Gene Symbol: gnrh3
Description: gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3
Alias: sGnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Steven C, Lehnen N, Kight K, Ijiri S, Klenke U, Harris W, et al. Molecular characterization of the GnRH system in zebrafish (Danio rerio): cloning of chicken GnRH-II, adult brain expression patterns and pituitary content of salmon GnRH and chicken GnRH-II. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;133:27-37 pubmed
    ..As the gene encoding salmon GnRH (sGnRH) has been previously isolated (Torgersen et al, 2002), this is the second GnRH gene isolated from zebrafish to ..
  2. Ramakrishnan S, Lee W, Navarre S, Kozlowski D, Wayne N. Acquisition of spontaneous electrical activity during embryonic development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-3 neurons located in the terminal nerve of transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;168:401-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Teleost fish have a population of GnRH3 neurons located in the terminal nerve (TN) associated with the olfactory bulb that is thought to play a ..
  3. Abraham E, Palevitch O, Gothilf Y, Zohar Y. Targeted gonadotropin-releasing hormone-3 neuron ablation in zebrafish: effects on neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and reproduction. Endocrinology. 2010;151:332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In several species, the embryonic origin of hypophysiotropic GnRH neurons remains unclear. Using the Tg(GnRH3:EGFP) zebrafish line, in which GnRH3 neurons express EGFP, GnRH3 neurons in the olfactory region were specifically ..
  4. Palevitch O, Abraham E, Borodovsky N, Levkowitz G, Zohar Y, Gothilf Y. Cxcl12a-Cxcr4b signaling is important for proper development of the forebrain GnRH system in zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;165:262-8 pubmed publisher
    ..whether the chemokine receptor, Cxcr4b, and its cognate ligand, Cxcl12a, are required for proper migration of GnRH3 neurons in zebrafish...
  5. Kuo M, Lou S, Postlethwait J, Chung B. Chromosomal organization, evolutionary relationship, and expression of zebrafish GnRH family members. J Biomed Sci. 2005;12:629-39 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have cloned cDNA encoding the full-length gnrh3 and gnrh2 from zebrafish brain and characterized their structure and expression patterns...
  6. Abraham E, Palevitch O, Ijiri S, Du S, Gothilf Y, Zohar Y. Early development of forebrain gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones and the role of GnRH as an autocrine migration factor. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:394-405 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the development of the GnRH system and the effects of GnRH knockdown using a newly developed GnRH3:EGFP transgenic zebrafish line...
  7. Palevitch O, Kight K, Abraham E, Wray S, Zohar Y, Gothilf Y. Ontogeny of the GnRH systems in zebrafish brain: in situ hybridization and promoter-reporter expression analyses in intact animals. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;327:313-22 pubmed
    The ontogeny of two gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) systems, salmon GnRH (sGnRH) and chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), was investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio)...
  8. Tessmar Raible K, Raible F, Christodoulou F, Guy K, Rembold M, Hausen H, et al. Conserved sensory-neurosecretory cell types in annelid and fish forebrain: insights into hypothalamus evolution. Cell. 2007;129:1389-400 pubmed
  9. Tello J, Wu S, Rivier J, Sherwood N. Four functional GnRH receptors in zebrafish: analysis of structure, signaling, synteny and phylogeny. Integr Comp Biol. 2008;48:570-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Zebrafish, Danio rerio, also have two types of GnRH (GnRH2 and GnRH3), although in contrast to humans, zebrafish appear to have four different GnRH receptors in their genome...

More Information


  1. Liu W, Chen C, Chen L, Wang L, Li J, Chen Y, et al. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22819 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR. ..
  2. Guilgur L, Orti G, Strobl Mazzulla P, Fernandino J, Miranda L, Somoza G. Characterization of the cDNAs encoding three GnRH forms in the pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes) and the evolution of GnRH precursors. J Mol Evol. 2007;64:614-27 pubmed
  3. Wu S, Page L, Sherwood N. A role for GnRH in early brain regionalization and eye development in zebrafish. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;257-258:47-64 pubmed
    ..determine if GnRH is involved in development, we used gene knockdown techniques to block translation of gnrh2 or gnrh3 mRNA after which the expression patterns for gene markers were examined at 24h post fertilization with in situ ..
  4. Wang F, Huang G, Tian H, Zhong Y, Shi H, Li Z, et al. Point mutations in KAL1 and the mitochondrial gene MT-tRNA(cys) synergize to produce Kallmann syndrome phenotype. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13050 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work highlights a new mode of inheritance underlay the genetic etiology of KS and provide valuable clues to understand the disease development. ..
  5. Kang H, Moon H, Choi K. Toxicological responses following short-term exposure through gavage feeding or water-borne exposure to Dechlorane Plus in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2016;146:226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations indicate for the first time that DP disrupts thyroid hormone balance of zebrafish by altering regulatory pathways in the brain. Handling editor: David Volz. ..
  6. Xia W, Smith O, Zmora N, Xu S, Zohar Y. Comprehensive analysis of GnRH2 neuronal projections in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3676 pubmed publisher
    ..Fine projection structures were observed without sacrificing the fish. Crossed with the GnRH3:tdTomato Tg line, the GnRH2:eGFP Tg line provides us with an opportunity to visualize the entire GnRH system ..
  7. Yu M, Zhang X, Guo L, Tian H, Wang W, Ru S. Anti-estrogenic effect of semicarbazide in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its potential mechanisms. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;170:262-270 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations and highlight the importance of controlling SMC contamination. ..
  8. Zhang Q, Li Y, Liu Z, Chen Q. Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;177:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..although ovarian 17?-estradiol (E2) content remained relatively stable, significant down-regulation of lh?, gnrh2, gnrh3, lhr and er? were observed...
  9. Zhao Y, Singh C, Prober D, Wayne N. Morphological and Physiological Interactions Between GnRH3 and Hypocretin/Orexin Neuronal Systems in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Endocrinology. 2016;157:4012-4020 pubmed
    ..and electrophysiology in transgenic zebrafish, in which fluorescent proteins are genetically expressed in GnRH3 and Hcrt neurons...
  10. Kurrasch D, Nevin L, Wong J, Baier H, Ingraham H. Neuroendocrine transcriptional programs adapt dynamically to the supply and demand for neuropeptides as revealed in NSF mutant zebrafish. Neural Dev. 2009;4:22 pubmed publisher
    ..In support of this model we found that gnrh3 transcripts remained unchanged in pre-migratory, non-functional gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in ..
  11. Corchuelo S, Martinez E, Butzge A, Doretto L, Ricci J, Valentin F, et al. Characterization of Gnrh/Gnih elements in the olfacto-retinal system and ovary during zebrafish ovarian maturation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;450:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In zebrafish, two variants were characterized and named as Gnrh2 and Gnrh3. In this species, Gnrh3, the hypohysiotropic form, is expressed by neurons of the olfactory-retinal system, where ..
  12. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S, et al. The effects of progesterone on transcriptional expression profiles of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes during the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2015;128:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall results from the present study indicate that P4 at environmentally relevant concentrations could cause the potential effects on zebrafish reproductive and adrenal endocrine systems by interfering with the HPG and HPA axes. ..
  13. Oehlmann V, Korte H, Sterner C, Korsching S. A neuropeptide FF-related gene is expressed selectively in neurons of the terminal nerve in Danio rerio. Mech Dev. 2002;117:357-61 pubmed
  14. Moriya S, Tahsin N, Parhar I. Bpifcl modulates kiss2 expression under the influence of 11-ketotestosterone in female zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7926 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, bpifcl was also expressed in KISS2 neurons in the Hd. These results suggest that the Bpifcl modulates kiss2 mRNA expression under the influence of testosterone in the Hd of female zebrafish. ..
  15. Kwon B, Ha N, Jung J, Kim P, Kho Y, Choi K, et al. Effects of Barium Chloride Exposure on Hormones and Genes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonad Axis, and Reproduction of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;96:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that BaCl2 could modulate gene transcriptions and hormone production of the HPG axis in a sex-dependent way, which could cause adverse effects on reproduction and the development of offspring. ..
  16. Choi H, Calvert C, Husain N, Huss D, Barsi J, Deverman B, et al. Mapping a multiplexed zoo of mRNA expression. Development. 2016;143:3632-3637 pubmed
  17. Whitlock K. Development of the nervus terminalis: origin and migration. Microsc Res Tech. 2004;65:2-12 pubmed
    ..In this review, the data surrounding this finding will be discussed in light of recent findings on neural crest and placode origins. ..
  18. Gioacchini G, Maradonna F, Lombardo F, Bizzaro D, Olivotto I, Carnevali O. Increase of fecundity by probiotic administration in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Reproduction. 2010;140:953-9 pubmed publisher
  19. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S, et al. A time-course transcriptional kinetics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes in zebrafish eleutheroembryos after exposure to norgestrel. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015;34:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Norgestrel treatment could significantly induce expression of Cyp19a1a, Cyp11b, Gnrh2, Gnrh3, and Lhb mRNAs but inhibit transcripts of Hsd11b2 and Crh genes above 5 ng L(-1) at different time ..
  20. Jo A, Ji K, Choi K. Endocrine disruption effects of long-term exposure to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and related mechanisms. Chemosphere. 2014;108:360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequences of endocrine disruptions in reproduction performances of the fish warrant further investigation. ..
  21. Yang Q, Yang X, Liu J, Ren W, Chen Y, Shen S. Effects of BPF on steroid hormone homeostasis and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of zebrafish. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:21311-21322 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations suggest that BPF leads to adverse effects on the endocrine system of teleost fish, and that these effects were more prominent in males than in females. ..
  22. Collard H, Ji K, Lee S, Liu X, Kang S, Kho Y, et al. Toxicity and endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) after chronic exposure to mefenamic acid. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;94:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effective concentrations are orders of magnitude greater than those occurring in the ambient aquatic environment. ..
  23. McGonnell I, Fowkes R. Fishing for gene function--endocrine modelling in the zebrafish. J Endocrinol. 2006;189:425-39 pubmed
    ..We anticipate that the use of these techniques will make the zebrafish a prominent model in endocrine research in the coming years. ..
  24. Su Y, Li L, Hou J, Wu N, Lin W, Li G. Life-cycle exposure to microcystin-LR interferes with the reproductive endocrine system of male zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;175:205-12 pubmed publisher
  25. Spicer O, Wong T, Zmora N, Zohar Y. Targeted Mutagenesis of the Hypophysiotropic Gnrh3 in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Reveals No Effects on Reproductive Performance. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158141 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to eliminate gnrh3 (the hypophysiotropic Gnrh form) function in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to determine how ontogeny and reproductive ..
  26. Song Y, Tao B, Chen J, Jia S, Zhu Z, Trudeau V, et al. GABAergic Neurons and Their Modulatory Effects on GnRH3 in Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2017;158:874-886 pubmed publisher
    ..The anatomical relationships between GABAergic and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 3 (GnRH3) neurons were investigated by crossing Tg(gad67:mCherry) fish with the previously established Tg(gnrh3:EGFP) ..
  27. Liu Y, Tang H, Xie R, Li S, Liu X, Lin H, et al. Genetic Evidence for Multifactorial Control of the Reproductive Axis in Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2017;158:604-611 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we generated gnrh3-null zebrafish and found that gnrh3 mutation did not impair gonad development and reproductive capacity...
  28. Liang Y, Huang G, Lin Z, Li J, Yang J, Zhong L, et al. Reproductive effects of synthetic progestin norgestrel in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2018;190:17-24 pubmed publisher
  29. Han J, Wang Q, Wang X, Li Y, Wen S, Liu S, et al. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;150:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. ..
  30. Onuma T, Ding Y, Abraham E, Zohar Y, Ando H, Duan C. Regulation of temporal and spatial organization of newborn GnRH neurons by IGF signaling in zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11814-24 pubmed publisher
    ..of IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) or specific IGF1R inhibitors delayed the emergence of GnRH2 neurons in the midbrain and GnRH3 neurons in the olfactory bulb region...
  31. Ji K, Liu X, Lee S, Kang S, Kho Y, Giesy J, et al. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on hormones and genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis, and reproduction of zebrafish. J Hazard Mater. 2013;254-255:242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that ibuprofen could modulate hormone production and related gene transcription of the HPG axis in a sex-dependent way, which could cause adverse effects on reproduction and the development of offspring. ..
  32. Yin P, Li Y, Chen Q, Liu Z. Diethylstilbestrol, flutamide and their combination impaired the spermatogenesis of male adult zebrafish through disrupting HPG axis, meiosis and apoptosis. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;185:129-137 pubmed publisher
    ..expression and plasma steroid level analyses demonstrated the suppressed mRNA levels of the key genes (such as gnrh3, fsh? and lh? in brain and dmrt1, sf1, cyp17a1 and cyp11b2 in testis) in HPG axis and decreased 11-..
  33. Huang W, Zhang J, Liao Z, Lv Z, Wu H, Zhu A, et al. Genomic structure and promoter functional analysis of GnRH3 gene in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Gene. 2016;576:458-65 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone III (GnRH3) is considered to be a key neurohormone in fish reproduction control...
  34. Shahjahan M, Kitahashi T, Ogawa S, Parhar I. Temperature differentially regulates the two kisspeptin systems in the brain of zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;193:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fold) in the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus and the posterior tuberal nucleus. gnrh3 but not gnrh2 mRNA levels were also decreased (0.5-fold) in the low and high temperature conditions...
  35. Xu Q, Wu D, Dang Y, Yu L, Liu C, Wang J. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after waterborne exposure to TBOEP. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;182:163-171 pubmed publisher
  36. Yumnamcha T, Khan Z, Rajiv C, Devi S, Mondal G, Sanjita Devi H, et al. Interaction of melatonin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone on the zebrafish brain-pituitary-reproductive axis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2017;84:389-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of gnrh3, however, was high in both continuous photic conditions (DD and LL), whereas fshb and lhb were high only during DD...
  37. Dang Y, Wang J, Giesy J, Liu C. Responses of the zebrafish hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis PCR array to prochloraz are dependent on timing of sampling. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;175:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlations among parameters in samples collected at the two times indicated the effects might be due to different concentrations of E2 in plasma due to exposure to PCZ. ..
  38. Ji K, Hong S, Kho Y, Choi K. Effects of bisphenol s exposure on endocrine functions and reproduction of zebrafish. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:8793-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations showed that exposure to low level BPS could affect the feedback regulatory circuits of HPG axis and impair the development of offspring. ..
  39. Kuo M, Lou S, Chung B. Hedgehog-PKA signaling and gnrh3 regulate the development of zebrafish gnrh3 neurons. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95545 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the development of GnRH neurons, we examined the development of gnrh3-expressing cells using a transgenic zebrafish line that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) and LacZ driven ..
  40. Chen S, Reichert S, Singh C, Oikonomou G, Rihel J, Prober D. Light-Dependent Regulation of Sleep and Wake States by Prokineticin 2 in Zebrafish. Neuron. 2017;95:153-168.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Prok2 antagonizes the direct wake-promoting effect of light in zebrafish, in part through the induction of galn expression in the hypothalamus. ..
  41. Prasad P, Ogawa S, Parhar I. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram inhibits GnRH synthesis and spermatogenesis in the male zebrafish. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:102 pubmed publisher
    ..of SSRI-induced reproductive failure, we examined the neuronal association between 5-HT and GnRH (GnRH2 and GnRH3) systems in the male zebrafish...
  42. Baudiffier D, Hinfray N, Ravaud C, Creusot N, Chadili E, Porcher J, et al. Effect of in vivo chronic exposure to clotrimazole on zebrafish testis function. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:2747-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrated that clotrimazole is able to affect testicular physiology and raised further concern about the impact of clotrimazole on reproduction. ..
  43. Palevitch O, Abraham E, Borodovsky N, Levkowitz G, Zohar Y, Gothilf Y. Nasal embryonic LHRH factor plays a role in the developmental migration and projection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 neurons in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:66-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a transgenic zebrafish model, Tg(gnrh3:EGFP), in which GnRH3 neurons and axons are fluorescently labeled, we investigated whether zebrafish NELF is ..
  44. Whitlock K, Smith K, Kim H, Harden M. A role for foxd3 and sox10 in the differentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Development. 2005;132:5491-502 pubmed
  45. Carnevali O, Gioacchini G, Maradonna F, Olivotto I, Migliarini B. Melatonin induces follicle maturation in Danio rerio. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19978 pubmed publisher increase fecundity was consistent with a significant increase of gene transcription of kiss 1, kiss 2, gnrh3, in the brain, and lh in the pituitary, while in the ovary (in class IIIB follicles), with a significant decrease ..
  46. Gopinath A, Andrew Tseng L, Whitlock K. Temporal and spatial expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:65-70 pubmed
    ..The salmon GnRH (sGnRH), is found in the terminal nerve, where it has a neuromodulatory function...
  47. Chen W, Lau S, Fan Y, Wu R, Ge W. Juvenile exposure to bisphenol A promotes ovarian differentiation but suppresses its growth - Potential involvement of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;193:111-121 pubmed publisher
    ..not seem to involve the hypothalamus because neither BPA nor E2 altered the expression of kiss1, kiss2, gnrh2 and gnrh3 in the hypothalamus. At the ovary level, BPA and E2 both decreased lhcgr expression...
  48. Huang L, Li L. Characterization of voltage-activated ionic currents in the GnRH-containing terminalis nerve in transgenic zebrafish. Brain Res. 2011;1367:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data from this study revealed the electrophysiological properties of the GnRH-containing TN cells, thereby providing insight on the regulatory mechanisms of TN-signaling in animal physiology...
  49. Qiu W, Zhao Y, Yang M, Farajzadeh M, Pan C, Wayne N. Actions of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System During Early Development in Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2016;157:636-47 pubmed publisher
    ..relevant, low levels of BPA exposure during development led to advanced hatching time, increased numbers of GnRH3 neurons in both terminal nerve and hypothalamus, increased expression of reproduction-related genes (kiss1, kiss1r,..
  50. Han X, Lei E, Lam M, Wu R. A whole life cycle assessment on effects of waterborne PBDEs on gene expression profile along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis and in the liver of zebrafish. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;63:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed disruption of GnRH and GtHs can be further related to the subsequent disruption in both levels and balance sex steroid hormones. ..
  51. Wang X, Huang L, Li Y, Li X, Li P, Ray J, et al. Characterization of GFP-tagged GnRH-containing terminalis neurons in transgenic zebrafish. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:608-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the expression of glutamate receptors in the TN cells. The data shed light on the mechanisms of TN function in the nervous system and in the regulation of animal physiology. ..
  52. Kwon B, Shin H, Moon H, Ji K, Kim K. Effects of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate exposure on endocrine systems and reproduction of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Pollut. 2016;214:568-574 pubmed publisher
  53. Khor Y, Soga T, Parhar I. Early-life stress changes expression of GnRH and kisspeptin genes and DNA methylation of GnRH3 promoter in the adult zebrafish brain. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;227:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of GnRH2, GnRH3, Kiss1 and Kiss2 mRNAs were measured between different doses of DEX treatment groups in adult zebrafish...
  54. Tang H, Liu Y, Luo D, Ogawa S, Yin Y, Li S, et al. The kiss/kissr systems are dispensable for zebrafish reproduction: evidence from gene knockout studies. Endocrinology. 2015;156:589-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also demonstrated that fish and mammals have evolved different strategies for neuroendocrine control of reproduction. ..
  55. Kitahashi T, Ogawa S, Parhar I. Cloning and expression of kiss2 in the zebrafish and medaka. Endocrinology. 2009;150:821-31 pubmed publisher
    ..002), gnrh2, and gnrh3 (P < 0.001) mRNA levels at the start of the pubertal phase and remained high in adulthood...
  56. Sherwood N, Wu S. Developmental role of GnRH and PACAP in a zebrafish model. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2005;142:74-80 pubmed
    ..Gene knockdown of gnrh2, gnrh3 or both at the one-cell stage resulted in a high percentage of embryos at 24-48 h with a defective mid-hindbrain ..
  57. Hou J, Li L, Wu N, Su Y, Lin W, Li G, et al. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in female zebrafish after long-term exposure to MC-LR: A life cycle assessment. Environ Pollut. 2016;208:477-85 pubmed publisher