Gene Symbol: igf2a
Description: insulin-like growth factor 2a
Alias: IGF-II, igf2, igf2b, wu:fc26e03, zgc:91781, insulin-like growth factor 2a, etID31232.25, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 2b
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Wood A, Schlueter P, Duan C. Targeted knockdown of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 disrupts cardiovascular development in zebrafish embryos. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1024-34 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that IGFBP-2 is required for general embryonic development and growth and plays a local role in regulating vascular development in a model vertebrate organism. ..
  2. Sang X, Curran M, Wood A. Paracrine insulin-like growth factor signaling influences primordial germ cell migration: in vivo evidence from the zebrafish model. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5035-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we first examined the spatial expression patterns of IGF ligand genes (igf1, igf2a, and igf2b) in the zebrafish embryo...
  3. Kamei H, Ding Y, Kajimura S, Wells M, CHIANG P, Duan C. Role of IGF signaling in catch-up growth and accelerated temporal development in zebrafish embryos in response to oxygen availability. Development. 2011;138:777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the evolutionarily conserved IGF signaling pathway coordinates growth and temporal development in zebrafish embryos in response to oxygen availability. ..
  4. Wood A, Duan C, Bern H. Insulin-like growth factor signaling in fish. Int Rev Cytol. 2005;243:215-85 pubmed
    ..This review is intended as a summary of our understanding of IGF signaling, as revealed through research into the expression, function, and evolution of IGF ligands, receptors, and binding proteins in fish. ..
  5. Eivers E, McCarthy K, Glynn C, Nolan C, Byrnes L. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling is required for early dorso-anterior development of the zebrafish embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2004;48:1131-40 pubmed
    ..Our data is consistent with a common pathway for integration of IGF, FGF8 and anti-BMPs in early vertebrate development. ..
  6. Avanesov A, Dahm R, Sewell W, Malicki J. Mutations that affect the survival of selected amacrine cell subpopulations define a new class of genetic defects in the vertebrate retina. Dev Biol. 2005;285:138-55 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that environmental factors, possibly interactions among different subpopulations of amacrine neurons, are involved in the development of the amacrine cell class. ..
  7. Amaral I, Johnston I. Experimental selection for body size at age modifies early life-history traits and muscle gene expression in adult zebrafish. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:3895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal transcripts for igf2r, bmpr1aa, igf1ar, igf2a, igfbp5a, ghra and igfbp3 in 2-4 cell stage embryos were higher in the L- than in the S-lineage...
  8. Kajimura S, Aida K, Duan C. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) mediates hypoxia-induced embryonic growth and developmental retardation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1240-5 pubmed
    ..The induction of IGFBP-1 expression may be a conserved physiological mechanism to restrict the IGF-stimulated growth and developmental process under hypoxic stress. ..
  9. White Y, Kyle J, Wood A. Targeted gene knockdown in zebrafish reveals distinct intraembryonic functions for insulin-like growth factor II signaling. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4366-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The zebrafish genome contains two coorthologs of mammalian IGF2 (igf2a, igf2b), which exhibit distinct patterns of expression during embryogenesis...

More Information


  1. Zhou R, Yu S, Ge W. Expression and functional characterization of intrafollicular GH-IGF system in the zebrafish ovary. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;232:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression profiles of igf1, igf2a, and igf2b were similar to that of fshr, whereas igf3 expression was close to lhcgr, suggesting differential roles for ..
  2. Jazwinska A, Badakov R, Keating M. Activin-betaA signaling is required for zebrafish fin regeneration. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1390-5 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a role of Activin-betaA signaling in the tissue repair after injury and subsequent outgrowth formation during epigenetic regeneration of the vertebrate appendage. ..
  3. Migliarini B, Carnevali O. Anandamide modulates growth and lipid metabolism in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;286:S12-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results here obtained represent the first evidence in fish of the endocannabinoid system involvement in lipid metabolism and growth. ..
  4. Li J, Wu P, Liu Y, Wang D, Cheng C. Temporal and spatial expression of the four Igf ligands and two Igf type 1 receptors in zebrafish during early embryonic development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2014;15:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike mammals, four distinct Igf ligands (Igf1, Igf2a, Igf2b and Igf3) and two Igf type 1 receptors (Igf1ra and Igf1rb) are present in zebrafish...
  5. Ulloa P, Peña A, Lizama C, Araneda C, Iturra P, Neira R, et al. Growth response and expression of muscle growth-related candidate genes in adult zebrafish fed plant and fishmeal protein-based diets. Zebrafish. 2013;10:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..At 98?dpf, growth-related genes Igf1a, Igf2a, mTOR, Pld1a, Mrf4, Myod, Myogenin, and Myostatin1b were evaluated...
  6. Jiao S, Dai W, Lu L, Liu Y, Zhou J, Li Y, et al. The conserved clusterin gene is expressed in the developing choroid plexus under the regulation of notch but not IGF signaling in zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1860-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that clusterin is a marker of choroid plexus in zebrafish, and its expression in the developing choroid plexus is under the regulation of Notch but not IGF signaling. ..
  7. Nóbrega R, Morais R, Crespo D, de Waal P, de França L, Schulz R, et al. Fsh Stimulates Spermatogonial Proliferation and Differentiation in Zebrafish via Igf3. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3804-17 pubmed publisher
  8. Jeffries M, Stultz A, Smith A, Stephens D, Rawlings J, Belanger S, et al. The fish embryo toxicity test as a replacement for the larval growth and survival test: A comparison of test sensitivity and identification of alternative endpoints in zebrafish and fathead minnows. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015;34:1369-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The results not only show the utility of the fathead minnow FET test as a replacement for the LGS test but also provide evidence that inclusion of additional endpoints could improve the predictive power of the FET test. ..
  9. Schall K, Thornton M, Isani M, Holoyda K, Hou X, Lien C, et al. Short bowel syndrome results in increased gene expression associated with proliferation, inflammation, bile acid synthesis and immune system activation: RNA sequencing a zebrafish SBS model. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:23 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression of ctnnb1, ccnb1, ccnd1, cyp7a1a, dkk3, ifng1-2, igf2a, il1b, lef1, nos2b, saa1, stat3, tnfa and wnt5a were confirmed to be elevated in SBS by RT-qPCR...
  10. Teng M, Qi S, Zhu W, Wang Y, Wang D, Yang Y, et al. Sex-specific effects of difenoconazole on the growth hormone endocrine axis in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;144:402-408 pubmed publisher
    ..of the liver and ovary were inhibited, which may be due to the decreased transcription of the key genes igf1a, igf2a, and igf2b in both organs...
  11. Sugimoto K, Hui S, Sheng D, Kikuchi K. Dissection of zebrafish shha function using site-specific targeting with a Cre-dependent genetic switch. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..i>Zwitch will extend the utility of zebrafish in organ development and regeneration research and might be applicable to other model organisms. ..
  12. Yao S, Qian M, Deng S, Xie L, Yang H, Xiao C, et al. Kzp controls canonical Wnt8 signaling to modulate dorsoventral patterning during zebrafish gastrulation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:42086-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results provide the first insight into the mechanism involved in the initiation of zygotic canonical Wnt signals by a maternally derived transcription factor. ..
  13. Zhu Y, Su G, Yang D, Zhang Y, Yu L, Li Y, et al. Time-dependent inhibitory effects of Tris(1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate on growth and transcription of genes involved in the GH/IGF axis, but not the HPT axis, in female zebrafish. Environ Pollut. 2017;229:470-478 pubmed publisher
  14. Craig T, Zhang Y, McNulty M, Middha S, Ketha H, Singh R, et al. Research resource: whole transcriptome RNA sequencing detects multiple 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-sensitive metabolic pathways in developing zebrafish. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1630-42 pubmed publisher
  15. Hou J, Su Y, Lin W, Guo H, Xie P, Chen J, et al. Microcystin-LR retards gonadal maturation through disrupting the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factors system in zebrafish. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;139:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..characterized by significant decreases in the transcriptional levels of brain gh (males only), hepatic igf2a and igf2b as well as gonadal igf1 (males only), igf3 and igf2r...
  16. Schall K, Holoyda K, Grant C, Levin D, Torres E, Maxwell A, et al. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;309:G135-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation. ..
  17. Yuan X, Jiang X, Pu J, Li Z, Zou S. Functional conservation and divergence of duplicated insulin-like growth factor 2 genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Gene. 2011;470:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Like their human ortholog, grass carp igf2a and igf2b mRNAs encoded two structurally distinct mature IGF peptides...
  18. Jing J, Xiong S, Li Z, Wu J, Zhou L, Gui J, et al. A feedback regulatory loop involving p53/miR-200 and growth hormone endocrine axis controls embryo size of zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15906 pubmed publisher
    ..are critical regulators of embryo size by targeting several GH/IGF axis genes, including GH, GHRa, GHRb and IGF2a. Overexpression of miR-200s led to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and induced apoptotic responses during embryo ..
  19. Nornberg B, Almeida D, Figueiredo M, Marins L. GH indirectly enhances the regeneration of transgenic zebrafish fins through IGF2a and IGF2b. Transgenic Res. 2016;25:743-9 pubmed publisher
    ..respect to the different IGFs produced locally, a decrease in igf1a expression and a significant increase in both igf2a and igf2b expression was observed, suggesting that igf1a is not directly involved in fin regeneration...
  20. Li J, Chu L, Sun X, Liu Y, Cheng C. IGFs mediate the action of LH on oocyte maturation in zebrafish. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:373-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that all igfs, including igf1, igf2a, igf2b, and igf3, are dynamically expressed during folliculogenesis, with the expression of igf3 reaching its ..
  21. Zou S, Kamei H, Modi Z, Duan C. Zebrafish IGF genes: gene duplication, conservation and divergence, and novel roles in midline and notochord development. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7026 pubmed publisher
    ..These results not only provide new insights into the functional conservation and divergence of the multiple igf genes but also reveal a novel role of IGF signaling in midline formation and notochord development in a vertebrate model...
  22. Chemello G, Piccinetti C, Randazzo B, Carnevali O, Maradonna F, Magro M, et al. Oxytetracycline Delivery in Adult Female Zebrafish by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Zebrafish. 2016;13:495-503 pubmed
    ..However, the dynamics related to OTC release from the SAMNs@OTC complex are still not clear and need further investigations. ..
  23. Lyssimachou A, Santos J, André A, Soares J, Lima D, Guimarães L, et al. The Mammalian "Obesogen" Tributyltin Targets Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation and the Transcriptional Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in the Liver and Brain of Zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143911 pubmed publisher
  24. Nornberg B, Figueiredo M, Marins L. Expression profile of IGF paralog genes in liver and muscle of a GH-transgenic zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;226:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed an increase in expression of igf1a, igf2a, and igf2b genes in the liver...
  25. Hartnett L, Glynn C, Nolan C, Grealy M, Byrnes L. Insulin-like growth factor-2 regulates early neural and cardiovascular system development in zebrafish embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:573-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that igf-2a and igf-2b do not act exclusively in a redundant manner may explain why both genes have been stably maintained in the genome. ..
  26. Nelson S, Van der Kraak G. Characterization and regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovary. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;168:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Three ligands (igf2a, igf2b, igf3) and two receptors (igf1ra and igf1rb) were demonstrated in the ovary using RT-qPCR...
  27. Wan G, Chan K. A study of somatolactin actions by ectopic expression in transgenic zebrafish larvae. J Mol Endocrinol. 2010;45:301-15 pubmed publisher
  28. Song F, Wang L, Zhu W, Fu J, Dong J, Dong Z. A Novel igf3 Gene in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Evidence for Its Role in Regulating Gonadal Development. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0168874 pubmed publisher
    ..17?-Ethinylestradiol treatment increased both ovary and testis igf3 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that Igf3 may play an important role in C. carpio gonadal development. ..
  29. Gioacchini G, Dalla Valle L, Benato F, Fimia G, Nardacci R, Ciccosanti F, et al. Interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the development of Danio rerio follicles and the effects of a probiotic. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2013;25:1115-25 pubmed publisher
    ..rhamnosus IMC 501, can modulate the balance between apoptosis and autophagy that regulates ovary physiology in zebrafish by inhibiting follicular apoptosis and improving follicular survival. ..
  30. Paulsen M, Khare T, Burgard C, Tierling S, Walter J. Evolution of the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome region in vertebrates. Genome Res. 2005;15:146-53 pubmed
    ..In line with that, imprinting centers in mammals apparently exhibit a high degree of structural and sequence variation despite conserved epigenetic marking. ..
  31. Zhu Y, Ma X, Su G, Yu L, Letcher R, Hou J, et al. Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of the Flame Retardant Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate Inhibit Growth of Female Zebrafish and Decrease Fecundity. Environ Sci Technol. 2015;49:14579-87 pubmed publisher
  32. Das D, Pal S, Maitra S. Releasing prophase arrest in zebrafish oocyte: synergism between maturational steroid and Igf1. Reproduction. 2016;151:59-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates potential synergism between maturational steroid and Igf1 which might have physiological relevance in overcoming E2 inhibition of meiosis resumption in zebrafish oocytes. ..
  33. Chen S, Bogerd J, Schoonen N, Martijn J, de Waal P, Schulz R. A progestin (17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one) stimulates early stages of spermatogenesis in zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;185:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..as were three genes of the insulin-like growth factor signaling system, insulin-like growth factor 2b (igf2b), insulin-like growth factor 3 (igf3) and insulin-like growth factor 1b receptor (igf1rb)...
  34. Avella M, PLACE A, Du S, Williams E, Silvi S, Zohar Y, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus accelerates zebrafish backbone calcification and gonadal differentiation through effects on the GnRH and IGF systems. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45572 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a significant role of the microbiota composition on the host organism development profile and open new perspectives in the study of probiotics usage and application. ..
  35. Irwin D, Van der Kraak G. Regulation and actions of insulin-like growth factors in the ovary of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;177:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify the expression of igf3, igf2a, and igf2b in full grown immature (FG; 0.57-0.65 mm) and mid-vitellogenic (MV; 0.45-0.56 mm) follicles...
  36. Huang Y, Harrison M, Osorio A, Kim J, Baugh A, Duan C, et al. Igf Signaling is Required for Cardiomyocyte Proliferation during Zebrafish Heart Development and Regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67266 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that expression of igf2b was upregulated during zebrafish heart regeneration...
  37. Su S, Dong Z, Qu J, Liang Z, Zhang J, Ma L, et al. Molecular cloning and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of IGF2a genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:1327-40 pubmed publisher
    We studied whether two IGF2 transcripts in common carp are similar to those found in zebrafish. The full-length IGF2a cDNA contains a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 105 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 1358 bp and an open reading ..
  38. Pikulkaew S, Benato F, Celeghin A, Zucal C, Skobo T, Colombo L, et al. The knockdown of maternal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA alters embryo development in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:874-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the maternal gr transcript and protein participate in the maternal programming of zebrafish development. ..
  39. Amali A, Lin C, Chen Y, Wang W, Gong H, Lee C, et al. Up-regulation of muscle-specific transcription factors during embryonic somitogenesis of zebrafish (Danio rerio) by knock-down of myostatin-1. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:847-56 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that myostatin plays a major role during myogenesis, apart from inhibition of proliferation as well as differentiation. ..
  40. Randazzo B, Chemello G, Tortarolo I, Chiarello G, Zalas M, Santini A, et al. A Novel Photocatalytic Purification System for Fish Culture. Zebrafish. 2017;14:411-421 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant biological alterations were detectable on the cultured fish. ..