Gene Symbol: fosab
Description: v-fos FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog Ab
Alias: cb1065, fos, zgc:77885, proto-oncogene c-Fos, c-fos
Species: zebrafish
Products:     fosab

Top Publications

  1. Lau B, Mathur P, Gould G, Guo S. Identification of a brain center whose activity discriminates a choice behavior in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal activity mapping using the immediate early gene c-fos reveals the engagement of distinct brain regions, including the medial zone of the dorsal telencephalic region (Dm) ..
  2. Baraban S, Taylor M, Castro P, Baier H. Pentylenetetrazole induced changes in zebrafish behavior, neural activity and c-fos expression. Neuroscience. 2005;131:759-68 pubmed
    ..Up-regulation of c-fos expression was also observed in CNS structures of zebrafish exposed to PTZ...
  3. Baxendale S, Holdsworth C, Meza Santoscoy P, Harrison M, Fox J, Parkin C, et al. Identification of compounds with anti-convulsant properties in a zebrafish model of epileptic seizures. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:773-84 pubmed publisher
    ..and identified 46 compounds that suppressed PTZ-inducedtranscription of the synaptic-activity-regulated gene fos in 2-day-old (2 dpf) zebrafish embryos...
  4. Wong R, McLeod M, Godwin J. Limited sex-biased neural gene expression patterns across strains in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). BMC Genomics. 2014;15:905 pubmed publisher
    ..A possible mechanism is through regulating specific brain gene networks. ..
  5. Hong E, Santhakumar K, Akitake C, Ahn S, Thisse C, Thisse B, et al. Cholinergic left-right asymmetry in the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:21171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..After exposing adults to nicotine, fos expression was activated in subregions of the IPN enriched for specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits...
  6. Garcia Reyero N, Escalon B, Prats E, Stanley J, Thienpont B, Melby N, et al. Effects of BDE-209 contaminated sediments on zebrafish development and potential implications to human health. Environ Int. 2014;63:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Once accumulated, our data also show that BDE-209 has the potential to cause impacts on both human and environmental health. ..
  7. Lopes M, Sapio M, Leal R, Fricker L. Knockdown of Carboxypeptidase A6 in Zebrafish Larvae Reduces Response to Seizure-Inducing Drugs and Causes Changes in the Level of mRNAs Encoding Signaling Molecules. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152905 pubmed publisher
    ..bdnf, npy, chga, pcsk1nl, tac1, nts, edn1), a neuropeptide processing enzyme (cpe), transcription factor (c-fos), and molecules implicated in glutamatergic signaling (grin1a and slc1a2b)...
  8. Walker S, Ariga J, Mathias J, Coothankandaswamy V, Xie X, Distel M, et al. Automated reporter quantification in vivo: high-throughput screening method for reporter-based assays in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29916 pubmed publisher
  9. Kim O, Cho H, Han E, Hong T, Ariyasiri K, Choi J, et al. Zebrafish knockout of Down syndrome gene, DYRK1A, shows social impairments relevant to autism. Mol Autism. 2017;8:50 pubmed publisher
    ..brain regions of dyrk1aa KO zebrafish through in situ hybridization with various probes including c-fos and crh which are the molecular markers for stress response...

More Information


  1. Orellana Paucar A, Afrikanova T, Thomas J, Aibuldinov Y, Dehaen W, de Witte P, et al. Insights from zebrafish and mouse models on the activity and safety of ar-turmerone as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of epilepsy. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81634 pubmed publisher both acute seizure models in mice and modulated the expression patterns of two seizure-related genes (c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [bdnf]) in zebrafish...
  2. Anelli V, Villefranc J, Chhangawala S, Martinez McFaline R, Riva E, Nguyen A, et al. Oncogenic BRAF disrupts thyroid morphogenesis and function via twist expression. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that expression of TWIST2 plays a role in an early step of BRAFV600E-mediated transformation. ..
  3. Chen F, Chen S, Liu S, Zhang C, Peng G. Effects of lorazepam and WAY-200070 in larval zebrafish light/dark choice test. Neuropharmacology. 2015;95:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Lorazepam did not affect the visual induced optokinetic response of larval fish. Gene expression levels of c-fos and crh were significantly increased in the hypothalamus of fish larvae underwent light/dark choice behavior, ..
  4. McPherson A, Barrios J, Luks Morgan S, Manfredi J, Bonkowsky J, Douglass A, et al. Motor Behavior Mediated by Continuously Generated Dopaminergic Neurons in the Zebrafish Hypothalamus Recovers after Cell Ablation. Curr Biol. 2016;26:263-269 pubmed publisher
    ..This work thus identifies for the first time a population of dopaminergic neurons that regulates motor behavior capable of functional recovery. ..
  5. Semenova S, Chen Y, Zhao X, Rauvala H, Panula P. The tyrosine hydroxylase 2 (TH2) system in zebrafish brain and stress activation of hypothalamic cells. Histochem Cell Biol. 2014;142:619-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In situ hybridization for the mRNA of the immediate early gene c-fos combined with TH1/TH2 immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the cells of the zebrafish brain reacting to ..
  6. von Trotha J, Vernier P, Bally Cuif L. Emotions and motivated behavior converge on an amygdala-like structure in the zebrafish. Eur J Neurosci. 2014;40:3302-15 pubmed publisher
    ..They further suggest an evolutionarily conserved function of amygdala-like structures in positive emotions and motivated behavior in zebrafish and mammals. ..
  7. Jahangiri L, Sharpe M, Novikov N, González Rosa J, Borikova A, Nevis K, et al. The AP-1 transcription factor component Fosl2 potentiates the rate of myocardial differentiation from the zebrafish second heart field. Development. 2016;143:113-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the AP-1 transcription factor, Fos-like antigen 2 (Fosl2), potentiates the rate of myocardial accretion from the zebrafish SHF...
  8. Stewart A, Riehl R, Wong K, Green J, Cosgrove J, Vollmer K, et al. Behavioral effects of MDMA ('ecstasy') on adult zebrafish. Behav Pharmacol. 2011;22:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..MDMA also elevated brain c-fos expression, collectively confirming the usage of zebrafish models for screening of hallucinogenic compounds.
  9. Chen Y, Wang Y, Yu T, Wu H, Pai C. Transgenic zebrafish line with over-expression of Hedgehog on the skin: a useful tool to screen Hedgehog-inhibiting compounds. Transgenic Res. 2009;18:855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this unique Tg(k18:shh:RFP) fish line, should be an excellent experimental animal for screening for a lower toxicity level of the new Hh-inhibitor and can even be used as a new anti-cancer drug-screening platform. ..
  10. Le H, Zhang Y, Liu H, Ma L, Jin Y, Huang Q, et al. eena Promotes myeloid proliferation through stimulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17652-61 pubmed publisher
    ..overexpression of eena selectively stimulated ERK phosphorylation and increased the level of transcription factor c-Fos in vitro and in vivo, whereas eena lacking the Src homology 3 domain completely abolished these effects...
  11. Chen S, Chiu C, McArthur K, Fetcho J, Prober D. TRP channel mediated neuronal activation and ablation in freely behaving zebrafish. Nat Methods. 2016;13:147-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We exploit these properties by using transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to activate or ablate specific neuronal populations using the chemical and thermal agonists of heterologously expressed TRPV1, TRPM8 and TRPA1. ..
  12. Calfún C, Domínguez C, Pérez Acle T, Whitlock K. Changes in Olfactory Receptor Expression Are Correlated With Odor Exposure During Early Development in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chem Senses. 2016;41:301-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, analysis of immediate early gene expression in the OE did not reveal changes in c-fos expression in response to either αPEA or βPEA.
  13. Chen Y, Zhu J, Chan K. Effects of cadmium on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and proto-oncogene expression in zebrafish liver cells. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;157:196-206 pubmed publisher
  14. Elbaz I, Zada D, Tovin A, Braun T, Lerer Goldshtein T, Wang G, et al. Sleep-Dependent Structural Synaptic Plasticity of Inhibitory Synapses in the Dendrites of Hypocretin/Orexin Neurons. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:6581-6597 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that rhythmic structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses in Hcrt dendrites is independent of the circadian clock and is modulated by consolidated wake and sleep. ..
  15. Mesquita S, van Drooge B, Dall Osto M, Grimalt J, Barata C, Vieira N, et al. Toxic potential of organic constituents of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in an urban road site (Barcelona). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:15406-15415 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression levels of cyp1a and of gene markers for key cellular processes and development (ier2, fos) also correlated to vehicle emissions, whereas expression of gene markers related to antioxidant defence and ..
  16. Gonzalez Nunez V. Role of gabra2, GABAA receptor alpha-2 subunit, in CNS development. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2015;3:190-201 pubmed publisher
  17. Siebel A, Menezes F, Capiotti K, Kist L, da Costa Schaefer I, Frantz J, et al. Role of adenosine signaling on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in zebrafish. Zebrafish. 2015;12:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our molecular analysis of the c-fos gene expression corroborates these behavioral results...
  18. Jia H, King I, Chopra S, Wan H, Ni T, Jiang C, et al. Vertebrate heart growth is regulated by functional antagonism between Gridlock and Gata5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14008-13 pubmed
    ..Hence, our studies suggest that Grl regulates embryonic heart growth via opposing Gata5, at least in part through their protein interactions in modulating gene expression. ..
  19. Cachat J, Kyzar E, Collins C, Gaikwad S, Green J, Roth A, et al. Unique and potent effects of acute ibogaine on zebrafish: the developing utility of novel aquatic models for hallucinogenic drug research. Behav Brain Res. 2013;236:258-69 pubmed publisher
    ..the shoaling test, and evoked strong coloration responses due to melanophore aggregation, but did not alter brain c-fos expression or whole-body cortisol levels...
  20. Chen S, Reichert S, Singh C, Oikonomou G, Rihel J, Prober D. Light-Dependent Regulation of Sleep and Wake States by Prokineticin 2 in Zebrafish. Neuron. 2017;95:153-168.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Prok2 antagonizes the direct wake-promoting effect of light in zebrafish, in part through the induction of galn expression in the hypothalamus. ..
  21. Marques I, Leito J, Spaink H, Testerink J, Jaspers R, Witte F, et al. Transcriptome analysis of the response to chronic constant hypoxia in zebrafish hearts. J Comp Physiol B. 2008;178:77-92 pubmed
    ..We have identified here many novel genes involved in the response to CCH in the heart, which may have potential clinical implications in the future. ..
  22. Riehl R, Kyzar E, Allain A, Green J, Hook M, Monnig L, et al. Behavioral and physiological effects of acute ketamine exposure in adult zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011;33:658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, ketamine reduced whole-body cortisol levels and elevated brain c-fos expression in zebrafish...
  23. Teng Y, Xie X, Walker S, Saxena M, Kozlowski D, Mumm J, et al. Loss of zebrafish lgi1b leads to hydrocephalus and sensitization to pentylenetetrazol induced seizure-like behavior. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24596 pubmed publisher
    ..As shown for the lgi1a morphants, however, lgi1b morphants are also sensitized to PTZ-induced hyperactivity. The different phenotypes between the two lgi1 morphants support a subfunctionalization model for the two paralogs. ..
  24. Wu C, Chen B. A Systems Biology Approach to the Coordination of Defensive and Offensive Molecular Mechanisms in the Innate and Adaptive Host-Pathogen Interaction Networks. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149303 pubmed publisher
  25. Moore H, Whitmore D. Circadian rhythmicity and light sensitivity of the zebrafish brain. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86176 pubmed publisher
    ..To further investigate the light sensitive properties of neurons, expression of c-fos, a marker for neuronal activity, was examined...
  26. Johnson M, Behmoaras J, Bottolo L, Krishnan M, Pernhorst K, Santoscoy P, et al. Systems genetics identifies Sestrin 3 as a regulator of a proconvulsant gene network in human epileptic hippocampus. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6031 pubmed publisher
    ..Morpholino-mediated Sesn3 knockdown in zebrafish confirms the regulation of the transcriptional module, and attenuates chemically induced behavioural seizures in vivo. ..
  27. Sheng F, Chen M, Tan Y, Xiang C, Zhang M, Li B, et al. Protective Effects of Otophylloside N on Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Neuronal Injury In vitro and In vivo. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:224 pubmed publisher
    ..of poly ADP-ribose polymerase and upregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and decrease the expression level of c-Fos. This study is the first investigation of the neuroprotective effects of OtoN, which might be developed as a novel ..
  28. Malafoglia V, Colasanti M, Raffaeli W, Balciunas D, Giordano A, Bellipanni G. Extreme thermal noxious stimuli induce pain responses in zebrafish larvae. J Cell Physiol. 2014;229:300-8 pubmed publisher
  29. Ogawa S, Ng K, Ramadasan P, Nathan F, Parhar I. Habenular Kiss1 neurons modulate the serotonergic system in the brain of zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2012;153:2398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..3- to 0.5-fold, P < 0.001), but the level of c-fos mRNA was increased (? 3-fold, P < 0...
  30. Chiu C, Rihel J, Lee D, Singh C, Mosser E, Chen S, et al. A Zebrafish Genetic Screen Identifies Neuromedin U as a Regulator of Sleep/Wake States. Neuron. 2016;89:842-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal an unexpected functional and anatomical interface between the Nmu system and brainstem arousal systems that represents a novel wake-promoting pathway. ..
  31. Hirayama J, Cardone L, Doi M, Sassone Corsi P. Common pathways in circadian and cell cycle clocks: light-dependent activation of Fos/AP-1 in zebrafish controls CRY-1a and WEE-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:10194-9 pubmed
    ..of histone H3 at both zWee1 and zCry1a promoters, as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays by using anti-Fos antibody...
  32. Appelbaum L, Wang G, Yokogawa T, Skariah G, Smith S, Mourrain P, et al. Circadian and homeostatic regulation of structural synaptic plasticity in hypocretin neurons. Neuron. 2010;68:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This behavioral effect is consistent with NPTX2b-mediated increased activity of HCRT circuitry. These data provide real-time in vivo evidence of circadian and homeostatic regulation of structural synaptic plasticity. ..
  33. Torres Hernández B, Colón L, Rosa Falero C, Torrado A, Miscalichi N, Ortíz J, et al. Reversal of pentylenetetrazole-altered swimming and neural activity-regulated gene expression in zebrafish larvae by valproic acid and valerian extract. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016;233:2533-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we assessed how expression of neural activity-regulated genes (c-fos, npas4a, and bdnf) known to be upregulated by PTZ treatment was affected in the presence of Val...
  34. Teles M, Almeida O, Lopes J, Oliveira R. Social interactions elicit rapid shifts in functional connectivity in the social decision-making network of zebrafish. Proc Biol Sci. 2015;282:20151099 pubmed publisher
    ..behaviour states into patterns of neuronal activity, as indicated by the expression of the immediate early genes c-fos and egr-1, across the SDM network...
  35. Corrales J, Fang X, Thornton C, Mei W, Barbazuk W, Duke M, et al. Effects on specific promoter DNA methylation in zebrafish embryos and larvae following benzo[a]pyrene exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014;163:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..3hpf, dazl, nqo1, sox3, cyp1b1, and gstp1 had higher methylation percentages while c-fos and cdkn1a had decreased CG methylation. BaP exposure significantly reduced egg production and offspring survival...
  36. Mesquita S, Dachs J, van Drooge B, Castro Jiménez J, Navarro Martín L, Barata C, et al. Toxicity assessment of atmospheric particulate matter in the Mediterranean and Black Seas open waters. Sci Total Environ. 2016;545-546:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..test (the ZET assay) showed no major phenotypical adverse effects, up-regulation of mRNA expression of cyp1a, fos and development-related genes (previously described as related to PM toxicity) was observed in exposed embryos when ..
  37. Liu C, Su G, Giesy J, Letcher R, Li G, Agrawal I, et al. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19045 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish. ..
  38. Long S, Liang F, Wu Q, Lu X, Yao X, Li S, et al. Identification of marine neuroactive molecules in behaviour-based screens in the larval zebrafish. Mar Drugs. 2014;12:3307-22 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and compounds 39, 40 and 41 could significantly attenuate PTZ-induced locomotor hyperactivity and elevation of c-fos mRNA in larval zebrafish. Compound 40 showed the most potent inhibitory action against PTZ-induced hyperactivity...
  39. Zhang Y, Vanmeert M, Siekierska A, Ny A, John J, Callewaert G, et al. Inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) by ethyl ketopentenoate (EKP) induces treatment-resistant epileptic seizures in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7195 pubmed publisher
    ..that EKP evoked robust convulsive locomotor activities, excessive epileptiform discharges and upregulated c-fos expression in zebrafish...
  40. Theodoridi A, Tsalafouta A, Pavlidis M. Acute Exposure to Fluoxetine Alters Aggressive Behavior of Zebrafish and Expression of Genes Involved in Serotonergic System Regulation. Front Neurosci. 2017;11:223 pubmed publisher
    ..brain mRNA expression levels of genes involved in stress axis (gr, mr), neural activity (bdnf, c-fos), and the serotonergic system (htr2b, slc6a4b)...
  41. Slade L, Cowie A, Martyniuk C, Kienesberger P, Pulinilkunnil T. Dieldrin Augments mTOR Signaling and Regulates Genes Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in the Adult Zebrafish Heart (Danio rerio). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;361:375-385 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that dieldrin induces genes associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and compromised lysosomal physiology, thereby identifying a novel mechanism for pesticide-induced cardiotoxicity. ..
  42. Santos da Rosa J, Alcântara Barcellos H, Fagundes M, Variani C, Rossini M, Kalichak F, et al. Muscarinic receptors mediate the endocrine-disrupting effects of an organophosphorus insecticide in zebrafish. Environ Toxicol. 2017;32:1964-1972 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears to be mediated via muscarinic receptors, since the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine blocked these effects. ..
  43. Buenafe O, Orellana Paucar A, Maes J, Huang H, Ying X, De Borggraeve W, et al. Tanshinone IIA exhibits anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish and mouse seizure models. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2013;4:1479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the active tanshinones, tanshinone IIA, also reduced c-fos expression in the brains of PTZ-exposed zebrafish larvae...
  44. Cortés R, Teles M, Oliveira M, Fierro Castro C, Tort L, Cerdá Reverter J. Effects of acute handling stress on short-term central expression of orexigenic/anorexigenic genes in zebrafish. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2018;44:257-272 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the anorexigenic precursors tested, i.e., cart peptides and pomc, exhibited increased expression after acute stress, suggesting their involvement in the anorexigenic effects. ..
  45. Rahn J, Bestman J, Josey B, Inks E, Stackley K, Rogers C, et al. Novel Vitamin K analogs suppress seizures in zebrafish and mouse models of epilepsy. Neuroscience. 2014;259:142-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate the potential utility of these and other VK analogs for the prevention of seizures and suggest the potential mechanism for this protection may lie in the ability of these compounds to affect energy production...
  46. Aluru N, Kuo E, Helfrich L, Karchner S, Linney E, Pais J, et al. Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters DNA methyltransferase (dnmt) expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015;284:142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In TCDD-exposed embryos, AHR repressor a (ahrra) and c-fos promoters were differentially methylated...
  47. Mesquita S, van Drooge B, Oliveira E, Grimalt J, Barata C, Vieira N, et al. Differential embryotoxicity of the organic pollutants in rural and urban air particles. Environ Pollut. 2015;206:535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed effects can be directly related to air pollution-related human disorders, suggesting different potential adverse outcomes for human populations exposed to air pollution from specific sources. ..
  48. Barbalho P, Carvalho B, Lopes Cendes I, Maurer Morelli C. Cyclooxygenase-1 as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Seizure Suppression: Evidences from Zebrafish Pentylenetetrazole-Seizure Model. Front Neurol. 2016;7:200 pubmed
    ..hand, COX-1 inhibition significantly attenuated PTZ-induced increase of locomotor activity and reduced the c-fos mRNA expression...
  49. Williams L, Wong K, Stewart A, Suciu C, Gaikwad S, Wu N, et al. Behavioral and physiological effects of RDX on adult zebrafish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;155:33-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1 mM) RDX. In line with clinical and animal data, our study demonstrates the dose-dependent behavioral activation and pro-convulsant effects of RDX in zebrafish-based models. ..
  50. Singh C, Oikonomou G, Prober D. Norepinephrine is required to promote wakefulness and for hypocretin-induced arousal in zebrafish. elife. 2015;4:e07000 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a role for endogenous NE in promoting arousal and indicate that NE is a critical downstream effector of Hcrt neurons. ..
  51. Barbalho P, Lopes Cendes I, Maurer Morelli C. Indomethacin treatment prior to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures downregulates the expression of il1b and cox2 and decreases seizure-like behavior in zebrafish larvae. BMC Neurosci. 2016;17:12 pubmed publisher
    ..the well-established rodent models of epilepsy are similar pertaining to behavior, electrographic features, and c-fos expression...
  52. Wei Y, Ma D, Gao Y, Zhang C, Wang L, Liu F. Ncor2 is required for hematopoietic stem cell emergence by inhibiting Fos signaling in zebrafish. Blood. 2014;124:1578-85 pubmed publisher, we show that in zebrafish, ncor2 is required for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development by repressing fos-vegfd signaling. ncor2 is specifically expressed in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in zebrafish embryos...
  53. Ellis L, Seibert J, Soanes K. Distinct models of induced hyperactivity in zebrafish larvae. Brain Res. 2012;1449:46-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to differences in the patterns of behaviour each compound also produces a unique pattern of c-fos (an immediate early gene) expression in the brain...