. Isl2b regulates anterior second heart field development in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:41043 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Isl2b controls the expression of key cardiac transcription factors including mef2ca, mef2cb, hand2 and tbx20...
  25. Nichols J, Blanco Sanchez B, Brooks E, Parthasarathy R, Dowd J, Subramanian A, et al. Ligament versus bone cell identity in the zebrafish hyoid skeleton is regulated by mef2ca. Development. 2016;143:4430-4440 pubmed
    ..Zebrafish mef2cab1086 mutants develop tremendously variable ectopic bone in their hyoid craniofacial skeleton...
  26. Sultana N, Nag K, Hoshijima K, Laird D, Kawakami A, Hirose S. Zebrafish early cardiac connexin, Cx36.7/Ecx, regulates myofibril orientation and heart morphogenesis by establishing Nkx2.5 expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4763-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5 expression, which in turn promotes unidirectional, parallel alignment of myofibrils and the subsequent proper heart morphogenesis. ..
  27. Shi X, Verma S, Yun J, Brand Arzamendi K, Singh K, Liu X, et al. Effect of empagliflozin on cardiac biomarkers in a zebrafish model of heart failure: clues to the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial?. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;433:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide important translational clues to the cardiovascular benefits documented in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study. ..
  28. Ganassi M, Badodi S, Polacchini A, Baruffaldi F, Battini R, Hughes S, et al. Distinct functions of alternatively spliced isoforms encoded by zebrafish mef2ca and mef2cb. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1839:559-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Teleost fish possess two MEF2C paralogues, mef2ca and mef2cb...
  29. Kimmel C, Ullmann B, Walker M, Miller C, Crump J. Endothelin 1-mediated regulation of pharyngeal bone development in zebrafish. Development. 2003;130:1339-51 pubmed
    ..Changes involving Edn1 may have occurred during actinopterygian evolution to produce the efficient gill-pumping opercular apparatus of teleosts. ..
  30. DeLaurier A, Huycke T, Nichols J, Swartz M, Larsen A, Walker C, et al. Role of mef2ca in developmental buffering of the zebrafish larval hyoid dermal skeleton. Dev Biol. 2014;385:189-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that in mef2ca(b1086) loss of function mutant embryos and early larvae, development of craniofacial hyoid bones, the opercle (Op) ..
  31. Chiavacci E, D Aurizio R, Guzzolino E, Russo F, Baumgart M, Groth M, et al. MicroRNA 19a replacement partially rescues fin and cardiac defects in zebrafish model of Holt Oram syndrome. Sci Rep. 2015;5:18240 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion our data demonstrate the importance of Tbx5/miR-19a regulatory circuit in heart development and provide a proof of principle that morphogenetic defects associated with HOS can be rescued by transient miRNA modulation. ..
  32. Sun S, Gui Y, Wang Y, Qian L, Liu X, Jiang Q, et al. Effects of methotrexate on the developments of heart and vessel in zebrafish. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:86-96 pubmed
    ..The transcript levels of genes such as hand2, mef2a, mef2c, and flk-1 were reduced in MTXtreated embryos...
  33. Haffter P, Granato M, Brand M, Mullins M, Hammerschmidt M, Kane D, et al. The identification of genes with unique and essential functions in the development of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Development. 1996;123:1-36 pubmed
    ..Here we give an overview of the spectrum of mutant phenotypes obtained, and discuss the limits and the potentials of a genetic saturation screen in the zebrafish. ..
  34. Ochi H, Westerfield M. Lbx2 regulates formation of myofibrils. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of myofilament genes, including actin and myosin, requires the engrailed repressor domain of Lbx2. Our results elucidate a new function of Lbx2 as a regulator of myofibril formation. ..
  35. Matrone G, Wilson K, Mullins J, Tucker C, Denvir M. Temporal cohesion of the structural, functional and molecular characteristics of the developing zebrafish heart. Differentiation. 2015;89:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides important insights into the complex temporal relationship between structure and function of the developing zebrafish heart. ..