Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: dlx2a
Description: distal-less homeobox 2a
Alias: dlx-2, dlx2, zgc:110518, homeobox protein Dlx2a, distal-less homeobox gene 2a
- Verreijdt L, Debiais Thibaud M, Borday Birraux V, Van der Heyden C, Sire J, Huysseune A. Expression of the dlx gene family during formation of the cranial bones in the zebrafish (Danio rerio): differential involvement in the visceral skeleton and braincase. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1371-89 pubmed..Whether dlx genes originally functioned in the visceral skeleton only, and whether their involvement in the formation of neurocranial bones (as in mammals) is secondary, awaits clarification. ..
- Sperber S, Dawid I. barx1 is necessary for ectomesenchyme proliferation and osteochondroprogenitor condensation in the zebrafish pharyngeal arches. Dev Biol. 2008;321:101-10 pubmed publisher..Together, these results indicate an essential role for barx1 at early stages of chondrogenesis within the developing zebrafish viscerocranium. ..
- Kawahara A, Dawid I. Developmental expression of zebrafish emx1 during early embryogenesis. Gene Expr Patterns. 2002;2:201-6 pubmed..Thus, emx1 displays a unique expression pattern that is distinct from the patterns of emx2 and emx3. ..
- Sperber S, Saxena V, Hatch G, Ekker M. Zebrafish dlx2a contributes to hindbrain neural crest survival, is necessary for differentiation of sensory ganglia and functions with dlx1a in maturation of the arch cartilage elements. Dev Biol. 2008;314:59-70 pubmed..In zebrafish, dlx2a is expressed in the migrating cranial neural crest that contributes to the pharyngeal arches...
- Rau M, Fischer S, Neumann C. Zebrafish Trap230/Med12 is required as a coactivator for Sox9-dependent neural crest, cartilage and ear development. Dev Biol. 2006;296:83-93 pubmed..Mediator is a coactivator complex transducing the interaction of DNA-binding transcription factors with RNA polymerase II, and our results reveal a critical function of the Trap230 subunit as a coactivator for Sox9. ..
- Talbot J, Johnson S, Kimmel C. hand2 and Dlx genes specify dorsal, intermediate and ventral domains within zebrafish pharyngeal arches. Development. 2010;137:2507-17 pubmed publisher..Knockdown of the broadly expressed genes dlx1a and dlx2a results in both dorsal and intermediate defects, whereas knockdown of three intermediate-domain restricted genes ..
- Stock D, Jackman W, Trapani J. Developmental genetic mechanisms of evolutionary tooth loss in cypriniform fishes. Development. 2006;133:3127-37 pubmed publisher..The most significant difference we found was an absence in zebrafish oral epithelium of expression of dlx2a and dlx2b, transcription factors that are expressed in early Astyanax odontogenic epithelium...
- Miller C, Schilling T, Lee K, Parker J, Kimmel C. sucker encodes a zebrafish Endothelin-1 required for ventral pharyngeal arch development. Development. 2000;127:3815-28 pubmed..chondrogenesis, suc/et-1 mutant embryos have severe defects in ventral arch neural crest expression of dHAND, dlx2, msxE, gsc, dlx3 and EphA3 in the anterior arches. Dorsal expression patterns are unaffected...
- Zerucha T, Stühmer T, Hatch G, Park B, Long Q, Yu G, et al. A highly conserved enhancer in the Dlx5/Dlx6 intergenic region is the site of cross-regulatory interactions between Dlx genes in the embryonic forebrain. J Neurosci. 2000;20:709-21 pubmedFour Dlx homeobox genes, Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5, and Dlx6 are expressed in the same primordia of the mouse forebrain with temporally overlapping patterns...
- Choe C, Collazo A, Trinh L, Pan L, Moens C, Crump J. Wnt-dependent epithelial transitions drive pharyngeal pouch formation. Dev Cell. 2013;24:296-309 pubmed publisher..We propose that this dynamic control of epithelial morphology by Wnt signaling may be a common theme for the budding of organ anlagen from the endoderm. ..
- Zheng D, Kille P, Feeney G, Cunningham P, Handy R, Hogstrand C. Dynamic transcriptomic profiles of zebrafish gills in response to zinc supplementation. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:553 pubmed publisher..This organ forms a conduit for zinc uptake whilst exhibiting conservation of zinc trafficking components...
- Barrallo Gimeno A, Holzschuh J, Driever W, Knapik E. Neural crest survival and differentiation in zebrafish depends on mont blanc/tfap2a gene function. Development. 2004;131:1463-77 pubmed..craniofacial primordia in pharyngeal arches two to seven fail to express their typical set of genes (sox9a, wnt5a, dlx2, hoxa2/b2)...
- Das A, Crump J. Bmps and id2a act upstream of Twist1 to restrict ectomesenchyme potential of the cranial neural crest. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002710 pubmed publisher..Together our model shows how the integration of Bmp inhibition at its origin and Fgf activation along its migratory route would confer temporal and spatial specificity to the generation of ectomesenchyme from the neural crest...
- MacDonald R, Debiais Thibaud M, Martin K, Poitras L, Tay B, Venkatesh B, et al. Functional conservation of a forebrain enhancer from the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii ) in zebrafish and mice. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:157 pubmed publisher..We first identified the elephant shark sequence orthologous to the URE2 cis -regulatory element of the mouse Dlx1/Dlx2 locus (herein named CmURE2)...
- Tucker B, Richards R, Lardelli M. Contribution of mGluR and Fmr1 functional pathways to neurite morphogenesis, craniofacial development and fragile X syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:3446-58 pubmed..These abnormalities may be related to a role for fmr1 in neural crest cell specification and possibly in migration. ..
- Moens C, Yan Y, Appel B, Force A, Kimmel C. valentino: a zebrafish gene required for normal hindbrain segmentation. Development. 1996;122:3981-90 pubmed..These results provide genetic evidence for a two-segment periodicity in the hindbrain and suggest that this periodicity arises sequentially, through the specification and later subdivision of a two-rhombomere unit, or 'protosegment'. ..
- MacDonald R, Debiais Thibaud M, Talbot J, Ekker M. The relationship between dlx and gad1 expression indicates highly conserved genetic pathways in the zebrafish forebrain. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2298-306 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate the dlx genes are regulated by an evolutionarily conserved genetic pathway and may play a role in GABAergic interneuron differentiation in the zebrafish forebrain...
- Kelsh R, Eisen J. The zebrafish colourless gene regulates development of non-ectomesenchymal neural crest derivatives. Development. 2000;127:515-25 pubmed..The combination of pigmentation and enteric nervous system defects makes colourless mutations a model for two human neurocristopathies, Waardenburg-Shah syndrome and Hirschsprung's disease. ..
- Eroglu B, Wang G, Tu N, Sun X, Mivechi N. Critical role of Brg1 member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex during neurogenesis and neural crest induction in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2722-35 pubmed..This is exhibited by the aberrant brain patterning, a reduction in the sensory neurons, and craniofacial defects. These results further elucidate the critical role for Brg1 in neurogenesis, neural crest induction, and differentiation. ..
- Vaccari E, Deflorian G, Bernardi E, Pauls S, Tiso N, Bortolussi M, et al. prep1.2 and aldh1a2 participate to a positive loop required for branchial arches development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2010;343:94-103 pubmed publisher..As the paralogue gene prep1.1 is more important in hindbrain patterning and neural crest chondrogenesis, we provide evidence of a functional specialization of prep genes in zebrafish head segmentation and morphogenesis...
- Sanek N, Taylor A, Nyholm M, Grinblat Y. Zebrafish zic2a patterns the forebrain through modulation of Hedgehog-activated gene expression. Development. 2009;136:3791-800 pubmed publisher..These data uncover a novel, essential role for Zic2a as a modulator of Hh-activated gene expression in the developing forebrain and advance our understanding of a key gene regulatory network that, when disrupted, causes HPE. ..
- Stock D, Ellies D, Zhao Z, Ekker M, Ruddle F, Weiss K. The evolution of the vertebrate Dlx gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10858-63 pubmed..Determination of the linkage relationship of these additional zebrafish Dlx genes to Hox clusters should help resolve this issue. ..
- Nair S, Li W, Cornell R, Schilling T. Requirements for Endothelin type-A receptors and Endothelin-1 signaling in the facial ectoderm for the patterning of skeletogenic neural crest cells in zebrafish. Development. 2007;134:335-45 pubmed..Collectively, our results indicate that Edn1 from the pharyngeal ectoderm signals through Ednra proteins to direct early dorsoventral patterning of the skeletogenic neural crest. ..
- Diekmann H, Anichtchik O, Fleming A, Futter M, Goldsmith P, Roach A, et al. Decreased BDNF levels are a major contributor to the embryonic phenotype of huntingtin knockdown zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1343-9 pubmed publisher..Increasing BDNF expression may represent a useful strategy for Huntington's disease treatment. ..
- Seth A, Culverwell J, Walkowicz M, Toro S, Rick J, Neuhauss S, et al. belladonna/(Ihx2) is required for neural patterning and midline axon guidance in the zebrafish forebrain. Development. 2006;133:725-35 pubmed..Our analysis reveals new roles for Ihx2 in midline axon guidance, forebrain patterning and eye morphogenesis. ..
- Yamauchi H, Goto M, Katayama M, Miyake A, Itoh N. Fgf20b is required for the ectomesenchymal fate establishment of cranial neural crest cells in zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;409:705-10 pubmed publisher..Fgfr1 knockdown embryos also showed dysplastic neurocranial and pharyngeal cartilages. The present findings indicate that Fgf20b is required for ectomesenchymal fate establishment via the activation of Fgfr1 in zebrafish...
- Hauptmann G, Gerster T. Combinatorial expression of zebrafish Brn-1- and Brn-2-related POU genes in the embryonic brain, pronephric primordium, and pharyngeal arches. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:345-58 pubmed..We propose that coordinate expression of particular combinations of class III POU genes contribute to pattern formation or cell fate determination in the developing CNS and other structures. ..
- Crump J, Maves L, Lawson N, Weinstein B, Kimmel C. An essential role for Fgfs in endodermal pouch formation influences later craniofacial skeletal patterning. Development. 2004;131:5703-16 pubmed..Moreover, we argue that the Fgf-dependent morphogenesis of the pharyngeal endoderm into pouches is critical for the later patterning of pharyngeal cartilages. ..
- Miller C, Yelon D, Stainier D, Kimmel C. Two endothelin 1 effectors, hand2 and bapx1, pattern ventral pharyngeal cartilage and the jaw joint. Development. 2003;130:1353-65 pubmed..Together our results reveal two critical edn1 effectors that pattern the vertebrate jaw: hand2 specifies ventral pharyngeal cartilage of the lower jaw and bapx1 specifies the jaw joint. ..
- Artinger K, Chitnis A, Mercola M, Driever W. Zebrafish narrowminded suggests a genetic link between formation of neural crest and primary sensory neurons. Development. 1999;126:3969-79 pubmed..We discuss the implications of these findings for the possibility that RB sensory neurons and neural crest cells share a common evolutionary origin. ..
- Montero Balaguer M, Lang M, Sachdev S, Knappmeyer C, Stewart R, De La Guardia A, et al. The mother superior mutation ablates foxd3 activity in neural crest progenitor cells and depletes neural crest derivatives in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3199-212 pubmed..Further analysis of mosm188 mutants and foxd3 morphants revealed that NC cells are initially formed, suggesting that foxd3 function is required to maintain the pool of NC progenitors. ..
- Chandrasekar G, Lauter G, Hauptmann G. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the developing zebrafish brain. J Comp Neurol. 2007;505:337-51 pubmed..The widespread distribution of CRH-synthesizing cells outside the preoptic region suggests additional functions of CRH in the embryonic zebrafish brain. ..
- Walshe J, Mason I. Fgf signalling is required for formation of cartilage in the head. Dev Biol. 2003;264:522-36 pubmed..These data implicate Fgf3 and Fgf8 as key regulators of cartilage formation in the vertebrate head. ..
- Fischer S, Draper B, Neumann C. The zebrafish fgf24 mutant identifies an additional level of Fgf signaling involved in vertebrate forelimb initiation. Development. 2003;130:3515-24 pubmed..We also show that fgf24 activity is necessary for the migration of tbx5-expressing cells to the fin bud, and for the activation of shh, but not hand2, expression in the posterior fin bud. ..
- Hogan B, Hunter M, Oates A, Crowhurst M, Hall N, Heath J, et al. Zebrafish gcm2 is required for gill filament budding from pharyngeal ectoderm. Dev Biol. 2004;276:508-22 pubmed..This study identifies yet another role for a GCM gene in embryonic development and indicates a role for gcm2 during the evolution of divergent pharyngeal morphologies. ..
- Hammond C, Hinits Y, Osborn D, Minchin J, Tettamanti G, Hughes S. Signals and myogenic regulatory factors restrict pax3 and pax7 expression to dermomyotome-like tissue in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2007;302:504-21 pubmed..Our data show that the relationship between Pax3/7 genes and myogenesis is evolutionarily ancient, but that changes in the MRF targets for particular signals contribute to myogenic differences between species. ..
- Herzog W, Sonntag C, von der Hardt S, Roehl H, Varga Z, Hammerschmidt M. Fgf3 signaling from the ventral diencephalon is required for early specification and subsequent survival of the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Development. 2004;131:3681-92 pubmed..This early specification seems to be essential for the subsequent survival of pituitary cells, but not for pituitary morphogenesis or pituitary cell proliferation...
- David N, Saint Etienne L, Tsang M, Schilling T, Rosa F. Requirement for endoderm and FGF3 in ventral head skeleton formation. Development. 2002;129:4457-68 pubmed..Together, our results reveal for the first time that the endoderm provides differential cues along the anteroposterior axis to control ventral head skeleton development and demonstrate that this function is mediated in part by Fgf3. ..
- Hauptmann G, Söll I, Gerster T. The early embryonic zebrafish forebrain is subdivided into molecularly distinct transverse and longitudinal domains. Brain Res Bull. 2002;57:371-5 pubmed..Furthermore, we identified a series of eight transverse diencephalic domains which may indicate a prosomeric organization of the rostral zebrafish brain. ..
- Schwend T, Ahlgren S. Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:59 pubmed publisher..the posterior PA fail to maintain expression of two transcription factors essential for chondrogenesis, sox9a and dlx2a, yet continue to robustly express other neural crest markers...
- Scholpp S, Foucher I, Staudt N, Peukert D, Lumsden A, Houart C. Otx1l, Otx2 and Irx1b establish and position the ZLI in the diencephalon. Development. 2007;134:3167-76 pubmed..We therefore propose that the ZLI is induced within the competence area established by Otx1l/2, and is posteriorly restricted by Irx1b. ..
- Jackman W, Draper B, Stock D. Fgf signaling is required for zebrafish tooth development. Dev Biol. 2004;274:139-57 pubmed..expression of lhx6 and lhx7 eliminated as expected from mouse studies, but the epithelial expression of dlx2a, dlx2b, fgf3, and fgf4 was as well...
- Arduini B, Bosse K, Henion P. Genetic ablation of neural crest cell diversification. Development. 2009;136:1987-94 pubmed publisher..Our results identify a genetic regulatory pathway functionally discrete from the process of neural crest induction that is required for the initiation of neural crest cell diversification during embryonic development. ..
- Ragland J, Raible D. Signals derived from the underlying mesoderm are dispensable for zebrafish neural crest induction. Dev Biol. 2004;276:16-30 pubmed
- Nakada C, Satoh S, Tabata Y, Arai K, Watanabe S. Transcriptional repressor foxl1 regulates central nervous system development by suppressing shh expression in zebra fish. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7246-57 pubmed..In view of all of our data taken together, we propose zfoxl1 to be a novel regulator of neural development that acts by suppressing shh expression. ..
- Mueller T, Wullimann M, Guo S. Early teleostean basal ganglia development visualized by zebrafish Dlx2a, Lhx6, Lhx7, Tbr2 (eomesa), and GAD67 gene expression. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1245-57 pubmed publisherWe examined the brain expression patterns of zebrafish genes Lhx6, Lhx7, Dlx2a, GAD67, and Tbr2/eomesa; except for GAD67, expression domains are restricted to the forebrain...
- Gibert Y, Gajewski A, Meyer A, Begemann G. Induction and prepatterning of the zebrafish pectoral fin bud requires axial retinoic acid signaling. Development. 2006;133:2649-59 pubmed..Thus, RA signaling from flanking somites plays a dual early role in the condensing limb bud mesenchyme. ..
- Anderson M, Pham V, Vogel A, Weinstein B, Roman B. Loss of unc45a precipitates arteriovenous shunting in the aortic arches. Dev Biol. 2008;318:258-67 pubmed publisher..Our results are the first to ascribe a role for Unc45a, a putative myosin chaperone, in vertebrate development, and identify a novel mechanism by which an AVM can form...
- Drerup C, Wiora H, Topczewski J, Morris J. Disc1 regulates foxd3 and sox10 expression, affecting neural crest migration and differentiation. Development. 2009;136:2623-32 pubmed publisher..Based on our data, we propose a model in which Disc1 functions in the transcriptional repression of foxd3 and sox10, thus mediating CNC cell migration and differentiation. ..
- Garrity D, Childs S, Fishman M. The heartstrings mutation in zebrafish causes heart/fin Tbx5 deficiency syndrome. Development. 2002;129:4635-45 pubmed..However, the syndromic deficiencies of tbx5 mutation are remarkably well retained between fish and mammals. ..
- Piloto S, Schilling T. Ovo1 links Wnt signaling with N-cadherin localization during neural crest migration. Development. 2010;137:1981-90 pubmed publisher..Similar processes probably occur in other cell types in which Wnt signaling promotes migration. ..
- Ellies D, Langille R, Martin C, Akimenko M, Ekker M. Specific craniofacial cartilage dysmorphogenesis coincides with a loss of dlx gene expression in retinoic acid-treated zebrafish embryos. Mech Dev. 1997;61:23-36 pubmed
- Borday Birraux V, Van der Heyden C, Debiais Thibaud M, Verreijdt L, Stock D, Huysseune A, et al. Expression of Dlx genes during the development of the zebrafish pharyngeal dentition: evolutionary implications. Evol Dev. 2006;8:130-41 pubmed
- O Brien E, d Alençon C, Bonde G, Li W, Schoenebeck J, Allende M, et al. Transcription factor Ap-2alpha is necessary for development of embryonic melanophores, autonomic neurons and pharyngeal skeleton in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2004;265:246-61 pubmed..These results reveal that Ap-2alpha regulates multiple steps of melanophore development, and is required for development of other neuronal and non-neuronal neural crest derivatives...
- Cheah F, Winkler C, Jabs E, Chong S. Tgfbeta3 regulation of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in zebrafish is mediated through formation and survival of a subpopulation of the cranial neural crest. Mech Dev. 2010;127:329-44 pubmed publisher..Therefore, proper cranial neural crest formation and survival, and ultimately craniofacial chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, are dependent on tight regulation of Tgfbeta3 protein levels in zebrafish...
- Walshe J, Mason I. Unique and combinatorial functions of Fgf3 and Fgf8 during zebrafish forebrain development. Development. 2003;130:4337-49 pubmed..Analysis of embryos treated with an FGFR inhibitor suggests that continuous FGF signalling is required from gastrulation stages for normal forebrain patterning, and identifies additional requirements for FGFR activity. ..
- Knight R, Javidan Y, Zhang T, Nelson S, Schilling T. AP2-dependent signals from the ectoderm regulate craniofacial development in the zebrafish embryo. Development. 2005;132:3127-38 pubmed
- BIRKHOLZ D, OLESNICKY KILLIAN E, George K, Artinger K. Prdm1a is necessary for posterior pharyngeal arch development in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2575-87 pubmed publisher..Together, these results indicate an essential role for prdm1a in the development of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton...
- Chow E, Hui M, Lin C, Cheng S. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development. Aquat Toxicol. 2008;87:157-69 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis. ..
- Nomura R, Kamei E, Hotta Y, Konishi M, Miyake A, Itoh N. Fgf16 is essential for pectoral fin bud formation in zebrafish. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:340-6 pubmed..These findings have revealed that Fgf16, a newly identified AER factor, plays a crucial role in pectoral fin bud outgrowth by mediating the interactions of AER-mesenchyme and AER-ZPA. ..
- Knight R, Nair S, Nelson S, Afshar A, Javidan Y, Geisler R, et al. lockjaw encodes a zebrafish tfap2a required for early neural crest development. Development. 2003;130:5755-68 pubmed..the mandibular arch is unaffected in low mutants, in contrast to the hyoid arch, which shows severe reductions in dlx2 and hoxa2 expression...
- Knight R, Javidan Y, Nelson S, Zhang T, Schilling T. Skeletal and pigment cell defects in the lockjaw mutant reveal multiple roles for zebrafish tfap2a in neural crest development. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:87-98 pubmed..Developmental Dynamics 229:87-98, 2004. ..
- Amores A, Force A, Yan Y, Joly L, Amemiya C, Fritz A, et al. Zebrafish hox clusters and vertebrate genome evolution. Science. 1998;282:1711-4 pubmed..Thus, teleosts, the most species-rich group of vertebrates, appear to have more copies of these developmental regulatory genes than do mammals, despite less complexity in the anterior-posterior axis. ..
- Lister J, Cooper C, Nguyen K, Modrell M, Grant K, Raible D. Zebrafish Foxd3 is required for development of a subset of neural crest derivatives. Dev Biol. 2006;290:92-104 pubmed
- Jeong J, Einhorn Z, Mathur P, Chen L, Lee S, Kawakami K, et al. Patterning the zebrafish diencephalon by the conserved zinc-finger protein Fezl. Development. 2007;134:127-36 pubmed..Our findings reveal that Fezl is crucial for establishing regional subdivisions within the diencephalon and may also play a role in the development of the telencephalon and hypothalamus. ..
- Miyake A, Nakayama Y, Konishi M, Itoh N. Fgf19 regulated by Hh signaling is required for zebrafish forebrain development. Dev Biol. 2005;288:259-75 pubmed..The present findings indicate that Fgf19 signaling is crucial for forebrain development by interacting with Hh and provide new insights into the roles of Fgf signaling in brain development. ..
- Hoffman T, Javier A, Campeau S, Knight R, Schilling T. Tfap2 transcription factors in zebrafish neural crest development and ectodermal evolution. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2007;308:679-91 pubmed
- Hong S, Haldin C, Lawson N, Weinstein B, Dawid I, Hukriede N. The zebrafish kohtalo/trap230 gene is required for the development of the brain, neural crest, and pronephric kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18473-8 pubmed..These results suggest that critical targets of TRAP230 function may include proteins important for cell mobility, cell sorting, and tissue assembly. ..