Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: en2a
Description: engrailed homeobox 2a
Alias: ENG-2, ZF-EN-2, Zf-en, eng2, eng2a, homeobox protein engrailed-2a, engrailed 2a, homeobox protein en-2a
- Dolez M, Nicolas J, Hirsinger E. Laminins, via heparan sulfate proteoglycans, participate in zebrafish myotome morphogenesis by modulating the pattern of Bmp responsiveness. Development. 2011;138:97-106 pubmed publisher..This study underlines the importance of extracellular cues for the precise spatial modulation of cell response to morphogens. ..
- Maurya A, Tan H, Souren M, Wang X, Wittbrodt J, Ingham P. Integration of Hedgehog and BMP signalling by the engrailed2a gene in the zebrafish myotome. Development. 2011;138:755-65 pubmed publisher..We have defined a minimal eng2a element sufficient to drive reporter expression specifically in MPs and MFFs...
- Lun K, Brand M. A series of no isthmus (noi) alleles of the zebrafish pax2.1 gene reveals multiple signaling events in development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. Development. 1998;125:3049-62 pubmed..eng3 activation is completely and eng2 activation is strongly dependent on noi function...
- Rydeen A, Waxman J. Cyp26 enzymes are required to balance the cardiac and vascular lineages within the anterior lateral plate mesoderm. Development. 2014;141:1638-48 pubmed publisher..Our study provides novel insight into the earliest consequences of Cyp26 deficiency that underlie cardiovascular malformations in vertebrate embryos. ..
- Ellies D, Langille R, Martin C, Akimenko M, Ekker M. Specific craniofacial cartilage dysmorphogenesis coincides with a loss of dlx gene expression in retinoic acid-treated zebrafish embryos. Mech Dev. 1997;61:23-36 pubmed
- Tse W, Jiang Y, Wong C. Zebrafish transforming growth factor-?-stimulated clone 22 domain 3 (TSC22D3) plays critical roles in Bmp-dependent dorsoventral patterning via two deubiquitylating enzymes Usp15 and Otud4. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:4584-93 pubmed publisher..This is the first study to identify new developmental functions of Tsc22d3 in zebrafish. Zebrafish tsc22d3 is a ventralizing gene and plays a role in early embryogenesis...
- French C, Erickson T, Callander D, Berry K, Koss R, Hagey D, et al. Pbx homeodomain proteins pattern both the zebrafish retina and tectum. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:85 pubmed..These data define a novel role for Pbx in patterning the vertebrate retina and tectum in a manner required for proper retinal ganglion cell axon outgrowth. ..
- Muto A, Arai K, Watanabe S. Rab11-FIP4 is predominantly expressed in neural tissues and involved in proliferation as well as in differentiation during zebrafish retinal development. Dev Biol. 2006;292:90-102 pubmed
- Kjaer Sorensen K, Engholm D, Kamei H, Morch M, Kristensen A, Zhou J, et al. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) modulates the early developmental rate in zebrafish independently of its proteolytic activity. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9982-92 pubmed publisher..We conclude that Papp-a possesses biological functions independent of its proteolytic activity. Our data represent the first evidence for a non-proteolytic function of PAPP-A. ..
- Lele Z, Hartson S, Martin C, Whitesell L, Matts R, Krone P. Disruption of zebrafish somite development by pharmacologic inhibition of Hsp90. Dev Biol. 1999;210:56-70 pubmed..The data are consistent with there being a temporal and spatial requirement for Hsp90 function within somitic cells which is necessary for the formation of eng-2-expressing muscle pioneers and possibly other striated muscle fiber types. ..
- Pillay L, Forrester A, Erickson T, Berman J, Waskiewicz A. The Hox cofactors Meis1 and Pbx act upstream of gata1 to regulate primitive hematopoiesis. Dev Biol. 2010;340:306-17 pubmed publisher..Our study conclusively demonstrates that Meis1 and Pbx act to specify the erythropoietic cell lineage and inhibit myelopoiesis. ..
- Holland P, Williams N. Conservation of engrailed-like homeobox sequences during vertebrate evolution. FEBS Lett. 1990;277:250-2 pubmed
- Corallo D, Schiavinato A, Trapani V, Moro E, Argenton F, Bonaldo P. Emilin3 is required for notochord sheath integrity and interacts with Scube2 to regulate notochord-derived Hedgehog signals. Development. 2013;140:4594-601 pubmed publisher..Overall, this study reveals a new role for an EMILIN protein and reinforces the concept that structure and function of the notochord are strictly linked. ..
- Kim J, Chun H, Kim S, Kim H, Kim Y, Kim M, et al. Normal forebrain development may require continual Wnt antagonism until mid-somitogenesis in zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:717-21 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that normal forebrain development requires continual Wnt antagonism from the early gastrula to the mid-somitogenesis stage. ..
- Dworkin S, Darido C, Georgy S, Wilanowski T, Srivastava S, Ellett F, et al. Midbrain-hindbrain boundary patterning and morphogenesis are regulated by diverse grainy head-like 2-dependent pathways. Development. 2012;139:525-36 pubmed publisher..grhl2b expression induces neural apoptosis and extinction of MHB markers, which are rescued by re-expression of engrailed 2a (eng2a), an evolutionarily conserved target of the Grhl family...
- Venero Galanternik M, Lush M, Piotrowski T. Glypican4 modulates lateral line collective cell migration non cell-autonomously. Dev Biol. 2016;419:321-335 pubmed publisher..Our results show that glypican4 has distinct functions in primordium cells and cells in the environment and that both of these functions are essential for collective cell migration. ..
- Paridaen J, Danesin C, Elas A, van de Water S, Houart C, Zivkovic D. Apc1 is required for maintenance of local brain organizers and dorsal midbrain survival. Dev Biol. 2009;331:101-12 pubmed publisher..These data demonstrate that Apc1-mediated restriction of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is required for maintenance of local organizers and tectal integrity. ..
- Corbit K, Aanstad P, Singla V, Norman A, Stainier D, Reiter J. Vertebrate Smoothened functions at the primary cilium. Nature. 2005;437:1018-21 pubmed..Thus, Hh-dependent translocation to cilia is essential for Smo activity, suggesting that Smo acts at the primary cilium. ..
- Albuixech Crespo B, López Blanch L, Burguera D, Maeso I, Sánchez Arrones L, Moreno Bravo J, et al. Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2001573 pubmed publisher..This suggests that these domains have a common developmental and evolutionary origin, as supported by functional experiments manipulating secondary organizers in zebrafish and mice. ..
- Wang F, Chen X, Shi W, Yao L, Gao M, Yang Y, et al. Zdhhc15b Regulates Differentiation of Diencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons in zebrafish. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116:2980-91 pubmed publisher..Our results reveal that zdhhc15b controls DA neuronal fate decisions by regulating differentiation but not progenitor cell proliferation or DA neuronal survival. ..
- Becker T, Ostendorff H, Bossenz M, Schlüter A, Becker C, Peirano R, et al. Multiple functions of LIM domain-binding CLIM/NLI/Ldb cofactors during zebrafish development. Mech Dev. 2002;117:75-85 pubmed..Our results demonstrate multiple roles of the CLIM cofactor family for the development of entire organs, axonal outgrowth of specific neurons and protein expression levels. ..
- Erickson T, Scholpp S, Brand M, Moens C, Waskiewicz A. Pbx proteins cooperate with Engrailed to pattern the midbrain-hindbrain and diencephalic-mesencephalic boundaries. Dev Biol. 2007;301:504-17 pubmed..Embryos lacking Pbx function correctly initiate midbrain patterning, but fail to maintain eng2a, pax2a, fgf8, gbx2, and wnt1 expression at the MHB...
- Schafer M, Kinzel D, Winkler C. Discontinuous organization and specification of the lateral floor plate in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2007;301:117-29 pubmed..We conclude that different levels of HH and Nkx2.2 activities are responsible for the alternating appearance of LFP and p3 neuronal progenitor cells in the zebrafish ventral neural tube. ..
- Fritz A, Rozowski M, Walker C, Westerfield M. Identification of selected gamma-ray induced deficiencies in zebrafish using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Genetics. 1996;144:1735-45 pubmed..These deficiencies provide a basis for analyzing the functions of cloned zebrafish genes using noncomplementation screens for point mutations induced by high-efficiency chemical mutagenesis. ..
- Guillon E, Bretaud S, Ruggiero F. Slow Muscle Precursors Lay Down a Collagen XV Matrix Fingerprint to Guide Motor Axon Navigation. J Neurosci. 2016;36:2663-76 pubmed publisher..Zebrafish and humans use common molecular cues and regulatory mechanisms for the neuromuscular system development. And as such, our study reveals COL15A1 as a candidate gene for orphan neuromuscular disorders. ..
- Belting H, Wendik B, Lunde K, Leichsenring M, Mössner R, Driever W, et al. Pou5f1 contributes to dorsoventral patterning by positive regulation of vox and modulation of fgf8a expression. Dev Biol. 2011;356:323-36 pubmed publisher..Our data reveals a set of direct and indirect interactions of Pou5f1 with the BMP dorsoventral patterning network that serve to fine-tune dorsoventral patterning mechanisms and coordinate patterning with developmental timing. ..
- Piatek M, HENDERSON V, Fearn A, Chaudhry B, Werner A. Ectopically expressed Slc34a2a sense-antisense transcripts cause a cerebellar phenotype in zebrafish embryos depending on RNA complementarity and Dicer. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178219 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that RNAi is involved in gene regulation by certain natural antisense RNAs. ..
- Scholpp S, Brand M. Morpholino-induced knockdown of zebrafish engrailed genes eng2 and eng3 reveals redundant and unique functions in midbrain--hindbrain boundary development. Genesis. 2001;30:129-33 pubmed
- D Aniello E, Rydeen A, Anderson J, Mandal A, Waxman J. Depletion of retinoic acid receptors initiates a novel positive feedback mechanism that promotes teratogenic increases in retinoic acid. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003689 pubmed publisher..Our results support an intriguing novel mechanism by which depletion of RARs elicits a previously unrecognized positive feedback loop that can result in developmental defects due to teratogenic increases in embryonic RA...
- Van Hellemont R, Blomme T, Van de Peer Y, Marchal K. Divergence of regulatory sequences in duplicated fish genes. Genome Dyn. 2007;3:81-100 pubmed publisher..In this study we used in silico motif detection to show how alterations in the composition of regulatory motifs between paralogous genes in zebrafish and Tetraodon might reflect the functional divergence of duplicates. ..
- Hammond K, Baxendale S, McCauley D, Ingham P, Whitfield T. Expression of patched, prdm1 and engrailed in the lamprey somite reveals conserved responses to Hedgehog signaling. Evol Dev. 2009;11:27-40 pubmed publisher..These data suggest the presence of conserved responses to Hh signaling in lamprey somites, although the full range of effects elicited by Hh in the zebrafish somite is not recapitulated. ..
- Rost F, Eugster C, SchrÃ¶ter C, Oates A, Brusch L. Chevron formation of the zebrafish muscle segments. J Exp Biol. 2014;217:3870-82 pubmed publisher..Altogether, our results support the notion that a simple physical mechanism suffices to self-organize the observed spatiotemporal pattern in chevron formation. ..
- Amores A, Force A, Yan Y, Joly L, Amemiya C, Fritz A, et al. Zebrafish hox clusters and vertebrate genome evolution. Science. 1998;282:1711-4 pubmed..Thus, teleosts, the most species-rich group of vertebrates, appear to have more copies of these developmental regulatory genes than do mammals, despite less complexity in the anterior-posterior axis. ..
- Scholpp S, Brand M. Integrity of the midbrain region is required to maintain the diencephalic-mesencephalic boundary in zebrafish no isthmus/pax2.1 mutants. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:313-22 pubmed..We therefore suggest that the genetic program controlled by Pax2.1 is not only involved in initiating but also in maintaining the identity of midbrain and isthmus cells to prevent them from assuming a forebrain or hindbrain fate. ..
- Osborn D, Li K, Hinits Y, Hughes S. Cdkn1c drives muscle differentiation through a positive feedback loop with Myod. Dev Biol. 2011;350:464-75 pubmed publisher..Cdkn1c co-operates with Myod to drive differentiation of several early zebrafish muscle fibre types. Myod in turn up-regulates cdkn1c, thereby providing a positive feedback loop that switches myogenic cells to terminal differentiation. ..
- Rhinn M, Lun K, Ahrendt R, Geffarth M, Brand M. Zebrafish gbx1 refines the midbrain-hindbrain boundary border and mediates the Wnt8 posteriorization signal. Neural Dev. 2009;4:12 pubmed publisher..1 and eng2. This indicates that, in zebrafish, an interaction between otx2 and gbx1 determines the site of MHB development...
- Krauss S, Maden M, Holder N, Wilson S. Zebrafish pax[b] is involved in the formation of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. Nature. 1992;360:87-9 pubmed..The data demonstrate an involvement of pax[b] in the formation of the midbrain-hindbrain junction. ..
- Leucht C, Stigloher C, Wizenmann A, Klafke R, Folchert A, Bally Cuif L. MicroRNA-9 directs late organizer activity of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:641-8 pubmed publisher..Together, these findings highlight a previously unknown mechanism by which a single microRNA fine-tunes late MHB coherence via its co-regulation of patterning activities and neurogenesis...
- Van de Peer Y, Frickey T, Taylor J, Meyer A. Dealing with saturation at the amino acid level: a case study based on anciently duplicated zebrafish genes. Gene. 2002;295:205-11 pubmed..When trees are computed by omitting the saturated fraction of sites, most fish duplicates are sister sequences. ..
- Aamar E, Dawid I. Protocadherin-18a has a role in cell adhesion, behavior and migration in zebrafish development. Dev Biol. 2008;318:335-46 pubmed publisher..These results suggest a role for Pcdh18a in cell adhesion, migration and behavior but not cell specification during gastrula and segmentation stages of development. ..
- Miller C, Yelon D, Stainier D, Kimmel C. Two endothelin 1 effectors, hand2 and bapx1, pattern ventral pharyngeal cartilage and the jaw joint. Development. 2003;130:1353-65 pubmed..In addition, expression of eng2, normally restricted to first arch dorsal mesoderm, expands ventrally in hand2 and edn1 mutants...
- Nakada C, Satoh S, Tabata Y, Arai K, Watanabe S. Transcriptional repressor foxl1 regulates central nervous system development by suppressing shh expression in zebra fish. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7246-57 pubmed..In view of all of our data taken together, we propose zfoxl1 to be a novel regulator of neural development that acts by suppressing shh expression. ..
- Rydeen A, Voisin N, D Aniello E, Ravisankar P, Devignes C, Waxman J. Excessive feedback of Cyp26a1 promotes cell non-autonomous loss of retinoic acid signaling. Dev Biol. 2015;405:47-55 pubmed publisher..Therefore, our results provide novel insights into the teratogenic mechanisms of RA signaling and the cellular mechanisms by which Cyp26a1 expression can shape a RA gradient. ..
- Bink R, Habuchi H, Lele Z, Dolk E, Joore J, Rauch G, et al. Heparan sulfate 6-o-sulfotransferase is essential for muscle development in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:31118-27 pubmed..In conclusion, our results show that transfer of sulfate to specific positions on glycosaminoglycans is essential for muscle development. ..
- Xu F, Li K, Tian M, Hu P, Song W, Chen J, et al. N-CoR is required for patterning the anterior-posterior axis of zebrafish hindbrain by actively repressing retinoid signaling. Mech Dev. 2009;126:771-80 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results demonstrate that N-CoR is essential for early hindbrain patterning by actively repressing retinoid signaling. ..
- Thorpe C, Moon R. nemo-like kinase is an essential co-activator of Wnt signaling during early zebrafish development. Development. 2004;131:2899-909 pubmed..Additionally, nlk strongly enhances convergent/extension phenotypes associated with wnt11/silberblick, suggesting a role in modulating cell movements as well as cell fate. ..
- Seiliez I, Thisse B, Thisse C. FoxA3 and goosecoid promote anterior neural fate through inhibition of Wnt8a activity before the onset of gastrulation. Dev Biol. 2006;290:152-63 pubmed..Altogether, foxA3 and goosecoid cooperate to promote formation of anterior neural tissue by protecting, as early as blastula stage, presumptive anterior neural cells from an irreversible caudalization by the posteriorizing factor Wnt8a. ..
- Lunde K, Belting H, Driever W. Zebrafish pou5f1/pou2, homolog of mammalian Oct4, functions in the endoderm specification cascade. Curr Biol. 2004;14:48-55 pubmed..We propose that pou5f1 plays an activating role in zebrafish endodermal development, where it maintains sox32 expression during gastrulation and acts with sox32 to induce sox17 expression in endodermal precursor cells. ..
- Chen X, Lou Q, He J, Yin Z. Role of zebrafish lbx2 in embryonic lateral line development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29515 pubmed publisher..In addition, the disassociation of PPL nerve extension with PLL primordial migration in some lbx2 morphants suggests that pathfinding of the PLL primordium and the lateral line nerve may be regulated independently. ..
- Nguyen Chi M, Bryson Richardson R, Sonntag C, Hall T, Gibson A, Sztal T, et al. Morphogenesis and cell fate determination within the adaxial cell equivalence group of the zebrafish myotome. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003014 pubmed publisher..Thus our results reveal that the synergistic actions of HH, FGF, and BMP signaling independently create a three-dimensional (3D) signaling milieu that coordinates cell fate within the adaxial cell equivalence group. ..
- D Aniello E, Ravisankar P, Waxman J. Rdh10a Provides a Conserved Critical Step in the Synthesis of Retinoic Acid during Zebrafish Embryogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0138588 pubmed publisher..Altogether, our results demonstrate that Rdh10a has a conserved requirement in the first step of RA production within vertebrate embryos. ..
- Miyake A, Itoh N. Fgf22 regulated by Fgf3/Fgf8 signaling is required for zebrafish midbrain development. Biol Open. 2013;2:515-24 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, fgf22 partially rescued the fgf3/fgf8 double morphant phenotype. The present results indicate Fgf22 to be involved in midbrain development downstream of Fgf3 and Fgf8 in the MHB but not of Hh in the floor plate. ..
- Köster R, Fraser S. FGF signaling mediates regeneration of the differentiating cerebellum through repatterning of the anterior hindbrain and reinitiation of neuronal migration. J Neurosci. 2006;26:7293-304 pubmed..Moreover, the regenerating system offers a means to uncouple cerebellar differentiation from complex morphogenetic tissue rearrangements. ..
- Aanstad P, Santos N, Corbit K, Scherz P, Trinh L, Salvenmoser W, et al. The extracellular domain of Smoothened regulates ciliary localization and is required for high-level Hh signaling. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1034-9 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that the ECD, previously thought to be dispensable for vertebrate Smo function, both regulates Smo ciliary localization and is essential for high-level Hh signaling. ..
- Xu X, He Y, Sun L, Ma S, Luo C. Maternal Vsx1 plays an essential role in regulating prechordal mesendoderm and forebrain formation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2014;394:264-76 pubmed publisher..Our results reveal a pivotal role for maternal Vsx1 as a direct transcriptional repressor of ntl expression at the margin of the zebrafish gastrula to ensure directional cell polarization and migration of PME cells. ..
- Hinits Y, Osborn D, Hughes S. Differential requirements for myogenic regulatory factors distinguish medial and lateral somitic, cranial and fin muscle fibre populations. Development. 2009;136:403-14 pubmed publisher..Mrf4 does not contribute to early myogenesis in zebrafish. We suggest that the differential use of duplicated MRF paralogues in this novel two-component myogenic system facilitated the diversification of vertebrates...
- Han R, Wang R, Zhao Q, Han Y, Zong S, Miao S, et al. Trim69 regulates zebrafish brain development by ap-1 pathway. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24034 pubmed publisher..Overall, our results support a role for trim69 in the development of the zebrafish brain through ap-1 pathway. ..
- Tallafuss A, Wilm T, Crozatier M, Pfeffer P, Wassef M, Bally Cuif L. The zebrafish buttonhead-like factor Bts1 is an early regulator of pax2.1 expression during mid-hindbrain development. Development. 2001;128:4021-34 pubmed..In addition, they imply that flies and vertebrates, to control the development of a boundary embryonic region, have probably co-opted a similar strategy: the restriction to this territory of the expression of a Btd/Sp-like factor. ..
- Kim S, Shin J, Park H, Yeo S, Hong S, Han S, et al. Specification of an anterior neuroectoderm patterning by Frizzled8a-mediated Wnt8b signalling during late gastrulation in zebrafish. Development. 2002;129:4443-55 pubmed..In conclusion, we suggest that a gradient of Fz8a-mediated Wnt8b signalling may play crucial role in patterning the posterior diencephalon and midbrain regions in the late gastrula. ..
- Wang X, Ono Y, Tan S, Chai R, Parkin C, Ingham P. Prdm1a and miR-499 act sequentially to restrict Sox6 activity to the fast-twitch muscle lineage in the zebrafish embryo. Development. 2011;138:4399-404 pubmed publisher..We find that translational repression of sox6 is mediated by miR-499, the slow-twitch-specific expression of which is in turn controlled by Prdm1a, forming a regulatory loop that initiates and maintains the slow-twitch muscle lineage. ..
- Jeong J, Einhorn Z, Mathur P, Chen L, Lee S, Kawakami K, et al. Patterning the zebrafish diencephalon by the conserved zinc-finger protein Fezl. Development. 2007;134:127-36 pubmed..Our findings reveal that Fezl is crucial for establishing regional subdivisions within the diencephalon and may also play a role in the development of the telencephalon and hypothalamus. ..
- Clements W, Kimelman D. LZIC regulates neuronal survival during zebrafish development. Dev Biol. 2005;283:322-34 pubmed publisher..Surprisingly, despite this high similarity, LZIC does not interact with beta-catenin in vitro or in vivo. Our results reveal that LZIC, a protein conserved in vertebrates, is required for neuronal survival in zebrafish...
- Flynt A, Li N, Thatcher E, Solnica Krezel L, Patton J. Zebrafish miR-214 modulates Hedgehog signaling to specify muscle cell fate. Nat Genet. 2007;39:259-63 pubmed..Through regulation of su(fu), miR-214 enables precise specification of muscle cell types by sharpening cellular responses to Hedgehog. ..
- Martin C, Laforest L, Akimenko M, Ekker M. A role for DNA methylation in gastrulation and somite patterning. Dev Biol. 1999;206:189-205 pubmed..When examined during gastrulation, 5-azaC-treated embryos have a shortened and thickened axial mesoderm. We propose that DNA methylation is required for normal gastrulation and subsequent patterning of the dorsal mesoderm. ..
- Knight R, Mebus K, Roehl H. Mandibular arch muscle identity is regulated by a conserved molecular process during vertebrate development. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2008;310:355-69 pubmed publisher..These data imply that dorsal mandibular arch muscle identity in fish, chick and mouse is specified by a highly conserved molecular process despite differing functions of these muscles in different lineages. ..
- Nair S, Li W, Cornell R, Schilling T. Requirements for Endothelin type-A receptors and Endothelin-1 signaling in the facial ectoderm for the patterning of skeletogenic neural crest cells in zebrafish. Development. 2007;134:335-45 pubmed..Collectively, our results indicate that Edn1 from the pharyngeal ectoderm signals through Ednra proteins to direct early dorsoventral patterning of the skeletogenic neural crest. ..
- Wu S, Adams B, Fradinger E, Sherwood N. Role of two genes encoding PACAP in early brain development in zebrafish. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1070:602-21 pubmed..1 expression in eye stalks associated with absence of either form of PACAP or an increase in eng2 and fgf8 in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary after loss of PACAP2...
- Rampon C, Gauron C, Lin T, Meda F, Dupont E, Cosson A, et al. Control of brain patterning by Engrailed paracrine transfer: a new function of the Pbx interaction domain. Development. 2015;142:1840-9 pubmed publisher..Both zebrafish Eng2a and Eng2b are competent for intercellular transfer in vivo, but only extracellular endogenous Eng2b, and not Eng2a,..