Gene Symbol: edn1
Description: endothelin 1
Alias: et-1, fb14d01, wu:fb14d01, endothelin-1, et1, suc, sucker
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Zuniga E, Rippen M, Alexander C, Schilling T, Crump J. Gremlin 2 regulates distinct roles of BMP and Endothelin 1 signaling in dorsoventral patterning of the facial skeleton. Development. 2011;138:5147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas previous studies have shown roles for BMPs, Endothelin 1 (Edn1) and Jagged1b-Notch2 in DV patterning of the facial skeleton, how these pathways are integrated to ..
  2. Alexander C, Zuniga E, Blitz I, Wada N, Le Pabic P, Javidan Y, et al. Combinatorial roles for BMPs and Endothelin 1 in patterning the dorsal-ventral axis of the craniofacial skeleton. Development. 2011;138:5135-46 pubmed publisher
    ..roles in craniofacial development but little is known about their interactions with other signals, such as Endothelin 1 (Edn1) and Jagged/Notch, which pattern the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis of the pharyngeal arches...
  3. Piotrowski T, Ahn D, Schilling T, Nair S, Ruvinsky I, Geisler R, et al. The zebrafish van gogh mutation disrupts tbx1, which is involved in the DiGeorge deletion syndrome in humans. Development. 2003;130:5043-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence for regulatory interactions between vgo/tbx1 and edn1 and hand2, genes that are implicated in the control of pharyngeal arch development and in the etiology of DGS.
  4. Vermot J, Forouhar A, Liebling M, Wu D, Plummer D, Gharib M, et al. Reversing blood flows act through klf2a to ensure normal valvulogenesis in the developing heart. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000246 pubmed publisher
  5. Sperber S, Saxena V, Hatch G, Ekker M. Zebrafish dlx2a contributes to hindbrain neural crest survival, is necessary for differentiation of sensory ganglia and functions with dlx1a in maturation of the arch cartilage elements. Dev Biol. 2008;314:59-70 pubmed
    ..Defects in the differentiation of ectomesenchymal derivatives, including sensory ganglia and cartilage elements, indicate a role for dlx2a in specification and maintenance of cranial neural crest. ..
  6. Kimmel C, Walker M, Miller C. Morphing the hyomandibular skeleton in development and evolution. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2007;308:609-24 pubmed
    ..in morphology? Here we focus on a particular pathway regulated by a secreted, signaling peptide, Endothelin1 (Edn1)...
  7. Miller C, Schilling T, Lee K, Parker J, Kimmel C. sucker encodes a zebrafish Endothelin-1 required for ventral pharyngeal arch development. Development. 2000;127:3815-28 pubmed
    Mutation of sucker (suc) disrupts development of the lower jaw and other ventral cartilages in pharyngeal segments of the zebrafish head. Our sequencing, cosegregation and rescue results indicate that suc encodes an Endothelin-1 (Et-1)...
  8. Balczerski B, Matsutani M, Castillo P, Osborne N, Stainier D, Crump J. Analysis of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling mutants reveals endodermal requirements for the growth but not dorsoventral patterning of jaw skeletal precursors. Dev Biol. 2012;362:230-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we propose that the S1P-dependent anterior foregut endoderm functions primarily through Shh to regulate the growth but not DV patterning of zebrafish jaw precursors...
  9. Zuniga E, Stellabotte F, Crump J. Jagged-Notch signaling ensures dorsal skeletal identity in the vertebrate face. Development. 2010;137:1843-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas Jagged-Notch positive feedback propagates jag1b expression throughout the dorsal domain, Endothelin 1 (Edn1) inhibits jag1b and hey1 expression in the ventral domain...

More Information


  1. Nair S, Li W, Cornell R, Schilling T. Requirements for Endothelin type-A receptors and Endothelin-1 signaling in the facial ectoderm for the patterning of skeletogenic neural crest cells in zebrafish. Development. 2007;134:335-45 pubmed
    Genetic studies in mice and zebrafish have revealed conserved requirements for Endothelin 1 (Edn1) signaling in craniofacial development...
  2. Piotrowski T, Schilling T, Brand M, Jiang Y, Heisenberg C, Beuchle D, et al. Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish II: anterior arches and cartilage differentiation. Development. 1996;123:345-56 pubmed
    ..defects in the first two arches and leave the more posterior pharyngeal arches largely unaffected (schmerle, sucker, hoover and sturgeon)...
  3. Miller C, Yelon D, Stainier D, Kimmel C. Two endothelin 1 effectors, hand2 and bapx1, pattern ventral pharyngeal cartilage and the jaw joint. Development. 2003;130:1353-65 pubmed
    A conserved endothelin 1 signaling pathway patterns the jaw and other pharyngeal skeletal elements in mice, chicks and zebrafish...
  4. Clouthier D, Schilling T. Understanding endothelin-1 function during craniofacial development in the mouse and zebrafish. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2004;72:190-9 pubmed
  5. Walker M, Miller C, Coffin Talbot J, Stock D, Kimmel C. Zebrafish furin mutants reveal intricacies in regulating Endothelin1 signaling in craniofacial patterning. Dev Biol. 2006;295:194-205 pubmed
    Endothelin1 (Edn1) signaling promotes ventral character to the facial skeleton...
  6. Choudhry P, Joshi D, Funke B, Trede N. Alcama mediates Edn1 signaling during zebrafish cartilage morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;349:483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects are reminiscent of the phenotypes observed when Endothelin 1 (Edn1) signaling, a key regulator of cartilage development is disrupted...
  7. Corti P, Young S, Chen C, Patrick M, Rochon E, Pekkan K, et al. Interaction between alk1 and blood flow in the development of arteriovenous malformations. Development. 2011;138:1573-82 pubmed publisher
  8. Yao T, Ohtani K, Kuratani S, Wada H. Development of lamprey mucocartilage and its dorsal-ventral patterning by endothelin signaling, with insight into vertebrate jaw evolution. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2011;316:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that endothelin signaling was already involved in the specification for the ventral skeleton and that the gnathostome jaw innovation must have been achieved by modifying downstream regulatory systems...
  9. Carney S, Chen J, Burns C, Xiong K, Peterson R, Heideman W. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation produces heart-specific transcriptional and toxic responses in developing zebrafish. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70:549-61 pubmed
    ..More than 70% of the transcripts in this heart-specific cluster promote cellular growth and proliferation. Thus, the developing heart stands out as being responsive to TCDD at both the level of toxicity and gene expression. ..
  10. Nissen R, Amsterdam A, Hopkins N. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:28 pubmed
    ..led to the identification of several genes required for craniofacial skeletal development such as the endothelin-1 (edn1) signaling pathway that is required for lower jaw formation...
  11. Lee G, Chang M, Hsu C, Chen Y. Essential roles of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, Capsulin and Musculin, during craniofacial myogenesis of zebrafish. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:4065-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we propose a putative regulatory network to understand how capsulin/musculin regulate distinctly either myf5 or myod during zebrafish craniofacial myogenesis. ..
  12. Nguyen C, Langenbacher A, Hsieh M, Chen J. The PAF1 complex component Leo1 is essential for cardiac and neural crest development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2010;341:167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results provide the first genetic evidence of the requirement for Leo1 in the development of the heart and neural crest cell populations. ..
  13. Barske L, Askary A, Zuniga E, Balczerski B, Bump P, Nichols J, et al. Competition between Jagged-Notch and Endothelin1 Signaling Selectively Restricts Cartilage Formation in the Zebrafish Upper Face. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005967 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present genetic evidence in zebrafish that three major signaling pathways - Jagged-Notch, Endothelin1 (Edn1), and Bmp - regulate the pattern of facial cartilage and bone formation by controlling the timing of cartilage ..
  14. Sasaki M, Nichols J, Kimmel C. edn1 and hand2 Interact in early regulation of pharyngeal arch outgrowth during zebrafish development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67522 pubmed publisher
    Endothelin-1 (Edn1) signaling provides a critical input to development of the embryonic pharygneal arches and their skeletal derivatives, particularly the articulating joints and the ventral skeleton including the lower jaw...
  15. Mazmanian G, Kovshilovsky M, Yen D, Mohanty A, Mohanty S, Nee A, et al. The zebrafish dyrk1b gene is important for endoderm formation. Genesis. 2010;48:20-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Wdr68 is a WD40-repeat domain-containing protein recently shown to be required for endothelin-1 (edn1) expression and subsequent lower jaw development...
  16. Laux D, Young S, Donovan J, Mansfield C, Upton P, Roman B. Circulating Bmp10 acts through endothelial Alk1 to mediate flow-dependent arterial quiescence. Development. 2013;140:3403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Because mutations in ALK1 cause arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), our findings suggest that an impaired flow response initiates AVM development. ..
  17. Farhat F, Martins C, de Lima L, Isoldi M, Castrucci A. Melanopsin and clock genes: regulation by light and endothelin in the zebrafish ZEM-2S cell line. Chronobiol Int. 2009;26:1090-119 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results and data in the literature, a link between ET-1 stimulation of ETA receptors may be established by E4BP4 binding to the promoters and consequent inhibition of gene expression. ..
  18. Arduini B, Bosse K, Henion P. Genetic ablation of neural crest cell diversification. Development. 2009;136:1987-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a genetic regulatory pathway functionally discrete from the process of neural crest induction that is required for the initiation of neural crest cell diversification during embryonic development. ..
  19. Braasch I, Volff J, Schartl M. The endothelin system: evolution of vertebrate-specific ligand-receptor interactions by three rounds of genome duplication. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:783-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support an important role for newly emerging ligands and receptors as components of signaling pathways and their expansion through genome duplications in the evolution of the vertebrate neural crest. ..
  20. Dworkin S, Simkin J, Darido C, Partridge D, Georgy S, Caddy J, et al. Grainyhead-like 3 regulation of endothelin-1 in the pharyngeal endoderm is critical for growth and development of the craniofacial skeleton. Mech Dev. 2014;133:77-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of conserved grhl-binding sites in gene regulatory regions identified endothelin-1 (edn1) as a putative direct grhl3 target gene, and this was confirmed by chromatin precipitation (ChIP) assays in ..
  21. Kamel G, Hoyos T, Rochard L, Dougherty M, Kong Y, Tse W, et al. Requirement for frzb and fzd7a in cranial neural crest convergence and extension mechanisms during zebrafish palate and jaw morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2013;381:423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..elements in the wnt9a/frzb/fzd7a morphants, demonstrating genetic epistasis of bapx1 acting downstream of edn1 and wnt9a/frzb/fzd7a in lower jaw development...
  22. Dalcq J, Pasque V, Ghaye A, Larbuisson A, Motte P, Martial J, et al. RUNX3, EGR1 and SOX9B form a regulatory cascade required to modulate BMP-signaling during cranial cartilage development in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50140 pubmed publisher
  23. Guh Y, Tseng Y, Yang C, Hwang P. Endothelin-1 regulates H?-ATPase-dependent transepithelial H? secretion in zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1728-37 pubmed publisher
    Endothelin-1 (EDN1) is an important regulator of H? secretion in the mammalian kidney. EDN1 enhances renal tubule H?-ATPase activity, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
  24. Lopes M, Sapio M, Leal R, Fricker L. Knockdown of Carboxypeptidase A6 in Zebrafish Larvae Reduces Response to Seizure-Inducing Drugs and Causes Changes in the Level of mRNAs Encoding Signaling Molecules. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152905 pubmed publisher
    ..cpa6 mRNA also reduced the levels of mRNAs encoding neuropeptide precursors (bdnf, npy, chga, pcsk1nl, tac1, nts, edn1), a neuropeptide processing enzyme (cpe), transcription factor (c-fos), and molecules implicated in glutamatergic ..
  25. Rochard L, Monica S, Ling I, Kong Y, Roberson S, Harland R, et al. Roles of Wnt pathway genes wls, wnt9a, wnt5b, frzb and gpc4 in regulating convergent-extension during zebrafish palate morphogenesis. Development. 2016;143:2541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis delineates that non-canonical Wnt signaling is required for cell intercalation, and that wnt5b and wnt9a are required for palate extension in the anteroposterior and transverse axes, respectively. ..
  26. Iklé J, Tavares A, King M, Ding H, Colombo S, Firulli B, et al. Nkx2.5 regulates endothelin converting enzyme-1 during pharyngeal arch patterning. Genesis. 2017;55: pubmed publisher
    ..One of the key signals that mediate this process is Endothelin-1 (EDN1)...
  27. LeClair E, Mui S, Huang A, Topczewska J, Topczewski J. Craniofacial skeletal defects of adult zebrafish Glypican 4 (knypek) mutants. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2550-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, gpc4(-/-) larvae never form these domains, suggesting a failure of chondrocyte orientation, though not differentiation. Our findings implicate Gpc4 in the regulation of zebrafish cartilage and bone morphogenesis. ..
  28. Sun X, Zhang R, Lin X, Xu X. Wnt3a regulates the development of cardiac neural crest cells by modulating expression of cysteine-rich intestinal protein 2 in rhombomere 6. Circ Res. 2008;102:831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this function of wnt3a in r6 is partially mediated by crip2 expression in the premigratory cardiac NCCs, which subsequently affects cardiac function and PA patterning. ..
  29. Sultmann H, Sato A, Murray B, Takezaki N, Geisler R, Rauch G, et al. Conservation of Mhc class III region synteny between zebrafish and human as determined by radiation hybrid mapping. J Immunol. 2000;165:6984-93 pubmed
    ..This gene assembly presumably represents the pre-MHC: that existed before the class I/II genes arose. The pre-MHC: may not have contained the complement and other class III genes involved in immune response. ..
  30. Wada H, Ghysen A, Satou C, Higashijima S, Kawakami K, Hamaguchi S, et al. Dermal morphogenesis controls lateral line patterning during postembryonic development of teleost fish. Dev Biol. 2010;340:583-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Abnormalities in opercular bone morphogenesis, in endothelin 1-knockdown embryos, are accompanied by stereotypic errors in neuromast budding and positioning, further ..
  31. Alexander C, Piloto S, Le Pabic P, Schilling T. Wnt signaling interacts with bmp and edn1 to regulate dorsal-ventral patterning and growth of the craniofacial skeleton. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004479 pubmed publisher
    ..g. lower jaws). These D-V patterning defects resemble the phenotypes of zebrafish embryos lacking Bmp or Edn1 signaling, and overexpression of dntcf3 dramatically reduces expression of a subset of Bmp receptors in the arches...
  32. Askary A, Mork L, Paul S, He X, Izuhara A, Gopalakrishnan S, et al. Iroquois Proteins Promote Skeletal Joint Formation by Maintaining Chondrocytes in an Immature State. Dev Cell. 2015;35:358-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Iroquois proteins may therefore have a conserved role in keeping chondrocytes in an immature state, with the lower levels of cartilage matrix produced by these immature cells contributing to joint flexibility. ..
  33. Walker M, Miller C, Swartz M, Eberhart J, Kimmel C. phospholipase C, beta 3 is required for Endothelin1 regulation of pharyngeal arch patterning in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2007;304:194-207 pubmed
    Genetic and pharmacological studies demonstrate that Endothelin1 (Edn1) is a key signaling molecule for patterning the facial skeleton in fish, chicks, and mice...
  34. Sasagawa S, Nishimura Y, Sawada H, Zhang E, Okabe S, Murakami S, et al. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies CCDC80 as a Novel Gene Associated with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:142 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that increased expression of CCDC80 may be involved in the pathogenesis of PAH, potentially by modulating the expression of endothelin-1 and COL1A1. ..
  35. Johnson C, Hernandez Lagunas L, Feng W, Melvin V, Williams T, Artinger K. Vgll2a is required for neural crest cell survival during zebrafish craniofacial development. Dev Biol. 2011;357:269-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data reveal a novel non-cell autonomous role for Vgll2a in development of the NCC-derived vertebrate craniofacial skeleton. ..
  36. Lin C, Chen W, Lee H, Yang P, Yang H, Tsai H. The transcription factor Six1a plays an essential role in the craniofacial myogenesis of zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2009;331:152-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we proposed four putative regulatory pathways to understand how six1a distinctly interacts with either myf5 or myod during zebrafish craniofacial muscle development. ..
  37. Lin C, Yung R, Lee H, Chen W, Chen Y, Tsai H. Myogenic regulatory factors Myf5 and Myod function distinctly during craniofacial myogenesis of zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2006;299:594-608 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the expression patterns of myf5 and myod, we propose a model to present how Myf5 and Myod are involved in head myogenesis of zebrafish. ..
  38. Talbot J, Johnson S, Kimmel C. hand2 and Dlx genes specify dorsal, intermediate and ventral domains within zebrafish pharyngeal arches. Development. 2010;137:2507-17 pubmed publisher
    The ventrally expressed secreted polypeptide endothelin1 (Edn1) patterns the skeleton derived from the first two pharyngeal arches into dorsal, intermediate and ventral domains...
  39. Nicoli S, Standley C, Walker P, Hurlstone A, Fogarty K, Lawson N. MicroRNA-mediated integration of haemodynamics and Vegf signalling during angiogenesis. Nature. 2010;464:1196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our work describes a novel genetic mechanism in which a microRNA facilitates integration of a physiological stimulus with growth factor signalling in endothelial cells to guide angiogenesis. ..
  40. Wendl T, Adzic D, Schoenebeck J, Scholpp S, Brand M, Yelon D, et al. Early developmental specification of the thyroid gland depends on han-expressing surrounding tissue and on FGF signals. Development. 2007;134:2871-9 pubmed
    ..FGF-soaked beads can restore thyroid development in han mutants, showing that FGFs act downstream of or in parallel to han. These data suggest that loss of FGF-expressing tissue in han mutants is responsible for the thyroid defects. ..
  41. Alvarado E, Yousefelahiyeh M, Alvarado G, Shang R, Whitman T, MARTINEZ A, et al. Wdr68 Mediates Dorsal and Ventral Patterning Events for Craniofacial Development. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0166984 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, auriculocondylar syndrome is caused by impaired Endothelin-1 (Edn1) signaling, and Alagille syndrome is caused by defects in Jagged-Notch signaling...