Gene Symbol: gapdh
Description: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Alias: cb609, gapd, mg:bb02e05, wu:fb33a10, wu:ft80f05, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH, bb02e05, peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase GAPDH
Species: zebrafish
Products:     gapdh

Top Publications

  1. McCurley A, Callard G. Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:102 pubmed publisher
    ..was used to quantify mRNA levels of bactin1, tubulin alpha 1(tuba1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), TATA-box binding protein (tbp), beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), elongation ..
  2. Oka T, Nishimura Y, Zang L, Hirano M, Shimada Y, Wang Z, et al. Diet-induced obesity in zebrafish shares common pathophysiological pathways with mammalian obesity. BMC Physiol. 2010;10:21 pubmed publisher
    ..The DIO zebrafish can be used to identify putative pharmacological targets and to test novel drugs for the treatment of human obesity. ..
  3. Nojima H, Rothhämel S, Shimizu T, Kim C, Yonemura S, Marlow F, et al. Syntabulin, a motor protein linker, controls dorsal determination. Development. 2010;137:923-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Syntabulin regulates the microtubule-dependent transport of the DDs, and provide evidence for the link between AV and dorsoventral axis formation. ..
  4. Li Y, Li G, Wang H, Du J, Yan J. Analysis of a gene regulatory cascade mediating circadian rhythm in zebrafish. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1002940 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study describes a systematic method to discover previously unidentified TFs involved in circadian physiology in complex organisms. ..
  5. Schwend T, Loucks E, Ahlgren S. Visualization of Gli activity in craniofacial tissues of hedgehog-pathway reporter transgenic zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14396 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate the Tg(Gli-d:mCherry) fish are a highly useful tool for studying Hh-signaling dependent processes during embryogenesis and larval stages. ..
  6. Folkerts E, Blewett T, He Y, Goss G. Alterations to Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Swim Performance after Acute Embryonic Exposure to Sub-lethal Exposures of Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback and Produced Water. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;193:50-59 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first known research associating embryonic FPW exposures to sub-lethal performance related responses in later life fish stages...
  7. Usenko C, Harper S, Tanguay R. Fullerene C60 exposure elicits an oxidative stress response in embryonic zebrafish. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;229:44-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that C60 induces oxidative stress in this model system. ..
  8. Jensen L, Nakamura M, Bräutigam L, Li X, Liu Y, Samani N, et al. VEGF-B-Neuropilin-1 signaling is spatiotemporally indispensable for vascular and neuronal development in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E5944-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that VEGF-B is spatiotemporally required for vascular development in zebrafish embryos and that NRP1, but not VEGFR1, mediates the essential signaling. ..
  9. Yuan Y, Zhang J, Zhou Q. Overexpression of Jak1 Activating Mutants in Hepatocytes Is Insufficient to Generate Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Zebrafish. J Genet Genomics. 2016;43:99-102 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Pawar N, Gireesh Babu P, Sabnis S, Rasal K, Murthy R, Zaidi S, et al. Development of a fluorescent transgenic zebrafish biosensor for sensing aquatic heavy metal pollution. Transgenic Res. 2016;25:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This biosensor could be a first-level screening method for confirming aquatic heavy metal bio-toxicity to eukaryotes. ..
  2. Yue R, Li H, Liu H, Li Y, Wei B, Gao G, et al. Thrombin receptor regulates hematopoiesis and endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Dev Cell. 2012;22:1092-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study demonstrates a fundamental role of F2r-RhoA/ROCK pathway in vertebrate hematopoiesis and EHT, as well as an important molecular mechanism coordinating hematopoietic and vascular development. ..
  3. Wang D, Abbasi C, El Rass S, Li J, Dawood F, Naito K, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44 (ERp44) deficiency in mice and zebrafish leads to cardiac developmental and functional defects. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3:e001018 pubmed publisher
    ..ERp44 plays a critical role in embryonic heart development and is crucial in regulating cardiac cell Ca(2+) signaling, ER stress, ROS-induced oxidative stress, and activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. ..
  4. Hayes M, Naito M, Daulat A, Angers S, Ciruna B. Ptk7 promotes non-canonical Wnt/PCP-mediated morphogenesis and inhibits Wnt/?-catenin-dependent cell fate decisions during vertebrate development. Development. 2013;140:1807-18 pubmed publisher
  5. Yee N, Zhou W, Chun S, Liang I, Yee R. Targeting developmental regulators of zebrafish exocrine pancreas as a therapeutic approach in human pancreatic cancer. Biol Open. 2012;1:295-307 pubmed publisher
  6. Tseng H, Li C, Huang L, Chen C, Tsai C, Lin C, et al. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether protects FL83B cells from copper induced oxidative stress through the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathway. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;264:104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, these results also demonstrated that Q3 plays a protective role against oxidative damage in zebrafish liver and remarked the potential of Q3 to be used as an antioxidant for hepatocytes. ..
  7. Reischauer S, Stone O, Villasenor A, Chi N, Jin S, Martin M, et al. Cloche is a bHLH-PAS transcription factor that drives haemato-vascular specification. Nature. 2016;535:294-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Zhang L, Li Y, Chen T, Xia W, Zhou Y, Wan Y, et al. Abnormal development of motor neurons in perfluorooctane sulphonate exposed zebrafish embryos. Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:643-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PFOS-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress by deregulating CDK5 and PRX2. ..
  9. Verma A, Parnaik V. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish. Cell Biol Int. 2017;41:809-819 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. ..
  10. Zhu P, Sieben C, Xu X, Harris P, Lin X. Autophagy activators suppress cystogenesis in an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease model. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:158-172 pubmed publisher
  11. Gratacap R, Rawls J, Wheeler R. Mucosal candidiasis elicits NF-?B activation, proinflammatory gene expression and localized neutrophilia in zebrafish. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first system to model host response to mucosal infection in the juvenile zebrafish, and offers unique opportunities to investigate the tripartite interactions of C. albicans, epithelium and immune cells in an intact host. ..
  12. Li X, Rhee D, Malhotra R, Mayeur C, Hurst L, Ager E, et al. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 regulates hepcidin biosynthesis. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:389-401 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies have identified drug candidates and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases of abnormal iron metabolism. ..
  13. Patra C, van Amerongen M, Ghosh S, Ricciardi F, Sajjad A, Novoyatleva T, et al. Organ-specific function of adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126 is domain-dependent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16898-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our analysis provides a unique example of the versatile function and signaling properties of adhesion GPCRs in vertebrates. ..
  14. Qi M, Dang Y, Xu Q, Yu L, Liu C, Yuan Y, et al. Microcystin-LR induced developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae by activation of ER stress response. Chemosphere. 2016;157:166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results observed in this study suggested that ER stress plays a critical role in developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos exposed to MC-LR. ..
  15. Jiang L, Li K, Lin Q, Ren J, He Z, Li H, et al. Gambogic acid causes fin developmental defect in zebrafish embryo partially via retinoic acid signaling. Reprod Toxicol. 2016;63:161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate the potential teratogenicity of GA and provide evidence for a caution in its future clinic use. ..
  16. Jiang C, Qin B, Liu G, Sun X, Shi H, Ding S, et al. MicroRNA-184 promotes differentiation of the retinal pigment epithelium by targeting the AKT2/mTOR signaling pathway. Oncotarget. 2016;7:52340-52353 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-184 promotes RPE differentiation via inhibiting the AKT2/mTOR signaling pathway. MiR-184 based supplementary therapeutics and mTOR blocker, like rapamycin, are prospective options for AMD treatment. ..
  17. Jacobson S, BIRKHOLZ D, McNamara M, Bharate S, George K. Subacute developmental exposure of zebrafish to the organophosphate pesticide metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, results in defects in Rohon-Beard sensory neuron development. Aquat Toxicol. 2010;100:101-11 pubmed publisher
  18. Chen L, Hu Y, He J, Chen J, Giesy J, Xie P. Responses of the Proteome and Metabolome in Livers of Zebrafish Exposed Chronically to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Microcystin-LR. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;51:596-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of proteins and metabolites in liver of zebrafish responsive to MC-LR provides insights into mechanisms of chronic toxicity of MCs. ..
  19. Han Y, Xiong Y, Shi X, Wu J, Zhao Y, Jiang J. Regulation of Gli ciliary localization and Hedgehog signaling by the PY-NLS/karyopherin-?2 nuclear import system. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2002063 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study unravels the molecular mechanism and cellular machinery regulating Gli ciliary localization and identifies Kap?2 as a critical regulator of the Hh pathway and a potential drug target for Hh-driven cancers. ..
  20. Pena I, Roussel Y, Daniel K, Mongeon K, Johnstone D, Weinschutz Mendes H, et al. Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy in Zebrafish Caused by Aldh7a1 Deficiency. Genetics. 2017;207:1501-1518 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel model provides valuable insights into PDE pathophysiology; further research may offer new opportunities for drug discovery to control seizure activity and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes for PDE. ..
  21. Duffy K, McAleer M, Davidson W, Kari L, Kari C, Liu C, et al. Coordinate control of cell cycle regulatory genes in zebrafish development tested by cyclin D1 knockdown with morpholino phosphorodiamidates and hydroxyprolyl-phosphono peptide nucleic acids. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:4914-21 pubmed
  22. Robinson B, Dumas M, Cuevas E, Gu Q, Paule M, Ali S, et al. Distinct effects of ketamine and acetyl L-carnitine on the dopamine system in zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2016;54:52-60 pubmed publisher
  23. Cheng R, Jia Y, Dai L, Liu C, Wang J, Li G, et al. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate disrupts axonal growth, cholinergic system and motor behavior in early life zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;192:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the alteration in motor neuron and inhibition of cholinergic system could together lead to the TDCIPP induced motor behavior alterations in zebrafish larvae. ..
  24. Xi J, Yue J, Yang Z. Expression profiles of retinoic acid synthetases ALDH1As and metabolic enzymes CYP26s in adult and embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio). Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:3948-56 pubmed publisher
    ..All the ALDH1A and CYP26 genes exhibited distinct expression patterns during zebrafish development and in adult zebrafish tissues. ..
  25. Zhang Y, Huang L, Wang C, Gao D, Zuo Z. Phenanthrene exposure produces cardiac defects during embryo development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) through activation of MMP-9. Chemosphere. 2013;93:1168-75 pubmed publisher
  26. Carlson P, Smalley D, Van Beneden R. Proteomic analysis of arsenic-exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) identifies altered expression in proteins involved in fibrosis and lipid uptake in a gender-specific manner. Toxicol Sci. 2013;134:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes presented here seem to be most prevalent in lipid transport and metabolic pathways, suggesting a potential increase in fibrosis in males and decreased lipid accumulation and uptake in females. ..
  27. Jiang L, Yin M, Xu J, Jia M, Sun S, Wang X, et al. The Transcription Factor Bach1 Suppresses the Developmental Angiogenesis of Zebrafish. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:2143875 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations indicate that Bach1 suppresses the developmental angiogenesis of zebrafish and that this function is associated with declines in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and VEGF and IL-8 expression. ..
  28. Aceto J, Nourizadeh Lillabadi R, Bradamante S, Maier J, Alestrom P, van Loon J, et al. Effects of microgravity simulation on zebrafish transcriptomes and bone physiology-exposure starting at 5 days post fertilization. NPJ Microgravity. 2016;2:16010 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence for alterations in bone formation and other important biological functions; in addition several affected genes and pathways involved in bone, muscle or cardiovascular development are identified. ..
  29. Liu Y, Wang J, Fang X, Zhang H, Dai J. The thyroid-disrupting effects of long-term perfluorononanoate exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide the first evidence for the thyroid-disrupting effects of long-term PFNA exposure in zebrafish. ..
  30. Loucks E, Schwend T, Ahlgren S. Molecular changes associated with teratogen-induced cyclopia. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:642-51 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that each teratogen exposure leads to a unique set of molecular changes that underlie the single phenotype of cyclopia. ..
  31. Hoeppner L, Phoenix K, Clark K, Bhattacharya R, Gong X, Sciuto T, et al. Revealing the role of phospholipase C?3 in the regulation of VEGF-induced vascular permeability. Blood. 2012;120:2167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest an important effect of PLC?3 on VP and provide a new model with which to identify genetic regulators of VP crucial to several disease processes. ..
  32. Sorrells S, Carbonneau S, Harrington E, Chen A, Hast B, Milash B, et al. Ccdc94 protects cells from ionizing radiation by inhibiting the expression of p53. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002922 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies in human cancer cells will determine whether pharmacological inactivation of CCDC94 reduces the threshold of the cancer cell apoptotic response. ..
  33. Kohli G, Clelland E, Peng C. Potential targets of transforming growth factor-beta1 during inhibition of oocyte maturation in zebrafish. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:53 pubmed
    ..hormone receptor (LHR), the two forms of membrane progestin receptor: mPR-alpha and mPR-beta, as well as GAPDH (control), were performed...
  34. Trapani J, Obholzer N, Mo W, Brockerhoff S, Nicolson T. Synaptojanin1 is required for temporal fidelity of synaptic transmission in hair cells. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000480 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the data suggest that Synj1 is critical for retrieval of membrane in order to maintain the quantity, timing of fusion, and spontaneous release properties of SVs at hair-cell ribbon synapses. ..
  35. Peterson S, Zhang J, Weber G, Freeman J. Global gene expression analysis reveals dynamic and developmental stage-dependent enrichment of lead-induced neurological gene alterations. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we identified a number of novel targets for future exploration into their role in the genetic mechanisms underlying Pb-induced neurological alterations. ..
  36. Zhang Y, Wang L, Zhou W, Wang H, Zhang J, Deng S, et al. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2: a novel gene involved in zebrafish central nervous system development. Dev Biol. 2013;381:38-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Morpholino knockdown of ztfpi-2 resulted in upregulation of neuronal markers while downregulation of glial markers, providing evidence that the Notch pathway is probably involved in ztfpi-2-mediated CNS development. ..
  37. Bu Y, Su F, Wang X, Gao H, Lei L, Chang N, et al. Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN9 regulates erythroid cell development through STAT3 dephosphorylation in zebrafish. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:2761-70 pubmed publisher
  38. Quintana A, Geiger E, Achilly N, Rosenblatt D, Maclean K, Stabler S, et al. Hcfc1b, a zebrafish ortholog of HCFC1, regulates craniofacial development by modulating mmachc expression. Dev Biol. 2014;396:94-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data demonstrates that HCFC1 plays a role in craniofacial development, which is in part mediated through the regulation of MMACHC expression. ..
  39. Wilson K, Baily J, Tucker C, Matrone G, Vass S, Moran C, et al. Early-life perturbations in glucocorticoid activity impacts on the structure, function and molecular composition of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;414:120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..07 μg/mg vs controls 0.63 ± 0.06 μg/mg, p = 0.0007), had increased vmhc and gr mRNA levels. Perturbations in GR activity during embryonic development results in short and long-term alterations in the heart. ..
  40. Chen Q, Yin D, Jia Y, Schiwy S, Legradi J, Yang S, et al. Enhanced uptake of BPA in the presence of nanoplastics can lead to neurotoxic effects in adult zebrafish. Sci Total Environ. 2017;609:1312-1321 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the present study demonstrates that the presence of NPPs can increase BPA bioavailability and cause neurotoxicity in adult zebrafish. ..
  41. Fortier S, Yang X, Wang Y, Bennett R, Strauss P. Base excision repair in early zebrafish development: evidence for DNA polymerase switching and standby AP endonuclease activity. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..The switch to normal, adult BER occurs fully when the embryos hatch from the chorionic membrane and encounter normal oxidative stress. ..
  42. Vibert L, Aquino G, Gehring I, Subkankulova T, Schilling T, Rocco A, et al. An ongoing role for Wnt signaling in differentiating melanocytes in vivo. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2017;30:219-232 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of Wnt signaling also results in altered melanocyte morphology and organization. We conclude that Wnt signaling plays a role in regulating ongoing aspects of melanocyte differentiation in zebrafish. ..
  43. Wu T, Wang Y, Song Y, Chen Z, Chen Y, Chiu C, et al. Fine-tune regulation of carboxypeptidase N1 controls vascular patterning during zebrafish development. Sci Rep. 2017;7:1852 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrate that cpn1 has a critical role in the vascular development of zebrafish. We also reveal a fine-tune regulation of cpn1 that controls vascular patterning mediated by multiple signals. ..
  44. Trinh L, Chong Morrison V, Gavriouchkina D, Hochgreb Hägele T, Senanayake U, Fraser S, et al. Biotagging of Specific Cell Populations in Zebrafish Reveals Gene Regulatory Logic Encoded in the Nuclear Transcriptome. Cell Rep. 2017;19:425-440 pubmed publisher
    ..By eliminating background inherent to complex embryonic environments, biotagging allows analyses of molecular interactions at high resolution. ..
  45. Macirella R, Guardia A, Pellegrino D, Bernabò I, Tronci V, Ebbesson L, et al. Effects of Two Sublethal Concentrations of Mercury Chloride on the Morphology and Metallothionein Activity in the Liver of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:361 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of observed alterations could be considered as a general response of tissue to heavy metals, whereas others (such as increased number of mitochondria and increase of RER) may be considered as an adaptive response to mercury. ..
  46. Su Z, Si W, Li L, Zhou B, Li X, Xu Y, et al. MiR-144 regulates hematopoiesis and vascular development by targeting meis1 during zebrafish development. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014;49:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish miR-144 as a novel miRNA that regulates hematopoiesis and vascular development by repressing expression of meis1. ..
  47. Huang Y, Shih H, Lin S, Chiu C, Ma T, Yeh T, et al. The epigenetic factor Kmt2a/Mll1 regulates neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal and glial differentiation. Dev Neurobiol. 2015;75:452-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore revealed a novel function of Kmt2a in cell proliferation and differentiation, providing further insight into the function of TrxG proteins in neural development and brain tumors. ..
  48. Veldman M, Bemben M, Goldman D. Tuba1a gene expression is regulated by KLF6/7 and is necessary for CNS development and regeneration in zebrafish. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:370-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest tuba1a expression is necessary for CNS development and regeneration and that KLF6a and 7a mediate their effects, at least in part, via transcriptional control of tuba1a promoter activity. ..
  49. Robinson B, Dumas M, Ali S, Paule M, Gu Q, Kanungo J. Cyclosporine exacerbates ketamine toxicity in zebrafish: Mechanistic studies on drug-drug interaction. J Appl Toxicol. 2017;37:1438-1447 pubmed publisher
    ..Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ..
  50. McCurley A, Callard G. Time Course Analysis of Gene Expression Patterns in Zebrafish Eye During Optic Nerve Regeneration. J Exp Neurosci. 2010;2010:17-33 pubmed
  51. Johnson M, Behmoaras J, Bottolo L, Krishnan M, Pernhorst K, Santoscoy P, et al. Systems genetics identifies Sestrin 3 as a regulator of a proconvulsant gene network in human epileptic hippocampus. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6031 pubmed publisher
    ..Morpholino-mediated Sesn3 knockdown in zebrafish confirms the regulation of the transcriptional module, and attenuates chemically induced behavioural seizures in vivo. ..
  52. Chang Y, Lee W, Lin Y, Hsu T. Mercury (II) impairs nucleotide excision repair (NER) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos by targeting primarily at the stage of DNA incision. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;192:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed the potential of Hg2+ at environmental relevant levels to disturb NER in zebrafish embryos by targeting primarily at the stage of DNA incision/excision. ..
  53. Huang Y, Hung K, Hsieh F, Hsu S. Carboxyl-functionalized polyurethane nanoparticles with immunosuppressive properties as a new type of anti-inflammatory platform. Nanoscale. 2015;7:20352-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that NP surface chemistry may regulate the immune response, which provides a new paradigm for potential applications of NPs in anti-inflammation and immunomodulation. ..