Gene Symbol: leopard
Description: gap junction protein, alpha 5b
Alias: cx41.8, gap junction alpha-5 protein, connexin 41.8, leo, leopard, tup
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Watanabe M, Iwashita M, Ishii M, Kurachi Y, Kawakami A, Kondo S, et al. Spot pattern of leopard Danio is caused by mutation in the zebrafish connexin41.8 gene. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:893-7 pubmed
    b>Leopard, a well-known zebrafish mutant that has a spotted skin pattern instead of stripes, is a model for the study of pigment patterning...
  2. Watanabe M, Kondo S. Changing clothes easily: connexin41.8 regulates skin pattern variation. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012;25:326-30 pubmed publisher
    ..including a narrow stripe with a wide interstripe, a narrow stripe with a narrow interstripe, a labyrinth, and a 'leopard' pattern (or donut-like ring pattern). In this process, connexin41...
  3. Watanabe M, Watanabe D, Kondo S. Polyamine sensitivity of gap junctions is required for skin pattern formation in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2012;2:473 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to show that polyamine sensitivity has a physiologically relevant function and is related to skin pattern formation in animals. ..
  4. Iovine M, Gumpert A, Falk M, Mendelson T. Cx23, a connexin with only four extracellular-loop cysteines, forms functional gap junction channels and hemichannels. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:165-70 pubmed
    ..Functional assays reveal that the Cx23 gap junctions are capable of sharing neurobiotin, and further, that Cx23 connexins form hemichannels in vitro. ..
  5. Haffter P, Odenthal J, Mullins M, Lin S, Farrell M, Vogelsang E, et al. Mutations affecting pigmentation and shape of the adult zebrafish. Dev Genes Evol. 1996;206:260-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The adult pigment pattern was found to be changed by dominant mutations in wanda, asterix, obelix, leopard, salz and pfeffer...
  6. Watanabe M, Sawada R, Aramaki T, Skerrett I, Kondo S. The Physiological Characterization of Connexin41.8 and Connexin39.4, Which Are Involved in the Striped Pattern Formation of Zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:1053-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that functional differences in Cx41.8 and Cx39.4 relate to spot or labyrinth mutant phenotypes and also provide evidence that these two connexins interact in vivo and in vitro. ..
  7. Eom D, Bain E, Patterson L, Grout M, Parichy D. Long-distance communication by specialized cellular projections during pigment pattern development and evolution. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a novel mechanism of cellular communication, roles for differentiation state heterogeneity in pigment cell interactions, and an unanticipated morphogenetic behavior contributing to a striking difference in adult form. ..
  8. Canzian J, Fontana B, Quadros V, Rosemberg D. Conspecific alarm substance differently alters group behavior of zebrafish populations: Putative involvement of cholinergic and purinergic signaling in anxiety- and fear-like responses. Behav Brain Res. 2017;320:255-263 pubmed publisher
    ..The short fin wild type (WT), and leopard (leo) are two zebrafish populations that present several behavioral differences, in which leo displays pronounced ..
  9. Irion U, Frohnhöfer H, Krauss J, Çolak Champollion T, Maischein H, Geiger Rudolph S, et al. Gap junctions composed of connexins 41.8 and 39.4 are essential for colour pattern formation in zebrafish. elife. 2014;3:e05125 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in leopard (leo), encoding Connexin 41.8 (Cx41.8), a gap junction subunit, cause a phenotypic series of spotted patterns...

More Information


  1. Fadeev A, Krauss J, Frohnhöfer H, Irion U, Nüsslein Volhard C. Tight Junction Protein 1a regulates pigment cell organisation during zebrafish colour patterning. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Tjp1a is a novel regulator of cell shape changes during colour pattern formation and the first cytoplasmic protein implicated in this process. ..
  2. Black J, Atabakhsh E, Kim J, Biette K, Van Rechem C, Ladd B, et al. Hypoxia drives transient site-specific copy gain and drug-resistant gene expression. Genes Dev. 2015;29:1018-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have major implications in our understanding of copy number heterogeneity and the emergence of drug resistance genes in cancer. ..
  3. Pauli A, Montague T, Lennox K, Behlke M, Schier A. Antisense Oligonucleotide-Mediated Transcript Knockdown in Zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0139504 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this drawback, quantitation of knockdown efficiency and the ability to degrade lncRNAs make ASOs a useful knockdown reagent in zebrafish. ..
  4. Henke K, Daane J, Hawkins M, Dooley C, Busch Nentwich E, Stemple D, et al. Genetic Screen for Postembryonic Development in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Dominant Mutations Affecting Adult Form. Genetics. 2017;207:609-623 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that dominant screens are a feasible and productive means to identify mutations that can further our understanding of gene function during postembryonic development and in disease. ..