Gene Symbol: fsta
Description: follistatin a
Alias: cb446, fd07h10, fst, fst1, wu:fd07h10, follistatin-A, activin-binding protein, follistatin-1
Species: zebrafish
Products:     fsta

Top Publications

  1. Kwon H, Riley B. Mesendodermal signals required for otic induction: Bmp-antagonists cooperate with Fgf and can facilitate formation of ectopic otic tissue. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1582-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Developmental Dynamics 238:1582-1594, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ..
  2. Baker K, Ramel M, Lekven A. A direct role for Wnt8 in ventrolateral mesoderm patterning. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2828-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Wnt8 and BMP signaling have independent roles during vertebrate ventrolateral mesoderm development that can be identified through loss-of-function analysis. ..
  3. Piotrowski T, Nusslein Volhard C. The endoderm plays an important role in patterning the segmented pharyngeal region in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Dev Biol. 2000;225:339-56 pubmed
  4. Bauer H, Meier A, Hild M, Stachel S, Economides A, Hazelett D, et al. Follistatin and noggin are excluded from the zebrafish organizer. Dev Biol. 1998;204:488-507 pubmed
    ..It thus appears that many, but not all, aspects of early dorsoventral patterning are shared among different vertebrate species. ..
  5. Dal Pra S, Fürthauer M, Van Celst J, Thisse B, Thisse C. Noggin1 and Follistatin-like2 function redundantly to Chordin to antagonize BMP activity. Dev Biol. 2006;298:514-26 pubmed
  6. Erickson T, French C, Waskiewicz A. Meis1 specifies positional information in the retina and tectum to organize the zebrafish visual system. Neural Dev. 2010;5:22 pubmed publisher
    ..By patterning both the retina and tectum, Meis1 plays an important role in establishing the retinotectal map and organizing the visual system. ..
  7. Calinescu A, Vihtelic T, Hyde D, Hitchcock P. Cellular expression of midkine-a and midkine-b during retinal development and photoreceptor regeneration in zebrafish. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:1-10 pubmed publisher
  8. Larbuisson A, Dalcq J, Martial J, Muller M. Fgf receptors Fgfr1a and Fgfr2 control the function of pharyngeal endoderm in late cranial cartilage development. Differentiation. 2013;86:192-206 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor knock down leads to decreased expression of runx3, egr1 and sox9b in this tissue, while expression of fsta, coding for a secreted BMP/Tgfß inhibitor, is clearly increased...
  9. Zhao X, Zhao L, Tian T, Zhang Y, Tong J, Zheng X, et al. Interruption of cenph causes mitotic failure and embryonic death, and its haploinsufficiency suppresses cancer in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27924-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings uncover an essential role of cenph in mitosis and embryonic development and its association with tumor development. ..

More Information


  1. Schibler A, Malicki J. A screen for genetic defects of the zebrafish ear. Mech Dev. 2007;124:592-604 pubmed
    ..As it proved to be the case in past screening efforts of this type, these mutant lines represent an asset in the studies of molecular mechanisms that regulate vertebrate ear development. ..
  2. Ragland J, Raible D. Signals derived from the underlying mesoderm are dispensable for zebrafish neural crest induction. Dev Biol. 2004;276:16-30 pubmed
  3. Cao Y, Zhao J, Sun Z, Zhao Z, Postlethwait J, Meng A. fgf17b, a novel member of Fgf family, helps patterning zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 2004;271:130-43 pubmed
    ..Like fgf8, activation of fgf17b expression depends on Nodal signaling. ..
  4. Hammond K, Loynes H, Folarin A, Smith J, Whitfield T. Hedgehog signalling is required for correct anteroposterior patterning of the zebrafish otic vesicle. Development. 2003;130:1403-17 pubmed
    ..By using double mutants and antisense morpholino analysis, we also show that both Sonic hedgehog and Tiggy-winkle hedgehog are involved in anteroposterior patterning of the zebrafish otic vesicle. ..
  5. Naylor R, Skvarca L, Thisse C, Thisse B, Hukriede N, Davidson A. BMP and retinoic acid regulate anterior-posterior patterning of the non-axial mesoderm across the dorsal-ventral axis. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12197 pubmed publisher
    ..This work clarifies our understanding of vertebrate axis orientation and establishes a new paradigm for how the kidney and other mesodermal derivatives arise during embryogenesis. ..
  6. Stephens W, Senecal M, Nguyen M, Piotrowski T. Loss of adenomatous polyposis coli (apc) results in an expanded ciliary marginal zone in the zebrafish eye. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2066-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results introduce the zebrafish apc mutation as a new model to study signaling pathways regulating the CMZ. ..
  7. Tsukada Y, Ishitani T, Nakayama K. KDM7 is a dual demethylase for histone H3 Lys 9 and Lys 27 and functions in brain development. Genes Dev. 2010;24:432-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify KDM7 as a dual demethylase for H3K9 and H3K27 that functions as an eraser of silencing marks on chromatin during brain development...
  8. Tse A, Ge W. Spatial localization of EGF family ligands and receptors in the zebrafish ovarian follicle and their expression profiles during folliculogenesis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;167:397-407 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional relationship between these two signaling systems in the follicle is suggested by the observation that all four EGFR ligands examined significantly stimulated activin subunit expression in cultured follicle cells. ..
  9. Chen W, Liu L, Ge W. Expression analysis of growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9/gdf9), anti-müllerian hormone (Amh/amh) and aromatase (Cyp19a1a/cyp19a1a) during gonadal differentiation of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Biol Reprod. 2017;96:401-413 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested that Gdf9 is likely involved in promoting oocyte/ovary differentiation in the zebrafish and it may act by suppressing amh expression, at least partly, in the somatic cells. ..
  10. Wu T, Patel H, Mukai S, Melino C, Garg R, Ni X, et al. Activin, inhibin, and follistatin in zebrafish ovary: expression and role in oocyte maturation. Biol Reprod. 2000;62:1585-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that activin A and inhibin A are paracrine regulators of ovarian functions in fish. ..
  11. Mowbray C, Hammerschmidt M, Whitfield T. Expression of BMP signalling pathway members in the developing zebrafish inner ear and lateral line. Mech Dev. 2001;108:179-84 pubmed
    ..The conservation of bmp expression in cristae among different species adds weight to the growing evidence that BMPs are required for the development of the vertebrate ear. ..
  12. Bergeron S, Milla L, Villegas R, Shen M, Burgess S, Allende M, et al. Expression profiling identifies novel Hh/Gli-regulated genes in developing zebrafish embryos. Genomics. 2008;91:165-77 pubmed
    ..We thus provide a comprehensive survey of Hh/Gli-regulated genes during embryogenesis and we identify new Hh-regulated genes that may be targets of misregulation during tumorigenesis. ..
  13. Yoda H, Momoi A, Esguerra C, Meyer D, Driever W, Kondoh H, et al. An expression pattern screen for genes involved in the induction of the posterior nervous system of zebrafish. Differentiation. 2003;71:152-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, our approach employing cDNA subtraction and subsequent expression pattern screening allows us to clone candidate genes involved in a novel signaling pathway contributing to the formation of the posterior nervous system. ..
  14. Hammond K, Whitfield T. The developing lamprey ear closely resembles the zebrafish otic vesicle: otx1 expression can account for all major patterning differences. Development. 2006;133:1347-57 pubmed
  15. Wang Y, Ge W. Cloning of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor from the zebrafish ovary: evidence for EGF as a potential paracrine factor from the oocyte to regulate activin/follistatin system in the follicle cells. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:749-60 pubmed
  16. Kilian B, Mansukoski H, Barbosa F, Ulrich F, Tada M, Heisenberg C. The role of Ppt/Wnt5 in regulating cell shape and movement during zebrafish gastrulation. Mech Dev. 2003;120:467-76 pubmed
    ..The characterisation of the role of Ppt/Wnt5 provides insight into the functional diversity of Wnt genes in regulating vertebrate gastrulation movements. ..
  17. Zhou R, Yu S, Ge W. Expression and functional characterization of intrafollicular GH-IGF system in the zebrafish ovary. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;232:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study revealed an intrafollicular network involving GH-IGF mini-axis in the zebrafish ovary; however, it might not work in the same way as that of the systemic somatotrophic axis. ..
  18. Heermann S, Schütz L, Lemke S, Krieglstein K, Wittbrodt J. Eye morphogenesis driven by epithelial flow into the optic cup facilitated by modulation of bone morphogenetic protein. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..BMP-mediated inhibition of the flow results in ectopic neuroretina in the RPE domain. Ultimately the ventral fissure fails to close resulting in coloboma. ..
  19. Li C, Ge W. Regulation of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system by bone morphogenetic proteins in the zebrafish ovary. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:55 pubmed publisher
    ..beta subunits (inhbaa, inhbab, and inhbb) were down-regulated by both zfBMP2b and zfBMP4, while follistatin (fst, an activin-binding protein) and inhibin alpha (inha, an activin antagonist) were significantly up-regulated...
  20. Dalcq J, Pasque V, Ghaye A, Larbuisson A, Motte P, Martial J, et al. RUNX3, EGR1 and SOX9B form a regulatory cascade required to modulate BMP-signaling during cranial cartilage development in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50140 pubmed publisher
    ..of the transcription factors Runx3, Egr1 and Sox9b constitutes a regulatory cascade that controls expression of Follistatin A in pharyngeal endoderm, the latter modulating BMP signaling in developing cranial cartilage in zebrafish.
  21. Zheng X, Yang S, Han Y, Zhao X, Zhao L, Tian T, et al. Loss of zygotic NUP107 protein causes missing of pharyngeal skeleton and other tissue defects with impaired nuclear pore function in zebrafish embryos. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:38254-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed new light on developmental function of Nup107 in vertebrates. ..
  22. Wang Y, Ge W. Developmental profiles of activin betaA, betaB, and follistatin expression in the zebrafish ovary: evidence for their differential roles during sexual maturation and ovulatory cycle. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:2056-64 pubmed
    ..It seems that activin betaA is involved in promoting ovary and follicle growth, whereas activin betaB may have a tonic role throughout follicle development but becomes critical at the late stage of oocyte maturation and/or ovulation. ..
  23. Haines L, Neyt C, Gautier P, Keenan D, Bryson Richardson R, Hollway G, et al. Met and Hgf signaling controls hypaxial muscle and lateral line development in the zebrafish. Development. 2004;131:4857-69 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate a requirement for Met signaling in the process of proneuromast deposition from the posterior lateral line primordia. ..
  24. Hammond K, van Eeden F, Whitfield T. Repression of Hedgehog signalling is required for the acquisition of dorsolateral cell fates in the zebrafish otic vesicle. Development. 2010;137:1361-71 pubmed publisher
  25. Hammond K, Whitfield T. Expression of zebrafish hip: response to Hedgehog signalling, comparison with ptc1 expression, and possible role in otic patterning. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:391-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hip-mediated inhibition of Hh signalling may therefore be important in restricting the effects of Hh to posterior regions of the developing inner ear. ..
  26. Omata Y, Nojima Y, Nakayama S, Okamoto H, Nakamura H, Funahashi J. Role of Bone morphogenetic protein 4 in zebrafish semicircular canal development. Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:711-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the protrusions in gallery treated with Noggin were partially rescued. These data indicate that BMP4 plays an important role in the development of protrusions to form semicircular canals. ..
  27. Li X, Nie F, Yin Z, He J. Enhanced hyperplasia in muscles of transgenic zebrafish expressing Follistatin1. Sci China Life Sci. 2011;54:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..determine if Fst has similar roles in fish, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing high levels of zebrafish Fst1 using the promoter of the zebrafish skeletal muscle-specific gene, myosin, light polypeptide 2, skeletal muscle (..
  28. Sweet E, Vemaraju S, Riley B. Sox2 and Fgf interact with Atoh1 to promote sensory competence throughout the zebrafish inner ear. Dev Biol. 2011;358:113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, expression of fgf3, fgf8 or sox2 strongly enhances competence to respond to Atoh1. ..
  29. Jiang N, Jin X, He J, Yin Z. The roles of follistatin 1 in regulation of zebrafish fecundity and sexual differentiation. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:54 pubmed publisher
    b>Follistatin 1 (Fst1) is a binding protein of activin and some other members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. It plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal function in vertebrates...
  30. Hammond K, Baxendale S, McCauley D, Ingham P, Whitfield T. Expression of patched, prdm1 and engrailed in the lamprey somite reveals conserved responses to Hedgehog signaling. Evol Dev. 2009;11:27-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest the presence of conserved responses to Hh signaling in lamprey somites, although the full range of effects elicited by Hh in the zebrafish somite is not recapitulated. ..
  31. Dutton K, Abbas L, Spencer J, Brannon C, Mowbray C, Nikaido M, et al. A zebrafish model for Waardenburg syndrome type IV reveals diverse roles for Sox10 in the otic vesicle. Dis Model Mech. 2009;2:68-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implication that the deafness in WS4 patients with SOX10 mutations might reflect a haploinsufficiency for SOX10 in the otic epithelium, resulting in patterning and functional abnormalities in the inner ear. ..
  32. Macqueen D, Johnston I. Evolution of follistatin in teleosts revealed through phylogenetic, genomic and expression analyses. Dev Genes Evol. 2008;218:1-14 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analyses suggested that one fst gene (fst1) is common to euteleosts, but a second gene (fst2) is conserved specifically within the Ostariophysi...
  33. Li D, Sun H, Deng W, Tao D, Liu Y, Ma Y. Zili antagonizes Bmp signaling to regulate dorsal-ventral patterning during zebrafish early embryogenesis. Zoolog Sci. 2011;28:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..and bmp4, the Bmp signaling ligands, and reduced expression of chordin (chd), noggin (nog1), and follistatin (fst), which encode BMP antagonists. Meanwhile, overexpression of zili produced opposite effects...
  34. Hammond K, Whitfield T. Fgf and Hh signalling act on a symmetrical pre-pattern to specify anterior and posterior identity in the zebrafish otic placode and vesicle. Development. 2011;138:3977-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Each signalling pathway has instructive activity: neither acts simply to repress activity of the other, and, together, they appear to be key players in the specification of anteroposterior asymmetries in the zebrafish ear. ..
  35. Sapede D, Pujades C. Hedgehog signaling governs the development of otic sensory epithelium and its associated innervation in zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3612-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results lead to a model in which Hh orients functionally the development of inner ear towards an auditory fate in all vertebrate species. ..
  36. Lecaudey V, Ulloa E, Anselme I, Stedman A, Schneider Maunoury S, Pujades C. Role of the hindbrain in patterning the otic vesicle: a study of the zebrafish vhnf1 mutant. Dev Biol. 2007;303:134-43 pubmed
    ..They suggest that, despite the evolution of inner ear structure and function, some of the mechanisms underlying the regionalisation of the otic vesicle in fish and amniotes have been conserved. ..