Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: gh1
Description: growth hormone 1
Alias: ghl, somatotropin
- Dickmeis T, Lahiri K, Nica G, Vallone D, Santoriello C, Neumann C, et al. Glucocorticoids play a key role in circadian cell cycle rhythms. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e78 pubmed..Instead, they act in concert with a systemic signaling environment of which glucocorticoids are an essential part. ..
- de Azevedo Figueiredo M, Lanes C, Almeida D, Proietti M, Marins L. The effect of GH overexpression on GHR and IGF-I gene regulation in different genotypes of GH-transgenic zebrafish. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2007;2:228-33 pubmed publisher..Together, our results demonstrated that homozygous GH-transgenic fish showed similar characteristics to the starvation-induced fish and could be an interesting model for studying the regulation of the GH/GHR/IGF-I axis in fish. ..
- Lei X, Cai S, Chen Y, Cui J, Wang Y, Li Z, et al. Down-regulation of interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) contributes to central nervous system demyelination. Oncotarget. 2017;8:28395-28407 pubmed publisher..These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of IL-7R in demyelination, and provide a rationale for the development of IL-7R-based therapies for MS and other demyelinating diseases. ..
- Hoshijima K, Hirose S. Expression of endocrine genes in zebrafish larvae in response to environmental salinity. J Endocrinol. 2007;193:481-91 pubmed
- Silva A, Almeida D, Nornberg B, Pereira J, Pires D, Corcini C, et al. Reproductive parameters of double transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) males overexpressing both the growth hormone (GH) and its receptor (GHR). Transgenic Res. 2017;26:123-134 pubmed publisher..Therefore, it is clear that GH-transgenesis technology should take into account the need to obtain adequate levels of circulating hormone in order to achieve maximum growth with minimal negative side effects. ..
- Peng X, Shang G, Wang W, Chen X, Lou Q, Zhai G, et al. Fatty Acid Oxidation in Zebrafish Adipose Tissue Is Promoted by 1Î±,25(OH)2D3. Cell Rep. 2017;19:1444-1455 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that regulation of 1Î±,25(OH)2D3 during lipid metabolism occurs through the regulation of Pgc1a for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism within zebrafish VAT. ..
- Chen M, Huang X, Yuen D, Cheng C. A study on the functional interaction between the GH/PRL family of polypeptides with their receptors in zebrafish: Evidence against GHR1 being the receptor for somatolactin. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;337:114-21 pubmed publisher..The zebrafish SLs, found to be biologically active in another assay, were found to be ineffective in interacting with the zebrafish GHRs and PRLRs. Our data argue against the hypothesis that GHR1 is the SL receptor. ..
- Bergeron S, Tyurina O, Miller E, Bagas A, Karlstrom R. Brother of cdo (umleitung) is cell-autonomously required for Hedgehog-mediated ventral CNS patterning in the zebrafish. Development. 2011;138:75-85 pubmed publisher..This study reveals a role for Boc in ventral CNS cells that receive high levels of Hh and uncovers previously unknown roles for Boc in vertebrate embryogenesis. ..
- Trivellin G, Bjelobaba I, Daly A, Larco D, Palmeira L, Faucz F, et al. Characterization of GPR101 transcript structure and expression patterns. J Mol Endocrinol. 2016;57:97-111 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest an important role for GPR101 in brain and pituitary development and likely reflect the very different growth, development and maturation patterns among species. ..
- Ji Y, Buel S, Amack J. Mutations in zebrafish pitx2 model congenital malformations in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome but do not disrupt left-right placement of visceral organs. Dev Biol. 2016;416:69-81 pubmed publisher..We show Nodal signaling-independent of Pitx2-controls asymmetric expression of the fatty acid elongase elovl6 in zebrafish, pointing to a potential novel pathway during LR organogenesis. ..
- Li C, Chen X, Zhang Y, Ye H, Liu T. Molecular and expression characterization of growth hormone/prolactin family genes in the Prenant's schizothoracin. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:4595-602 pubmed publisher..SpGH was expressed in nearly all tissues detected with the highest expression level in the pituitary. ..
- Dutta S, Dietrich J, Westerfield M, Varga Z. Notch signaling regulates endocrine cell specification in the zebrafish anterior pituitary. Dev Biol. 2008;319:248-57 pubmed publisher..We propose that Notch mediated lateral inhibition regulates the relative numbers of specified hormone cell types in the three pituitary subdomains. ..
- Guner B, Ozacar A, Thomas J, Karlstrom R. Graded hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor signaling independently regulate pituitary cell fates and help establish the pars distalis and pars intermedia of the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4435-51 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that there are distinct origins and signaling requirements for the PD and PI. ..
- Li M, Gao Z, Ji D, Zhang S. Functional characterization of GH-like homolog in amphioxus reveals an ancient origin of GH/GH receptor system. Endocrinology. 2014;155:4818-30 pubmed publisher..These data collectively suggest that a vertebrate-like neuroendocrine axis setting has already emerged in amphioxus, which lays a foundation for subsequent formation of hypothalamic-pituitary system in vertebrates. ..
- Wang H, Semenova S, Kuusela S, Panula P, Lehtonen S. Tankyrases regulate glucoregulatory mechanisms and somatic growth via the central melanocortin system in zebrafish larvae. FASEB J. 2015;29:4435-48 pubmed publisher..The collective data suggest that TNKS1b modulates glucoregulatory mechanisms and the somatic growth of zebrafish larvae via the central melanocortin system. ..
- Wu Y, Zhang G, Xiong Q, Luo F, Cui C, Hu W, et al. Integration of double-fluorescence expression vectors into zebrafish genome for the selection of site-directed knockout/knockin. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2006;8:304-11 pubmed..In this study, we developed an efficient method for producing the targeted gene modification in zebrafish for future studies on genetic modifications and gene functions using this model organism. ..
- Zhang C, Forlano P, Cone R. AgRP and POMC neurons are hypophysiotropic and coordinately regulate multiple endocrine axes in a larval teleost. Cell Metab. 2012;15:256-64 pubmed publisher..This identifies the mechanism by which the central melanocortin system coordinately regulates growth and reproduction in teleosts and suggests it is an important anatomical substrate for evolutionary adaptation. ..
- Chen W, Ge W. Ontogenic expression profiles of gonadotropins (fshb and lhb) and growth hormone (gh) during sexual differentiation and puberty onset in female zebrafish. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:73 pubmed publisher..However, the significance of the location change of Fsh cells during this period will be interesting to investigate. ..
- Devine C, Sbrogna J, Guner B, Osgood M, Shen M, Karlstrom R. A dynamic Gli code interprets Hh signals to regulate induction, patterning, and endocrine cell specification in the zebrafish pituitary. Dev Biol. 2009;326:143-54 pubmed publisher..Given the link between Hh signaling and pituitary adenomas in humans, our data suggest misregulation of Gli function may contribute to these common pituitary tumors. ..
- Lawir D, Iwanami N, Schorpp M, Boehm T. A missense mutation in zbtb17 blocks the earliest steps of T cell differentiation in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:44145 pubmed publisher..Our results reveal the zbtb17-socs1 axis as an evolutionarily conserved central regulatory module of early T cell development of vertebrates. ..
- Shang E, Zhdanova I. The circadian system is a target and modulator of prenatal cocaine effects. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e587 pubmed..Daily variation in these effects of cocaine and their attenuation by melatonin suggest a potential prophylactic or therapeutic role for circadian factors in prenatal cocaine exposure. ..
- Hou J, Su Y, Lin W, Guo H, Xie P, Chen J, et al. Microcystin-LR retards gonadal maturation through disrupting the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factors system in zebrafish. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;139:27-35 pubmed publisher..Our results provide evidence that MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations is able to induce impairments on fish gonadal development. ..
- He W, Dai X, Chen X, He J, Yin Z. Zebrafish pituitary gene expression before and after sexual maturation. J Endocrinol. 2014;221:429-40 pubmed publisher..For the first time, we report the quantitative global gene expression patterns at the juvenile and sexual maturity stages. These expression patterns may account for the dynamic neuroendocrine regulation observed in body metabolism. ..
- Amaral I, Johnston I. Experimental selection for body size at age modifies early life-history traits and muscle gene expression in adult zebrafish. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:3895-904 pubmed publisher..For example, igf2 receptor transcript abundance was higher and igbp1a/b transcript abundance was lower in the L- than in the S-lineage, consistent with an effect of selection on insulin-like growth factor signalling. ..
- Soza Ried C, Hess I, Netuschil N, Schorpp M, Boehm T. Essential role of c-myb in definitive hematopoiesis is evolutionarily conserved. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17304-8 pubmed publisher..Our results, therefore, suggest that the key role of c-myb in definitive hematopoiesis is similar to that in mammals and must have become established early in vertebrate evolution. ..
- Teng M, Qi S, Zhu W, Wang Y, Wang D, Yang Y, et al. Sex-specific effects of difenoconazole on the growth hormone endocrine axis in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;144:402-408 pubmed publisher..It was found that difenoconazole interfered with the growth endocrine system and sex-specifically altered the expression of GH/IGF axis related genes in adult zebrafish after a short-term exposure. ..
- Graf M, Teo Qi Wen E, Sarusie M, Rajaei F, Winkler C. Dmrt5 controls corticotrope and gonadotrope differentiation in the zebrafish pituitary. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:187-99 pubmed publisher..Intriguingly, its effect on gonadotrope numbers defines a first nongonadal role for a dmrt family member that appears crucial for the activity of the reproductive system. ..
- Batista C, Figueiredo M, Almeida D, Romano L, Marins L. Effects of somatotrophic axis (GH/GHR) double transgenesis on structural and molecular aspects of the zebrafish immune system. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45:725-32 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that GHR overexpression does not reverse the impairments caused by GH and, in addition, could reinforce the damage to the immune functions in GH transgenic zebrafish. ..
- Li S, Liu W, Li Z, Li W, Wang Y, Zhou L, et al. greb1 regulates convergent extension movement and pituitary development in zebrafish. Gene. 2017;627:176-187 pubmed publisher..Therefore, our present study indicates that greb1 is a novel regulator for CE movement and pituitary development in zebrafish. ..
- Zhou R, Yu S, Ge W. Expression and functional characterization of intrafollicular GH-IGF system in the zebrafish ovary. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;232:32-42 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, the present study revealed an intrafollicular network involving GH-IGF mini-axis in the zebrafish ovary; however, it might not work in the same way as that of the systemic somatotrophic axis. ..
- Safari R, Hoseinifar S, Van Doan H, Dadar M. The effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis) on skin mucus immune parameters and mRNA levels of growth, antioxidant and immune related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;66:264-269 pubmed publisher..These results on zebrafish model also highlights the potential use of Myrtle supplements as additive in human diets. ..
- Silva A, Almeida D, Nornberg B, Figueiredo M, Romano L, Marins L. Effects of Double Transgenesis of Somatotrophic Axis (GH/GHR) on Skeletal Muscle Growth of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish. 2015;12:408-13 pubmed publisher..1 (stat5.1). ..
- Fukamachi S, Meyer A. Evolution of receptors for growth hormone and somatolactin in fish and land vertebrates: lessons from the lungfish and sturgeon orthologues. J Mol Evol. 2007;65:359-72 pubmed..On the basis of these results, we discuss the validity of the nomenclature of the teleost-specific copy of GHR as SLR and an ancestral receptor(s) for SL before the evolution of SLR during the FSGD. ..
- Cheng X, Chen X, Li D, Jin X, He J, Yin Z. Effects of metronidazole on proopiomelanocortin a gene expression in zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;214:87-94 pubmed publisher..Our current results raised the cautions to the intensively application of MTZ in clinical practices and biomedical researches. ..
- Opazo R, Fuenzalida K, Plaza Parrochia F, Romero J. Performance of Debaryomyces hansenii as a Diet for Rotifers for Feeding Zebrafish Larvae. Zebrafish. 2017;14:187-194 pubmed publisher..The gene responses observed in this work open up the opportunity to study the effect of omega-3 supply on growth regulation in zebrafish. ..
- Ahmed A, Xiong F, Pang S, He M, Waters M, Zhu Z, et al. Activation of GH signaling and GH-independent stimulation of growth in zebrafish by introduction of a constitutively activated GHR construct. Transgenic Res. 2011;20:557-67 pubmed publisher..Our study demonstrates GH-independent growth by CA-GHR in vivo which bypasses normal IGF-1 feedback control of GH secretion. This provides a novel means of producing growth enhanced transgenic animals based on molecular protein design. ..
- Figueiredo M, Mareco E, Silva M, Marins L. Muscle-specific growth hormone receptor (GHR) overexpression induces hyperplasia but not hypertrophy in transgenic zebrafish. Transgenic Res. 2012;21:457-69 pubmed publisher..Therefore, it seems that hypertrophy and hyperplasia follow two different routes for entire muscle growth, both of them triggered by GHR activation, but regulated by different mechanisms. ..
- Bhattacharya P, Yan Y, Postlethwait J, Rubin D. Evolution of the vertebrate pth2 (tip39) gene family and the regulation of PTH type 2 receptor (pth2r) and its endogenous ligand pth2 by hedgehog signaling in zebrafish development. J Endocrinol. 2011;211:187-200 pubmed publisher..The considerable evolutionary conservation in genomic structure, synteny relationships, and expression of zebrafish pth2 and pth2r provides a foundation for exploring the endocrine roles of this system in developing vertebrate embryos. ..
- Mu X, Chai T, Wang K, Zhu L, Huang Y, Shen G, et al. The developmental effect of difenoconazole on zebrafish embryos: A mechanism research. Environ Pollut. 2016;212:18-26 pubmed publisher..Genes related to hatching, retinoic acid metabolism and lipid homeostasis were up-regulated by difenoconazole. ..
- van den Bos R, Mes W, Galligani P, Heil A, Zethof J, Flik G, et al. Further characterisation of differences between TL and AB zebrafish (Danio rerio): Gene expression, physiology and behaviour at day 5 of the larval stage. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175420 pubmed publisher..These results emphasise that differences between strains need to be taken into account to enhance reproducibility both within, and between, laboratories. ..
- Lopez M, Nica G, Motte P, Martial J, Hammerschmidt M, Muller M. Expression of the somatolactin beta gene during zebrafish embryonic development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:156-61 pubmed..In conclusion, slbeta expression defines a new, additional cell type in zebrafish pituitary that depends on pit1 and aal for its differentiation. ..
- van den Bos R, Zethof J, Flik G, Gorissen M. Light regimes differentially affect baseline transcript abundance of stress-axis and (neuro)development-related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton 1822) AB and TL larvae. Biol Open. 2017;6:1692-1697 pubmed publisher..The latter finding adds to the growing database of phenotypical differences between zebrafish of the AB and TL strain...
- Chen W, Lau S, Fan Y, Wu R, Ge W. Juvenile exposure to bisphenol A promotes ovarian differentiation but suppresses its growth - Potential involvement of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;193:111-121 pubmed publisher..Our data in the zebrafish suggest that sex differentiation involves estrogens and it is a sensitive window for evaluating estrogenic activities of compounds and their impacts on wildlife reproduction...
- Wang Y, Li J, Yan Kwok A, Ge W, Leung F. A novel prolactin-like protein (PRL-L) gene in chickens and zebrafish: cloning and characterization of its tissue expression. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;166:200-10 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that a novel PRL-like protein exists in some non-mammalian vertebrates and may play an important role in target tissues, such as extra-pituitary tissues of chickens and zebrafish. ..
- Huang X, Hui M, Liu Y, Yuen D, Zhang Y, Chan W, et al. Discovery of a novel prolactin in non-mammalian vertebrates: evolutionary perspectives and its involvement in teleost retina development. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6163 pubmed publisher..Its unique expression and functions in the zebrafish eye also provide a new avenue of research on the neuroendocrine control of retina development in vertebrates. ..
- Schiller V, Wichmann A, Kriehuber R, Schäfers C, Fischer R, Fenske M. Transcriptome alterations in zebrafish embryos after exposure to environmental estrogens and anti-androgens can reveal endocrine disruption. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;42:210-23 pubmed publisher..This demonstrates that different mechanism of ED can be assessed already in fish embryos. ..