Gene Symbol: gnrhr4
Description: gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor 4
Alias: si:dkeyp-84g1.5, gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor 4, GnRH-R4SHS, gnrhr, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor GnRH-R4SHS
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Tello J, Wu S, Rivier J, Sherwood N. Four functional GnRH receptors in zebrafish: analysis of structure, signaling, synteny and phylogeny. Integr Comp Biol. 2008;48:570-87 pubmed publisher
    ..High sequence similarity was observed among the seven helices of zebrafish GnRHRs compared with the human GnRHR, the green monkey type II GnRHR, and the two goldfish GnRHRs...
  2. Whitlock K, Illing N, Brideau N, Smith K, Twomey S. Development of GnRH cells: Setting the stage for puberty. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;254-255:39-50 pubmed
    ..Thus the signaling of the GnRH neuronal circuitry is set up early in development laying the foundation for the GnRH network that is activated at puberty leading to reproductive function in the mature animal. ..
  3. Flanagan C, Chen C, Coetsee M, Mamputha S, Whitlock K, Bredenkamp N, et al. Expression, structure, function, and evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors GnRH-R1SHS and GnRH-R2PEY in the teleost, Astatotilapia burtoni. Endocrinology. 2007;148:5060-71 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that different duplicated GnRH receptor genes have been selected to regulate reproduction in different vertebrate lineages. ..
  4. Han X, Lei E, Lam M, Wu R. A whole life cycle assessment on effects of waterborne PBDEs on gene expression profile along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis and in the liver of zebrafish. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;63:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed disruption of GnRH and GtHs can be further related to the subsequent disruption in both levels and balance sex steroid hormones. ..
  5. Collard H, Ji K, Lee S, Liu X, Kang S, Kho Y, et al. Toxicity and endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) after chronic exposure to mefenamic acid. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;94:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the genes of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, transcriptions of gnrh, gnrhr, cyp19a, and cyp19b increased, supporting estrogenic potential of MFA...
  6. Kwon B, Ha N, Jung J, Kim P, Kho Y, Choi K, et al. Effects of Barium Chloride Exposure on Hormones and Genes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonad Axis, and Reproduction of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;96:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that BaCl2 could modulate gene transcriptions and hormone production of the HPG axis in a sex-dependent way, which could cause adverse effects on reproduction and the development of offspring. ..
  7. Cortés Campos C, Letelier J, Ceriani R, Whitlock K. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Biol Open. 2015;4:1077-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons. ..
  8. Xu Q, Wu D, Dang Y, Yu L, Liu C, Wang J. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after waterborne exposure to TBOEP. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;182:163-171 pubmed publisher
  9. Kwon B, Shin H, Moon H, Ji K, Kim K. Effects of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate exposure on endocrine systems and reproduction of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Pollut. 2016;214:568-574 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Dang Y, Wang J, Giesy J, Liu C. Responses of the zebrafish hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis PCR array to prochloraz are dependent on timing of sampling. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;175:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlations among parameters in samples collected at the two times indicated the effects might be due to different concentrations of E2 in plasma due to exposure to PCZ. ..
  2. Liu W, Chen C, Chen L, Wang L, Li J, Chen Y, et al. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22819 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR. ..
  3. Yu M, Zhang X, Guo L, Tian H, Wang W, Ru S. Anti-estrogenic effect of semicarbazide in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its potential mechanisms. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;170:262-270 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations and highlight the importance of controlling SMC contamination. ..
  4. Khor Y, Soga T, Parhar I. Early-life stress changes expression of GnRH and kisspeptin genes and DNA methylation of GnRH3 promoter in the adult zebrafish brain. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;227:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, early-life DEX treatment can alter methylation of GnRH3 gene promoter, which subsequently affects gene regulation and reproductive functions. ..
  5. Lethimonier C, Madigou T, Muñoz Cueto J, Lareyre J, Kah O. Evolutionary aspects of GnRHs, GnRH neuronal systems and GnRH receptors in teleost fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2004;135:1-16 pubmed
    ..This paper intends to summarize the current situation with special emphasis on interspecies comparisons which provide insights into the possible evolutionary mechanisms leading to the diversification of GnRH functions. ..
  6. Ji K, Hong S, Kho Y, Choi K. Effects of bisphenol s exposure on endocrine functions and reproduction of zebrafish. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:8793-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations showed that exposure to low level BPS could affect the feedback regulatory circuits of HPG axis and impair the development of offspring. ..
  7. Ji K, Liu X, Lee S, Kang S, Kho Y, Giesy J, et al. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on hormones and genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis, and reproduction of zebrafish. J Hazard Mater. 2013;254-255:242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that ibuprofen could modulate hormone production and related gene transcription of the HPG axis in a sex-dependent way, which could cause adverse effects on reproduction and the development of offspring. ..
  8. Jo A, Ji K, Choi K. Endocrine disruption effects of long-term exposure to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and related mechanisms. Chemosphere. 2014;108:360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequences of endocrine disruptions in reproduction performances of the fish warrant further investigation. ..
  9. Corchuelo S, Martinez E, Butzge A, Doretto L, Ricci J, Valentin F, et al. Characterization of Gnrh/Gnih elements in the olfacto-retinal system and ovary during zebrafish ovarian maturation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;450:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, in the OB, we found an inverse expression pattern between gnih and gnrh3. In the retina, gnrhr4 mRNA was found in the nuclei of amacrine, bipolar, and ganglion cells next to Gnrh3 positive fibers...