Gene Symbol: ltk
Description: leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase
Alias: ALK, TYK1, si:dz107o16.1, leukocyte tyrosine kinase receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, leukocyte tyrosine kinase, shd(l)
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Kelsh R, Brand M, Jiang Y, Heisenberg C, Lin S, Haffter P, et al. Zebrafish pigmentation mutations and the processes of neural crest development. Development. 1996;123:369-89 pubmed
    ..In combination with the embryological advantages of zebrafish, these mutations should permit cellular and molecular dissection of many aspects of neural crest development...
  2. Lopes S, Yang X, Müller J, Carney T, McAdow A, Rauch G, et al. Leukocyte tyrosine kinase functions in pigment cell development. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000026 pubmed publisher
    ..We show using diverse approaches that shady encodes zebrafish leukocyte tyrosine kinase (Ltk). Cell transplantation studies show that Ltk acts cell-autonomously within the iridophore lineage...
  3. Lang M, Patterson L, Gordon T, Johnson S, Parichy D. Basonuclin-2 requirements for zebrafish adult pigment pattern development and female fertility. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000744 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify bnc2 as an important mediator of adult pigment pattern formation and identify bonaparte mutants as an animal model for dissecting bnc2 functions...
  4. Frohnhöfer H, Krauss J, Maischein H, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Iridophores and their interactions with other chromatophores are required for stripe formation in zebrafish. Development. 2013;140:2997-3007 pubmed publisher
    ..Stripe formation is initiated by iridophores appearing at the horizontal myoseptum, which serves as a morphological landmark for stripe orientation, but is subsequently a self-organising process. ..
  5. Patterson L, Parichy D. Interactions with iridophores and the tissue environment required for patterning melanophores and xanthophores during zebrafish adult pigment stripe formation. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003561 pubmed publisher
  6. Arduini B, Bosse K, Henion P. Genetic ablation of neural crest cell diversification. Development. 2009;136:1987-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a genetic regulatory pathway functionally discrete from the process of neural crest induction that is required for the initiation of neural crest cell diversification during embryonic development. ..
  7. Colanesi S, Taylor K, Temperley N, Lundegaard P, Liu D, North T, et al. Small molecule screening identifies targetable zebrafish pigmentation pathways. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012;25:131-43 pubmed publisher
  8. Haffter P, Odenthal J, Mullins M, Lin S, Farrell M, Vogelsang E, et al. Mutations affecting pigmentation and shape of the adult zebrafish. Dev Genes Evol. 1996;206:260-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in sandy produced embryos that failed to express tyrosinase activity. These are potentially useful for using tyrosinase as a marker for the generation of transgenic lines of zebrafish. ..
  9. Ceinos R, Guillot R, Kelsh R, Cerdá Reverter J, Rotllant J. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015;28:196-209 pubmed publisher
    ..These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern. ..

More Information


  1. Irion U, Frohnhöfer H, Krauss J, Çolak Champollion T, Maischein H, Geiger Rudolph S, et al. Gap junctions composed of connexins 41.8 and 39.4 are essential for colour pattern formation in zebrafish. elife. 2014;3:e05125 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenotypes indicate that these promote homotypic interactions between melanophores and xanthophores, respectively, and those cells instruct the patterning of the iridophores. ..
  2. Mo E, Cheng Q, Reshetnyak A, Schlessinger J, Nicoli S. Alk and Ltk ligands are essential for iridophore development in zebrafish mediated by the receptor tyrosine kinase Ltk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:12027-12032 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk) and leucocyte tyrosine kinase (Ltk) were identified as "orphan" receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) with oncogenic potential...
  3. Rodrigues F, Yang X, Nikaido M, Liu Q, Kelsh R. A simple, highly visual in vivo screen for anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors. ACS Chem Biol. 2012;7:1968-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is an important drug target in many cancers, including lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and lung cancer...
  4. Higdon C, Mitra R, Johnson S. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium reveals indicators of biological function and developmental origin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67801 pubmed publisher
  5. Fadeev A, Krauss J, Singh A, Nüsslein Volhard C. Zebrafish Leucocyte tyrosine kinase controls iridophore establishment, proliferation and survival. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2016;29:284-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Using gain- and loss-of-function alleles of leucocyte tyrosine kinase (ltk) and a pharmacological inhibitor approach, we show that Ltk specifically regulates iridophore establishment, ..