Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: hsp70l
Description: heat shock cognate 70-kd protein, like
Alias: HSP70, hsp70-4, heat shock cognate 70-kd protein, like, stress protein HSP70
- Asakawa K, Suster M, Mizusawa K, Nagayoshi S, Kotani T, Urasaki A, et al. Genetic dissection of neural circuits by Tol2 transposon-mediated Gal4 gene and enhancer trapping in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1255-60 pubmed publisher..These studies illustrate that our Gal4FF gene trap and enhancer trap methods should be an important resource for genetic analysis of neuronal functions and behavior in vertebrates. ..
- Tucker N, Ustyugov A, Bryantsev A, Konkel M, Shelden E. Hsp27 is persistently expressed in zebrafish skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues but dispensable for their morphogenesis. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2009;14:521-33 pubmed publisher..We conclude that Hsp27 is dispensable for zebrafish morphogenesis but could play a role in long-term maintenance of heart and muscle tissues. ..
- Scott E, Mason L, Arrenberg A, Ziv L, Gosse N, Xiao T, et al. Targeting neural circuitry in zebrafish using GAL4 enhancer trapping. Nat Methods. 2007;4:323-6 pubmed..Through targeted photoconversion of UAS-driven Kaede and variegated expression of UAS-driven GFP in single cells, we begin to characterize the cellular components of labeled circuits. ..
- Collins R, Linker C, Lewis J. MAZe: a tool for mosaic analysis of gene function in zebrafish. Nat Methods. 2010;7:219-23 pubmed publisher..a zebrafish line containing a transgene called mosaic analysis in zebrafish (MAZe), built around a self-excising hsp70:Cre cassette...
- Feng H, Langenau D, Madge J, Quinkertz A, Gutierrez A, Neuberg D, et al. Heat-shock induction of T-cell lymphoma/leukaemia in conditional Cre/lox-regulated transgenic zebrafish. Br J Haematol. 2007;138:169-75 pubmed..Heat-shock-regulated transgenic technology in zebrafish provides the missing link necessary to exploit the powerful genetic capacity of this organism to probe the multi-step molecular pathogenesis of leukaemia. ..
- Tucker J, Mintzer K, Mullins M. The BMP signaling gradient patterns dorsoventral tissues in a temporally progressive manner along the anteroposterior axis. Dev Cell. 2008;14:108-19 pubmed publisher..We propose that a temporal cue regulates a cell's competence to respond to BMP signaling, allowing the acquisition of a cell's DV and AP identity simultaneously. ..
- Zhang Y, Jin H, Li L, Qin F, Wen Z. cMyb regulates hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell mobilization during zebrafish hematopoiesis. Blood. 2011;118:4093-101 pubmed publisher..Our study reveals that cMyb plays a hitherto unidentified role in dictating physiologic HSPC migration by modulating Sdf1a signaling. ..
- Le X, Langenau D, Keefe M, Kutok J, Neuberg D, Zon L. Heat shock-inducible Cre/Lox approaches to induce diverse types of tumors and hyperplasia in transgenic zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9410-5 pubmed..Specifically, double transgenic fish Tg(B-actin-LoxP-EGFP-LoxP-kRASG12D; hsp70-Cre) developed four types of tumors and hyperplasia after heat shock of whole zebrafish embryos, including ..
- Budi E, Patterson L, Parichy D. Post-embryonic nerve-associated precursors to adult pigment cells: genetic requirements and dynamics of morphogenesis and differentiation. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002044 pubmed publisher..These findings provide a foundation for future studies of post-embryonic pigment cell precursors in development, evolution, and neoplasia...
- Knaut H, Blader P, Strahle U, Schier A. Assembly of trigeminal sensory ganglia by chemokine signaling. Neuron. 2005;47:653-66 pubmed..These results indicate that ganglion formation depends on the interplay of birthplace, chemokine attraction, cell-cell interaction, and cadherin-mediated adhesion. ..
- Hesselson D, Anderson R, Beinat M, Stainier D. Distinct populations of quiescent and proliferative pancreatic beta-cells identified by HOTcre mediated labeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14896-901 pubmed publisher..g., diabetes mellitus). Our data reveal the existence of distinct populations of beta-cells in vivo and should help develop better strategies to regulate beta-cell differentiation and proliferation. ..
- Zuniga E, Stellabotte F, Crump J. Jagged-Notch signaling ensures dorsal skeletal identity in the vertebrate face. Development. 2010;137:1843-52 pubmed publisher..Together, these results indicate a novel function of Jagged-Notch signaling in ensuring dorsal identity within broad fields of facial skeletal precursors. ..
- Yeh J, Munson K, Chao Y, Peterson Q, Macrae C, Peterson R. AML1-ETO reprograms hematopoietic cell fate by downregulating scl expression. Development. 2008;135:401-10 pubmed..Thus, this zebrafish model facilitates in vivo dissection of AML1-ETO-mediated signaling, and will enable large-scale chemical screens to identify suppressors of the in vivo effects of AML1-ETO. ..
- Zhou Y, Cashman T, Nevis K, Obregon P, Carney S, Liu Y, et al. Latent TGF-? binding protein 3 identifies a second heart field in zebrafish. Nature. 2011;474:645-8 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our findings uncover a requirement for ltbp3-TGF-? signalling during zebrafish SHF development, a process that serves to enlarge the single ventricular chamber in this species. ..
- Park H, Boyce J, Shin J, Appel B. Oligodendrocyte specification in zebrafish requires notch-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor function. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6836-44 pubmed
- Hans S, Freudenreich D, Geffarth M, Kaslin J, Machate A, Brand M. Generation of a non-leaky heat shock-inducible Cre line for conditional Cre/lox strategies in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:108-15 pubmed publisher..Previous attempts have been made to control recombination by using the temperature inducible hsp70l promoter to conditionally drive the expression of Cre or EGFP-Cre, respectively...
- Thummel R, Burket C, Brewer J, Sarras M, Li L, Perry M, et al. Cre-mediated site-specific recombination in zebrafish embryos. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1366-77 pubmed..This study demonstrates that the HSP70 promoter can be used to inducibly control expression of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) -Cre fusion ..
- Timme Laragy A, Karchner S, Franks D, Jenny M, Harbeitner R, Goldstone J, et al. Nrf2b, novel zebrafish paralog of oxidant-responsive transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:4609-27 pubmed publisher..The identification of zebrafish nrf2 co-orthologs will facilitate new understanding of the multiple roles of NRF2 in protecting vertebrate embryos from oxidative damage. ..
- Shin D, Weidinger G, Moon R, Stainier D. Intrinsic and extrinsic modifiers of the regulative capacity of the developing liver. Mech Dev. 2012;128:525-35 pubmed publisher..Altogether, these studies reveal that there is more than one way to form a liver, and provide molecular insights into the phenomenon of tissue plasticity. ..
- Poulain M, Ober E. Interplay between Wnt2 and Wnt2bb controls multiple steps of early foregut-derived organ development. Development. 2011;138:3557-68 pubmed publisher..Thus, tightly regulated spatiotemporal expression of wnt2bb, wnt2 and fzd5 is central to coordinating early liver, pancreas and swim bladder development from a multipotent foregut endoderm. ..
- Urasaki A, Asakawa K, Kawakami K. Efficient transposition of the Tol2 transposable element from a single-copy donor in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19827-32 pubmed publisher..Second, we constructed transgenic fish carrying the transposase cDNA under the control of the hsp70 promoter...
- Hultman K, Budi E, Teasley D, Gottlieb A, Parichy D, Johnson S. Defects in ErbB-dependent establishment of adult melanocyte stem cells reveal independent origins for embryonic and regeneration melanocytes. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000544 pubmed publisher..Lastly, that kitla overexpression can recruit the MSC to develop excess melanocytes raises the possibility that Kit signaling may be involved in MSC recruitment during regeneration. ..
- Yamamoto M, Morita R, Mizoguchi T, Matsuo H, Isoda M, Ishitani T, et al. Mib-Jag1-Notch signalling regulates patterning and structural roles of the notochord by controlling cell-fate decisions. Development. 2010;137:2527-37 pubmed publisher..These data reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism regulating the patterning and structural roles of the notochord by Mib-Jag1-Notch signalling-mediated cell-fate determination. ..
- Chocron S, Verhoeven M, Rentzsch F, Hammerschmidt M, Bakkers J. Zebrafish Bmp4 regulates left-right asymmetry at two distinct developmental time points. Dev Biol. 2007;305:577-88 pubmed..The identification of these two distinct and opposing activities of BMP signaling provides new insight into how BMP signaling can regulate LR patterning. ..
- Kroehne V, Freudenreich D, Hans S, Kaslin J, Brand M. Regeneration of the adult zebrafish brain from neurogenic radial glia-type progenitors. Development. 2011;138:4831-41 pubmed publisher..Thus, regeneration after traumatic lesion of the adult zebrafish brain occurs efficiently from radial glia-type stem/progenitor cells. ..
- Hans S, Kaslin J, Freudenreich D, Brand M. Temporally-controlled site-specific recombination in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4640 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, single copy insertion transgenesis of Cre/lox constructs suggest a strategy suitable also for other organisms. ..
- Ramesh T, Lyon A, Pineda R, Wang C, Janssen P, Canan B, et al. A genetic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in zebrafish displays phenotypic hallmarks of motoneuron disease. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:652-62 pubmed publisher..These phenotypes were more severe in lines expressing higher levels of mutant Sod1 and were absent in lines overexpressing wild-type Sod1. Thus, we have generated a vertebrate model of ALS to complement existing mammal models...
- Ding C, Zhang J, Zhao Y, Peng Z, Song D, Jiang J. Zebrafish as a potential model organism for drug test against hepatitis C virus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22921 pubmed publisher..Thus, zebrafish might be a model organism to host HCV, and this zebrafish/HCV (sub-replicon) system could be an animal model for anti-HCV drug screening and evaluation. ..
- Huang P, Schier A. Dampened Hedgehog signaling but normal Wnt signaling in zebrafish without cilia. Development. 2009;136:3089-98 pubmed publisher..These results reveal a conserved requirement for cilia in transducing the activity of upstream regulators of Hh signaling but distinct phenotypic effects due to differential regulation and differing roles of transcriptional mediators. ..
- Bhat N, Kwon H, Riley B. A gene network that coordinates preplacodal competence and neural crest specification in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2013;373:107-17 pubmed publisher..Thus, we have identified a gene regulatory network that coordinates development of NC, PPE and individual placodes in zebrafish. ..
- Zhu Q, Guo S, Yuan S, Lv Z, Zheng J, Xia H. Heat indicators of oxidative stress, inflammation and metal transport show dependence of cadmium pollution history in the liver of female zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;191:1-9 pubmed publisher..LPO; MT protein), 8 molecular indicators of oxidative stress (mRNA levels of Nrf2, Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, HSF1, HSF2, HSP70, MTF-1 and MT), 5 molecular indicators of inflammation (mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, iNOS and NF-?B), 8 ..
- Zheng J, Guo S, Yuan S, Xia H, Zhu Q, Lv Z. Preheating mitigates cadmium toxicity in zebrafish livers: Evidence from promoter demethylation, gene transcription to biochemical levels. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;190:104-111 pubmed publisher..CAT) and copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), and up-regulated mRNA levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and heat shock factor 2 (HSF2)...
- Hans S, Westerfield M. Changes in retinoic acid signaling alter otic patterning. Development. 2007;134:2449-58 pubmed..Thus, excess RA expands otic competence, whereas the loss of RA impairs the expression of fgf3 and wnt8b in the hindbrain, compromising the induction and maintenance of otic fate. ..
- Sawamiphak S, Kontarakis Z, Stainier D. Interferon gamma signaling positively regulates hematopoietic stem cell emergence. Dev Cell. 2014;31:640-53 pubmed publisher..Together, our findings uncover a developmental role for an inflammatory cytokine and place its action downstream of Notch signaling and blood flow to control Stat3 activation and HSC emergence. ..
- Yeh F, Hsu T. Detection of a spontaneous high expression of heat shock protein 70 in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000;64:592-5 pubmed..The protein-HSE complexes produced by the spontaneous binding, however, were found to be different from those formed by the extracts of heat-treated zebrafish in electrophoretic mobility. ..
- Preuss S, Trivedi C, Vom Berg Maurer C, Ryu S, Bollmann J. Classification of object size in retinotectal microcircuits. Curr Biol. 2014;24:2376-85 pubmed publisher..The tectum categorizes visual targets on the basis of retinally computed size information, suggesting a critical role in visually guided response selection. ..
- Cermenati S, Moleri S, Neyt C, Bresciani E, Carra S, Grassini D, et al. Sox18 genetically interacts with VegfC to regulate lymphangiogenesis in zebrafish. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1238-47 pubmed publisher..This interaction suggests a previously unappreciated crosstalk between the growth factor and transcription factor pathways that regulate lymphangiogenesis in development and disease. ..
- Pujol Martí J, Zecca A, Baudoin J, Faucherre A, Asakawa K, Kawakami K, et al. Neuronal birth order identifies a dimorphic sensorineural map. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2976-87 pubmed publisher..We conclude that neuronal birth order correlates with the assembly of neural submaps, whose combination is likely to govern appropriate behavioral reactions to the sensory context. ..
- Liu J, Stainier D. Tbx5 and Bmp signaling are essential for proepicardium specification in zebrafish. Circ Res. 2010;106:1818-28 pubmed publisher..Altogether, these data lead us to propose that Tbx5a confers anterior lateral plate mesodermal cells the competence to respond to Bmp signals and initiate PE development. ..
- Almeida D, da Silva Nornberg B, Geracitano L, Barros D, Monserrat J, Marins L. Induction of phase II enzymes and hsp70 genes by copper sulfate through the electrophile-responsive element (EpRE): insights obtained from a transgenic zebrafish model carrying an orthologous EpRE sequence of mammalian origin. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2010;36:347-353 pubmed publisher..glutathione-S-transferase (gst), glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc) and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) genes...
- Skromne I, Thorsen D, Hale M, Prince V, Ho R. Repression of the hindbrain developmental program by Cdx factors is required for the specification of the vertebrate spinal cord. Development. 2007;134:2147-58 pubmed..We propose that by preventing the posterior-most region of the neural plate from following a hindbrain developmental program, Cdx factors help determine the size of the prospective hindbrain and spinal cord territories. ..
- Liew H, Choksi S, Wong K, Roy S. Specification of vertebrate slow-twitch muscle fiber fate by the transcriptional regulator Blimp1. Dev Biol. 2008;324:226-35 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular basis of vertebrate muscle fiber-type specification, and underscore Blimp1 as the central determinant of this process. ..
- Kikuchi K, Holdway J, Werdich A, Anderson R, Fang Y, Egnaczyk G, et al. Primary contribution to zebrafish heart regeneration by gata4(+) cardiomyocytes. Nature. 2010;464:601-5 pubmed publisher..These findings have implications for promoting regeneration of the injured human heart. ..
- Yin L, Maddison L, Li M, Kara N, LaFave M, Varshney G, et al. Multiplex Conditional Mutagenesis Using Transgenic Expression of Cas9 and sgRNAs. Genetics. 2015;200:431-41 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that CRISPR/Cas9-based conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish is not only feasible but rapid and straightforward. ..
- Jia Q, Zhang Q, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Zhang W, Zhou Y, et al. Transcriptome analysis of the zebrafish model of Diamond-Blackfan anemia from RPS19 deficiency via p53-dependent and -independent pathways. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71782 pubmed publisher..The detection of potential pathogenic genes and pathways provides us a new paradigm for future research on DBA, which is a systematic and complex hereditary disease. ..
- Veldman M, Zhao C, Gomez G, Lindgren A, Huang H, Yang H, et al. Transdifferentiation of fast skeletal muscle into functional endothelium in vivo by transcription factor Etv2. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001590 pubmed publisher..Given the evolutionarily conserved function of this transcription factor and the responsiveness of mammalian myoblasts to Etv2, it is likely that mammalian muscle cells will respond similarly. ..
- Bolcome R, Chan J. Constitutive MEK1 activation rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced vascular effects in vivo. Infect Immun. 2010;78:5043-53 pubmed publisher..This approach may be generally applied to investigate additional pathogen-host interactions and to provide mechanistic insights into host signaling pathways affected by pathogen entry...
- Mateus R, LourenÃ§o R, Fang Y, Brito G, Farinho A, ValÃ©rio F, et al. Control of tissue growth by Yap relies on cell density and F-actin in zebrafish fin regeneration. Development. 2015;142:2752-63 pubmed publisher..We propose that Yap is essential for fin regeneration and that its function is dependent on mechanical tension, conferred by a balancing act of cell density and cytoskeleton activity. ..
- Segawa H, Miyashita T, Hirate Y, Higashijima S, Chino N, Uyemura K, et al. Functional repression of Islet-2 by disruption of complex with Ldb impairs peripheral axonal outgrowth in embryonic zebrafish. Neuron. 2001;30:423-36 pubmed
- Tang Y, Junaid M, Niu A, Deng S, Pei D. Diverse toxicological risks of PAHs in surface water with an impounding level of 175m in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Sci Total Environ. 2017;580:1085-1096 pubmed publisher..Taken together, different approaches were employed to firstly reveal the real status of ecological toxicity of PAHs and explore the underlying mechanisms at the highest impounding level of 175m in the TGRA. ..
- Alvarado E, Yousefelahiyeh M, Alvarado G, Shang R, Whitman T, MARTINEZ A, et al. Wdr68 Mediates Dorsal and Ventral Patterning Events for Craniofacial Development. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0166984 pubmed publisher..While ISL treatment failed, SB431542 partially rescued dlx2a expression in wdr68 mutants. Together these findings reveal an indirect role for Wdr68 in the BMP-Edn1-Jag1b signaling hierarchy and dorso-anterior expression of dlx1a/2a. ..
- Koenig A, Baltrunaite K, Bower N, Rossi A, Stainier D, Hogan B, et al. Vegfa signaling promotes zebrafish intestinal vasculature development through endothelial cell migration from the posterior cardinal vein. Dev Biol. 2016;411:115-27 pubmed publisher..It is likely that a similar mechanism is utilized during vascularization of other organs. ..
- Riesco M, Robles V. Cryopreservation Causes Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Zebrafish Genital Ridges. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67614 pubmed publisher..most of the zebrafish studied transcripts (cxcr4b, pou5f1, vasa and sox2) and upregulation of heat shock proteins (hsp70, hsp90)...
- Powell C, Cornblath E, Goldman D. Zinc-binding domain-dependent, deaminase-independent actions of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 2 (Apobec2), mediate its effect on zebrafish retina regeneration. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:28924-41 pubmed publisher..Importantly, mutations in the zinc-binding domain of Apobec2 diminished its ability to stimulate Pou6f2 binding to DNA, and knockdown of Ubc9 or Pou6f2 suppressed retina regeneration. ..
- Giudicelli F, Ozbudak E, Wright G, Lewis J. Setting the tempo in development: an investigation of the zebrafish somite clock mechanism. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e150 pubmed
- Oyarbide U, Rainieri S, Pardo M. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae as a system to test the efficacy of polysaccharides as immunostimulants. Zebrafish. 2012;9:74-84 pubmed publisher..The assay used in this study permits the testing potential of immunostimulants in a simple and cost-effective way. ..
- Kim S, Ji K, Lee S, Lee J, Kim J, Kim S, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid exposure increases cadmium toxicity in early life stage of zebrafish, Danio rerio. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:870-7 pubmed publisher..Certain genes relative to oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (sod1) and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), in the PFOS preexposure group were significantly up-regulated when the larvae were subsequently exposed to Cd or ..
- Navratilova P, Fredman D, Hawkins T, Turner K, Lenhard B, Becker T. Systematic human/zebrafish comparative identification of cis-regulatory activity around vertebrate developmental transcription factor genes. Dev Biol. 2009;327:526-40 pubmed publisher..human HCNEs. HCNEs from the same area often drive overlapping patterns, suggesting that multiple regulatory inputs are required to achieve robust and precise complex expression patterns exhibited by developmental genes. ..
- Khan A, Nakamoto A, Tai M, Saito S, Nakayama Y, Kawamura A, et al. Mesendoderm specification depends on the function of Pou2, the class V POU-type transcription factor, during zebrafish embryogenesis. Dev Growth Differ. 2012;54:686-701 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that Pou2 functions in multiple aspects of vertebrate development, especially in the binary decision of the mesendoderm to mesoderm and endoderm in different ways depending on the developmental stage. ..
- Prober D, Rihel J, Onah A, Sung R, Schier A. Hypocretin/orexin overexpression induces an insomnia-like phenotype in zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2006;26:13400-10 pubmed
- Han Y, Mu Y, Li X, Xu P, Tong J, Liu Z, et al. Grhl2 deficiency impairs otic development and hearing ability in a zebrafish model of the progressive dominant hearing loss DFNA28. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3213-26 pubmed publisher..Thus, this work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of Grhl2 in otic development and provides a fish model for further studying mechanisms of Grhl2-related hearing loss...
- Hesse R, Kouklis G, Ahituv N, Pomerantz J. The human ARF tumor suppressor senses blastema activity and suppresses epimorphic tissue regeneration. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher..The antagonistic pleiotropic characteristics of ARF as both tumor and regeneration suppressor imply that inducing epimorphic regeneration clinically would require modulation of ARF -p53 axis activation. ..
- Luo J, Uribe R, Hayton S, Calinescu A, Gross J, Hitchcock P. Midkine-A functions upstream of Id2a to regulate cell cycle kinetics in the developing vertebrate retina. Neural Dev. 2012;7:33 pubmed publisher..This is the first study to demonstrate the function of Midkine during retinal development and adds Midkine to the list of growth factors that transcriptionally regulate Id proteins. ..
- Blechinger S, Kusch R, Haugo K, Matz C, Chivers D, Krone P. Brief embryonic cadmium exposure induces a stress response and cell death in the developing olfactory system followed by long-term olfactory deficits in juvenile zebrafish. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;224:72-80 pubmed..characterized a transgenic zebrafish strain expressing the green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene linked to the hsp70 gene promoter, and shown it to be a useful tool for examining cell-specific toxicity in living embryos and larvae...
- Govindan J, Tun K, Iovine M. Cx43-Dependent Skeletal Phenotypes Are Mediated by Interactions between the Hapln1a-ECM and Sema3d during Fin Regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148202 pubmed publisher..Interactions between the ECM and signaling molecules are complex and our study demonstrates the requirement for components of the Hapln1a-ECM for Sema3d signal transduction. ..