Gene Symbol: gc
Description: gc, vitamin D binding protein
Alias: zgc:110389, zgc:92753, vitamin D-binding protein, dbp, group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein)
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Xie J, Farage E, Sugimoto M, Anand Apte B. A novel transgenic zebrafish model for blood-brain and blood-retinal barrier development. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:76 pubmed publisher
    ..transgenic zebrafish line that expresses a vitamin D-binding protein fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (DBP-EGFP) in blood plasma, as an endogenous tracer...
  2. Zhou W, Hildebrandt F. Inducible podocyte injury and proteinuria in transgenic zebrafish. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:1039-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the use of these transgenic zebrafish as a model system for studies of glomerular pathogenesis and podocyte regeneration...
  3. Howarth D, Yin C, Yeh K, Sadler K. Defining hepatic dysfunction parameters in two models of fatty liver disease in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish. 2013;10:199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a panel of parameters to assess liver disease that can be easily applied to zebrafish mutants, transgenics, and for drug screening in which liver function is an important consideration. ..
  4. Wan X, Lee M, Zhou W. Dosage-dependent role of Rac1 in podocyte injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016;310:F777-F784 pubmed publisher
  5. Teng B, Schroder P, Müller Deile J, Schenk H, Staggs L, Tossidou I, et al. CIN85 Deficiency Prevents Nephrin Endocytosis and Proteinuria in Diabetes. Diabetes. 2016;65:3667-3679 pubmed
    ..CIN85/RukL expression therefore shows potential to be a novel target for antiproteinuric therapy in diabetes. ..
  6. Bell B, Xie J, Yuan A, Kaul C, Hollyfield J, Anand Apte B. Retinal vasculature of adult zebrafish: in vivo imaging using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Exp Eye Res. 2014;129:107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the procedures required to acquire SLO images from zebrafish are non-invasive, simple to perform and can be achieved with low animal mortality, allowing repeated imaging of individual fish. ..
  7. Müller Deile J, Gellrich F, Schenk H, Schroder P, Nyström J, Lorenzen J, et al. Overexpression of TGF-? Inducible microRNA-143 in Zebrafish Leads to Impairment of the Glomerular Filtration Barrier by Targeting Proteoglycans. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;40:819-830 pubmed
    ..Podocyte-derived miR-143 is a mediator for paracrine and autocrine cross talk between podocytes and glomerular endothelial cells and can alter expression of glomerular glycocalyx proteins. ..
  8. Müller Deile J, Dannenberg J, Schroder P, Lin M, Miner J, Chen R, et al. Podocytes regulate the glomerular basement membrane protein nephronectin by means of miR-378a-3p in glomerular diseases. Kidney Int. 2017;92:836-849 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, miR-378a-3p-mediated suppression of the glomerular matrix protein NPNT is a novel mechanism for proteinuria development in active glomerular diseases. ..
  9. Gee H, Saisawat P, Ashraf S, Hurd T, Vega Warner V, Fang H, et al. ARHGDIA mutations cause nephrotic syndrome via defective RHO GTPase signaling. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:3243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..RAC1 inhibitors were partially effective in ameliorating arhgdia-associated defects. These findings identify a single-gene cause of NS and reveal that RHO GTPase signaling is a pathogenic mediator of SRNS...

More Information


  1. Arif E, Kumari B, Wagner M, Zhou W, Holzman L, Nihalani D. Myo1c is an unconventional myosin required for zebrafish glomerular development. Kidney Int. 2013;84:1154-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate that Myo1c is necessary for podocyte morphogenesis. ..
  2. Hanke N, Staggs L, Schroder P, Litteral J, Fleig S, Kaufeld J, et al. "Zebrafishing" for novel genes relevant to the glomerular filtration barrier. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:658270 pubmed publisher
    ..Our system produces consistent and reliable evidence for gene relevance in glomerular kidney disease; the results then provide merit for further analysis in mammalian models. ..
  3. Duong M, Yu X, Teng B, Schroder P, Haller H, Eschenburg S, et al. Protein kinase C ? stabilizes ?-catenin and regulates its subcellular localization in podocytes. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:12100-12110 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identified a novel pathway for regulation of ?-catenin levels and define PKC? as an important ?-catenin interaction partner and signaling opponent of other PKC isoforms in podocytes. ..
  4. Braun D, Rao J, Mollet G, Schapiro D, Daugeron M, Tan W, et al. Mutations in KEOPS-complex genes cause nephrotic syndrome with primary microcephaly. Nat Genet. 2017;49:1529-1538 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus identified four new monogenic causes of GAMOS, describe a link between KEOPS function and human disease, and delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms. ..
  5. Ashraf S, Gee H, Woerner S, Xie L, Vega Warner V, Lovric S, et al. ADCK4 mutations promote steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome through CoQ10 biosynthesis disruption. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:5179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that individuals with SRNS with mutations in ADCK4 or other genes that participate in CoQ10 biosynthesis may be treatable with CoQ10. ..
  6. Noël E, Reis M, Arain Z, Ober E. Analysis of the Albumin/alpha-Fetoprotein/Afamin/Group specific component gene family in the context of zebrafish liver differentiation. Gene Expr Patterns. 2010;10:237-43 pubmed publisher
    ..member of this gene family, exhibiting close homology to group specific component (gc; also described as vitamin D binding protein (dbp))...
  7. Kotb A, Müller T, Xie J, Anand Apte B, Endlich K, Endlich N. Simultaneous assessment of glomerular filtration and barrier function in live zebrafish. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;307:F1427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we present a novel method that allows to simultaneously assess glomerular filtration and barrier function in live zebrafish. ..
  8. Koltowska K, Apitz H, Stamataki D, Hirst E, Verkade H, Salecker I, et al. Ssrp1a controls organogenesis by promoting cell cycle progression and RNA synthesis. Development. 2013;140:1912-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Liu L, Alexa K, Cortes M, Schatzman Bone S, Kim A, Mukhopadhyay B, et al. Cannabinoid receptor signaling regulates liver development and metabolism. Development. 2016;143:609-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work describes a novel developmental role for EC signaling, whereby Cnr-mediated regulation of Srebfs and methionine metabolism impacts liver development and function. ..
  10. Tomas N, Meyer Schwesinger C, von Spiegel H, Kotb A, Zahner G, Hoxha E, et al. A Heterologous Model of Thrombospondin Type 1 Domain-Containing 7A-Associated Membranous Nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:3262-3277 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study introduces a heterologous mouse model that allows further investigation of the molecular events that underlie MN. ..
  11. Gee H, Zhang F, Ashraf S, Kohl S, Sadowski C, Vega Warner V, et al. KANK deficiency leads to podocyte dysfunction and nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that KANK family genes play evolutionarily conserved roles in podocyte function, likely through regulating RHO GTPase signaling. ..
  12. Vacaru A, Di Narzo A, Howarth D, Tsedensodnom O, Imrie D, Cinaroglu A, et al. Molecularly defined unfolded protein response subclasses have distinct correlations with fatty liver disease in zebrafish. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:823-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a stressed UPR causes steatosis and an adaptive UPR prevents it, demonstrating that this pathway plays dichotomous roles in fatty liver disease. ..
  13. Thomasova D, Bruns H, Kretschmer V, Ebrahim M, Romoli S, Liapis H, et al. Murine Double Minute-2 Prevents p53-Overactivation-Related Cell Death (Podoptosis) of Podocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;26:1513-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that MDM2 maintains homeostasis and long-term survival in podocytes by preventing podoptosis, a p53-regulated form of cell death with unspecific features previously classified as paraptosis. ..
  14. Anwar S, Iqbal M, Zarina S, Bhutta Z. Evolutionary journey of the Gc protein (vitamin D-binding protein) across vertebrates. Intrinsically Disord Proteins. 2013;1:e27450 pubmed publisher
    ..such as transporter of vitamin D metabolites and fatty acids, actin scavenger and macrophage activating factor, Gc must have been one of the most conserved proteins in animal kingdom...
  15. Kotb A, Simon O, Blumenthal A, Vogelgesang S, Dombrowski F, Amann K, et al. Knockdown of ApoL1 in Zebrafish Larvae Affects the Glomerular Filtration Barrier and the Expression of Nephrin. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153768 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that zApoL1 is essential for proper blood filtration in the zebrafish glomerulus and that zApoL1 affects the expression of nephrin. ..
  16. Thomasova D, Ebrahim M, Fleckinger K, Li M, Molnar J, Popper B, et al. MDM2 prevents spontaneous tubular epithelial cell death and acute kidney injury. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2482 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that MDM2 is a non-redundant survival factor for proximal tubular cells by protecting them from spontaneous p53 overexpression-related cell death. ..
  17. Gbadegesin R, Hall G, Adeyemo A, Hanke N, Tossidou I, Burchette J, et al. Mutations in the gene that encodes the F-actin binding protein anillin cause FSGS. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25:1991-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that anillin is important in maintaining the integrity of the podocyte actin cytoskeleton. ..
  18. Choi T, Ninov N, Stainier D, Shin D. Extensive conversion of hepatic biliary epithelial cells to hepatocytes after near total loss of hepatocytes in zebrafish. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:776-88 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this issue, we established a zebrafish model of liver regeneration in which the extent of hepatocyte ablation can be controlled...
  19. Wan X, Chen Z, Choi W, Gee H, Hildebrandt F, Zhou W. Loss of Epithelial Membrane Protein 2 Aggravates Podocyte Injury via Upregulation of Caveolin-1. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;27:1066-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we have established excessive CAV1 as a mediator of the predisposition to podocyte injury because of loss of EMP2, suggesting CAV1 could be a novel therapeutic target in nephrotic syndrome and podocyte injury. ..
  20. Chen Z, Wan X, Hou Q, Shi S, Wang L, Chen P, et al. GADD45B mediates podocyte injury in zebrafish by activating the ROS-GADD45B-p38 pathway. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2068 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings demonstrated that GADD45B has an important role in podocyte injury and may be a therapeutic target for the management of podocyte injury in glomerular diseases. ..
  21. Schiffer M, Teng B, Gu C, Shchedrina V, Kasaikina M, Pham V, et al. Pharmacological targeting of actin-dependent dynamin oligomerization ameliorates chronic kidney disease in diverse animal models. Nat Med. 2015;21:601-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Ta Shma A, Khan T, Vivante A, Willer J, Matak P, Jalas C, et al. Mutations in TMEM260 Cause a Pediatric Neurodevelopmental, Cardiac, and Renal Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;100:666-675 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations contribute to an appreciation of the roles of splice isoforms in genetic disorders and suggest that dissection of the functions of these transcripts will most likely inform pathomechanism. ..
  23. Kirsch T, Kaufeld J, Korstanje R, Hentschel D, Staggs L, Bollig F, et al. Knockdown of the hypertension-associated gene NOSTRIN alters glomerular barrier function in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Hypertension. 2013;62:726-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Disease-related alteration of NOSTRIN expression may not only affect the vascular endothelium and, therefore, contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction but might also contribute to the development of podocyte disease and proteinuria. ..