gnrh2

Summary

Gene Symbol: gnrh2
Description: gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2
Alias: GnRH-II, cGnRH-II, progonadoliberin-2, cII gonadotropin releasing hormone
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Steven C, Lehnen N, Kight K, Ijiri S, Klenke U, Harris W, et al. Molecular characterization of the GnRH system in zebrafish (Danio rerio): cloning of chicken GnRH-II, adult brain expression patterns and pituitary content of salmon GnRH and chicken GnRH-II. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;133:27-37 pubmed
  2. Palevitch O, Kight K, Abraham E, Wray S, Zohar Y, Gothilf Y. Ontogeny of the GnRH systems in zebrafish brain: in situ hybridization and promoter-reporter expression analyses in intact animals. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;327:313-22 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that zebrafish TN and hypothalamic sGnRH cell populations share a common embryonic origin and migratory path, and that midbrain cGnRH-II cells originate within the midbrain. ..
  3. Nishiguchi R, Azuma M, Yokobori E, Uchiyama M, Matsuda K. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 suppresses food intake in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012;3:122 pubmed publisher
    ..A molecular form known as GnRH2 ([His(5) Trp(7) Tyr(8)]GnRH, also known as chicken GnRH II) is widely distributed in vertebrates except for rodents, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of ..
  4. Tello J, Wu S, Rivier J, Sherwood N. Four functional GnRH receptors in zebrafish: analysis of structure, signaling, synteny and phylogeny. Integr Comp Biol. 2008;48:570-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Humans possess two types of GnRH (GnRH1 and GnRH2) but only one functional GnRH receptor...
  5. Chen S, Reichert S, Singh C, Oikonomou G, Rihel J, Prober D. Light-Dependent Regulation of Sleep and Wake States by Prokineticin 2 in Zebrafish. Neuron. 2017;95:153-168.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Prok2 antagonizes the direct wake-promoting effect of light in zebrafish, in part through the induction of galn expression in the hypothalamus. ..
  6. Liu W, Chen C, Chen L, Wang L, Li J, Chen Y, et al. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22819 pubmed publisher
    ..Major contributors to PC1 (gnrh2, gnrhr3, ar, lhr, hmgra, hmgrb and cyp19a) were positively correlated with the number of post-vitellogenic oocytes,..
  7. Yu M, Zhang X, Guo L, Tian H, Wang W, Ru S. Anti-estrogenic effect of semicarbazide in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its potential mechanisms. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;170:262-270 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations and highlight the importance of controlling SMC contamination. ..
  8. Prasad P, Ogawa S, Parhar I. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram inhibits GnRH synthesis and spermatogenesis in the male zebrafish. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:102 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms of SSRI-induced reproductive failure, we examined the neuronal association between 5-HT and GnRH (GnRH2 and GnRH3) systems in the male zebrafish...
  9. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S, et al. The effects of progesterone on transcriptional expression profiles of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes during the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2015;128:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..For the other target genes related to hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, P4 mainly modulated the transcripts of Gnrh2, Fshb and Lhb genes at 6 ng L(-1) or higher...

More Information

Publications48

  1. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S, et al. A time-course transcriptional kinetics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes in zebrafish eleutheroembryos after exposure to norgestrel. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015;34:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Norgestrel treatment could significantly induce expression of Cyp19a1a, Cyp11b, Gnrh2, Gnrh3, and Lhb mRNAs but inhibit transcripts of Hsd11b2 and Crh genes above 5 ng L(-1) at different ..
  2. Han J, Wang Q, Wang X, Li Y, Wen S, Liu S, et al. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;150:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. ..
  3. Xia W, Smith O, Zmora N, Xu S, Zohar Y. Comprehensive analysis of GnRH2 neuronal projections in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3676 pubmed publisher
    The presence and conservation of GnRH2 across vertebrate species suggest important biological roles. However, the function of GnRH2 remains unclear...
  4. Tessmar Raible K, Raible F, Christodoulou F, Guy K, Rembold M, Hausen H, et al. Conserved sensory-neurosecretory cell types in annelid and fish forebrain: insights into hypothalamus evolution. Cell. 2007;129:1389-400 pubmed
  5. Shahjahan M, Kitahashi T, Ogawa S, Parhar I. Temperature differentially regulates the two kisspeptin systems in the brain of zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;193:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fold) in the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus and the posterior tuberal nucleus. gnrh3 but not gnrh2 mRNA levels were also decreased (0.5-fold) in the low and high temperature conditions...
  6. Shi J, Jiao Z, Zheng S, Li M, Zhang J, Feng Y, et al. Long-term effects of bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hormonal balance and genes of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio), and the impact on offspring. Chemosphere. 2015;128:252-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A potential consequence of adverse effects in the offspring by BPAF deserves further investigation. ..
  7. Kuo M, Lou S, Postlethwait J, Chung B. Chromosomal organization, evolutionary relationship, and expression of zebrafish GnRH family members. J Biomed Sci. 2005;12:629-39 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have cloned cDNA encoding the full-length gnrh3 and gnrh2 from zebrafish brain and characterized their structure and expression patterns...
  8. McGonnell I, Fowkes R. Fishing for gene function--endocrine modelling in the zebrafish. J Endocrinol. 2006;189:425-39 pubmed
    ..We anticipate that the use of these techniques will make the zebrafish a prominent model in endocrine research in the coming years. ..
  9. Xu Q, Wu D, Dang Y, Yu L, Liu C, Wang J. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after waterborne exposure to TBOEP. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;182:163-171 pubmed publisher
  10. Han X, Lei E, Lam M, Wu R. A whole life cycle assessment on effects of waterborne PBDEs on gene expression profile along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis and in the liver of zebrafish. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;63:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed disruption of GnRH and GtHs can be further related to the subsequent disruption in both levels and balance sex steroid hormones. ..
  11. Zucchi S, Castiglioni S, Fent K. Progesterone alters global transcription profiles at environmental concentrations in brain and ovary of female zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:12548-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The data show molecular effects and the modes of action of P4 at environmental concentrations. Ultimately they may translate to adverse effects on reproduction. ..
  12. Zhang Q, Li Y, Liu Z, Chen Q. Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;177:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..although ovarian 17?-estradiol (E2) content remained relatively stable, significant down-regulation of lh?, gnrh2, gnrh3, lhr and er? were observed...
  13. Su Y, Li L, Hou J, Wu N, Lin W, Li G. Life-cycle exposure to microcystin-LR interferes with the reproductive endocrine system of male zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;175:205-12 pubmed publisher
  14. Kitahashi T, Ogawa S, Parhar I. Cloning and expression of kiss2 in the zebrafish and medaka. Endocrinology. 2009;150:821-31 pubmed publisher
    ..002), gnrh2, and gnrh3 (P < 0.001) mRNA levels at the start of the pubertal phase and remained high in adulthood...
  15. Onuma T, Ding Y, Abraham E, Zohar Y, Ando H, Duan C. Regulation of temporal and spatial organization of newborn GnRH neurons by IGF signaling in zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2011;31:11814-24 pubmed publisher
    ..of a dominant-negative form of IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) or specific IGF1R inhibitors delayed the emergence of GnRH2 neurons in the midbrain and GnRH3 neurons in the olfactory bulb region...
  16. Liu Y, Tang H, Xie R, Li S, Liu X, Lin H, et al. Genetic Evidence for Multifactorial Control of the Reproductive Axis in Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2017;158:604-611 pubmed publisher
  17. Kwon B, Shin H, Moon H, Ji K, Kim K. Effects of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate exposure on endocrine systems and reproduction of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Pollut. 2016;214:568-574 pubmed publisher
  18. Whitlock K. Development of the nervus terminalis: origin and migration. Microsc Res Tech. 2004;65:2-12 pubmed
    ..In this review, the data surrounding this finding will be discussed in light of recent findings on neural crest and placode origins. ..
  19. Kwon B, Ha N, Jung J, Kim P, Kho Y, Choi K, et al. Effects of Barium Chloride Exposure on Hormones and Genes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonad Axis, and Reproduction of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;96:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that BaCl2 could modulate gene transcriptions and hormone production of the HPG axis in a sex-dependent way, which could cause adverse effects on reproduction and the development of offspring. ..
  20. Gopinath A, Andrew Tseng L, Whitlock K. Temporal and spatial expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:65-70 pubmed
    ..Unlike what has been reported in many adult fishes, we did not find sGnRH expressed in the hypothalamic population during development. ..
  21. Whitlock K, Smith K, Kim H, Harden M. A role for foxd3 and sox10 in the differentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Development. 2005;132:5491-502 pubmed
  22. Wu S, Page L, Sherwood N. A role for GnRH in early brain regionalization and eye development in zebrafish. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;257-258:47-64 pubmed
    ..To determine if GnRH is involved in development, we used gene knockdown techniques to block translation of gnrh2 or gnrh3 mRNA after which the expression patterns for gene markers were examined at 24h post fertilization with in ..
  23. Corchuelo S, Martinez E, Butzge A, Doretto L, Ricci J, Valentin F, et al. Characterization of Gnrh/Gnih elements in the olfacto-retinal system and ovary during zebrafish ovarian maturation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;450:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In zebrafish, two variants were characterized and named as Gnrh2 and Gnrh3...
  24. Ji K, Hong S, Kho Y, Choi K. Effects of bisphenol s exposure on endocrine functions and reproduction of zebrafish. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:8793-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations showed that exposure to low level BPS could affect the feedback regulatory circuits of HPG axis and impair the development of offspring. ..
  25. Ji K, Liu X, Lee S, Kang S, Kho Y, Giesy J, et al. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on hormones and genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis, and reproduction of zebrafish. J Hazard Mater. 2013;254-255:242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that ibuprofen could modulate hormone production and related gene transcription of the HPG axis in a sex-dependent way, which could cause adverse effects on reproduction and the development of offspring. ..
  26. Yang Q, Yang X, Liu J, Ren W, Chen Y, Shen S. Effects of BPF on steroid hormone homeostasis and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of zebrafish. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:21311-21322 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations suggest that BPF leads to adverse effects on the endocrine system of teleost fish, and that these effects were more prominent in males than in females. ..
  27. Chen W, Lau S, Fan Y, Wu R, Ge W. Juvenile exposure to bisphenol A promotes ovarian differentiation but suppresses its growth - Potential involvement of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;193:111-121 pubmed publisher
    ..did not seem to involve the hypothalamus because neither BPA nor E2 altered the expression of kiss1, kiss2, gnrh2 and gnrh3 in the hypothalamus. At the ovary level, BPA and E2 both decreased lhcgr expression...
  28. Liang Y, Huang G, Lin Z, Li J, Yang J, Zhong L, et al. Reproductive effects of synthetic progestin norgestrel in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2018;190:17-24 pubmed publisher
  29. Khor Y, Soga T, Parhar I. Early-life stress changes expression of GnRH and kisspeptin genes and DNA methylation of GnRH3 promoter in the adult zebrafish brain. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;227:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of GnRH2, GnRH3, Kiss1 and Kiss2 mRNAs were measured between different doses of DEX treatment groups in adult zebrafish...
  30. Hou J, Li L, Wu N, Su Y, Lin W, Li G, et al. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in female zebrafish after long-term exposure to MC-LR: A life cycle assessment. Environ Pollut. 2016;208:477-85 pubmed publisher
  31. Wang F, Huang G, Tian H, Zhong Y, Shi H, Li Z, et al. Point mutations in KAL1 and the mitochondrial gene MT-tRNA(cys) synergize to produce Kallmann syndrome phenotype. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13050 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work highlights a new mode of inheritance underlay the genetic etiology of KS and provide valuable clues to understand the disease development. ..
  32. Jo A, Ji K, Choi K. Endocrine disruption effects of long-term exposure to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and related mechanisms. Chemosphere. 2014;108:360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequences of endocrine disruptions in reproduction performances of the fish warrant further investigation. ..
  33. Schiller V, Wichmann A, Kriehuber R, Schäfers C, Fischer R, Fenske M. Transcriptome alterations in zebrafish embryos after exposure to environmental estrogens and anti-androgens can reveal endocrine disruption. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;42:210-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that different mechanism of ED can be assessed already in fish embryos. ..
  34. Liu C, Yu L, Deng J, Lam P, Wu R, Zhou B. Waterborne exposure to fluorotelomer alcohol 6:2 FTOH alters plasma sex hormone and gene transcription in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis of zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;93:131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that FTOHs may disturb fish reproduction through endocrine disrupted activity. ..
  35. Sherwood N, Wu S. Developmental role of GnRH and PACAP in a zebrafish model. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2005;142:74-80 pubmed
    ..Gene knockdown of gnrh2, gnrh3 or both at the one-cell stage resulted in a high percentage of embryos at 24-48 h with a defective mid-..
  36. Dang Y, Wang J, Giesy J, Liu C. Responses of the zebrafish hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis PCR array to prochloraz are dependent on timing of sampling. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;175:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlations among parameters in samples collected at the two times indicated the effects might be due to different concentrations of E2 in plasma due to exposure to PCZ. ..
  37. Kang H, Moon H, Choi K. Toxicological responses following short-term exposure through gavage feeding or water-borne exposure to Dechlorane Plus in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2016;146:226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations indicate for the first time that DP disrupts thyroid hormone balance of zebrafish by altering regulatory pathways in the brain. Handling editor: David Volz. ..
  38. Collard H, Ji K, Lee S, Liu X, Kang S, Kho Y, et al. Toxicity and endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) after chronic exposure to mefenamic acid. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;94:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effective concentrations are orders of magnitude greater than those occurring in the ambient aquatic environment. ..
  39. Bhattacharya P, Yan Y, Postlethwait J, Rubin D. Evolution of the vertebrate pth2 (tip39) gene family and the regulation of PTH type 2 receptor (pth2r) and its endogenous ligand pth2 by hedgehog signaling in zebrafish development. J Endocrinol. 2011;211:187-200 pubmed publisher
    ..mutants showed that hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulates the expression of pth2 transcripts more than that of nearby gnrh2-expressing cells...