Gene Symbol: ddx4
Description: DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 4
Alias: vas, vasa, vlg, wu:fi24g05, zgc:109812, zgc:158535, vasa homolog
Species: zebrafish
Products:     ddx4

Top Publications

  1. Leu D, Draper B. The ziwi promoter drives germline-specific gene expression in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In males, EGFP expression is highest in spermatogonial stem cells, but low levels are detected in all stages, including spermatozoa. ..
  2. Kedde M, Strasser M, Boldajipour B, Oude Vrielink J, Slanchev K, le Sage C, et al. RNA-binding protein Dnd1 inhibits microRNA access to target mRNA. Cell. 2007;131:1273-86 pubmed
    ..These effects of Dnd1 are mediated through uridine-rich regions present in the miRNA-targeted mRNAs. Thus, our data unravel a novel role of Dnd1 in protecting certain mRNAs from miRNA-mediated repression. ..
  3. Miyake A, Saito T, Kashiwagi N, Ando D, Yamamoto A, Suzuki T, et al. Cloning and pattern of expression of the shiro-uo vasa gene during embryogenesis and its roles in PGC development. Int J Dev Biol. 2006;50:619-25 pubmed
    The vasa genes are expressed in the germ cell lineage in many organisms, but their expression patterns show large variations. Recent studies suggest that vasa transcripts are involved in germ cell lineage development...
  4. Blaser H, Eisenbeiss S, Neumann M, Reichman Fried M, Thisse B, Thisse C, et al. Transition from non-motile behaviour to directed migration during early PGC development in zebrafish. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4027-38 pubmed
    ..These distinctive morphological and molecular alterations could represent a general occurrence in similar processes critical for development and disease. ..
  5. Herpin A, Rohr S, Riedel D, Kluever N, Raz E, Schartl M. Specification of primordial germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes). BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:3 pubmed
    ..specification in zebrafish appears to depend on inheritance of germ plasm in which several RNA molecules such as vasa and nanos reside...
  6. Gupta T, Marlow F, Ferriola D, Mackiewicz K, Dapprich J, Monos D, et al. Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 regulates the Balbiani body and animal-vegetal polarity of the zebrafish oocyte. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001073 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide the first evidence for a role for spectraplakins in polarization of the vertebrate oocyte and egg. ..
  7. Beer R, Draper B. nanos3 maintains germline stem cells and expression of the conserved germline stem cell gene nanos2 in the zebrafish ovary. Dev Biol. 2013;374:308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that nanos3 function is required for the maintenance of GSCs, but not for their specification, and propose that nanos2 and nanos3 are partially redundant in this role...
  8. Houwing S, Kamminga L, Berezikov E, Cronembold D, Girard A, van den Elst H, et al. A role for Piwi and piRNAs in germ cell maintenance and transposon silencing in Zebrafish. Cell. 2007;129:69-82 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that piRNAs are Dicer independent and that their 3' end likely carries a 2'O-Methyl modification. ..
  9. Wang X, Orban L. Anti-Müllerian hormone and 11 beta-hydroxylase show reciprocal expression to that of aromatase in the transforming gonad of zebrafish males. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1329-38 pubmed
    ..In this study, individuals undergoing gonadal transformation were identified from a vas::egfp transgenic line and used for gene expression analysis of anti-Müllerian hormone (amh), ovarian aromatase (..

More Information


  1. Howley C, Ho R. mRNA localization patterns in zebrafish oocytes. Mech Dev. 2000;92:305-9 pubmed
    ..Unique patterns of localization are seen in mature eggs as well. Some mRNAs maintain their oocyte localization patterns, while others localize upon egg activation (fertilization). ..
  2. Rodriguez Mari A, Wilson C, Titus T, Canestro C, Bremiller R, Yan Y, et al. Roles of brca2 (fancd1) in oocyte nuclear architecture, gametogenesis, gonad tumors, and genome stability in zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001357 pubmed publisher
    ..Oocytes in double-mutant females showed normal localization of brca2 and pou5f1 transcripts to the animal pole and vasa transcripts to the vegetal pole, but had a polarized rather than symmetrical nucleus with the distribution of ..
  3. Kosaka K, Kawakami K, Sakamoto H, Inoue K. Spatiotemporal localization of germ plasm RNAs during zebrafish oogenesis. Mech Dev. 2007;124:279-89 pubmed
    ..The germ plasm includes maternal mRNAs from the germline-specific genes such as vasa and nanos1, and vegetally localized dazl RNA is also incorporated into the germ plasm...
  4. Houwing S, Berezikov E, Ketting R. Zili is required for germ cell differentiation and meiosis in zebrafish. EMBO J. 2008;27:2702-11 pubmed publisher
  5. García López A, De Jonge H, Nóbrega R, de Waal P, van Dijk W, Hemrika W, et al. Studies in zebrafish reveal unusual cellular expression patterns of gonadotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acids in the testis and unexpected functional differentiation of the gonadotropins. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2349-60 pubmed publisher
  6. Pelegri F, Knaut H, Maischein H, Schulte Merker S, Nusslein Volhard C. A mutation in the zebrafish maternal-effect gene nebel affects furrow formation and vasa RNA localization. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1431-40 pubmed
    ..The gene vasa has been shown in Drosophila to encode an essential component of the germ plasm and is thought to have a similar ..
  7. Eno C, Pelegri F. Gradual recruitment and selective clearing generate germ plasm aggregates in the zebrafish embryo. Bioarchitecture. 2013;3:125-32 pubmed publisher
  8. Slanchev K, Stebler J, De La Cueva Mendez G, Raz E. Development without germ cells: the role of the germ line in zebrafish sex differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4074-9 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate an unexpected role for the germ line in promoting female development because PGC-ablated fish invariably developed as males. ..
  9. Theusch E, Brown K, Pelegri F. Separate pathways of RNA recruitment lead to the compartmentalization of the zebrafish germ plasm. Dev Biol. 2006;292:129-41 pubmed
    The maternal RNAs vasa, dead end, nanos1, and daz-like all become localized to the peripheral ends of the first and second cleavage furrows, where they form part of the zebrafish germ plasm...
  10. Kawasaki T, Saito K, Sakai C, Shinya M, Sakai N. Production of zebrafish offspring from cultured spermatogonial stem cells. Genes Cells. 2012;17:316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..actively proliferated and retained the expression of exogenous green fluorescent protein under the control of vas and sox17 promoters and also of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf), a marker of undifferentiated ..
  11. Krøvel A, Olsen L. Sexual dimorphic expression pattern of a splice variant of zebrafish vasa during gonadal development. Dev Biol. 2004;271:190-7 pubmed
    In Drosophila, the RNA helicase VASA (VAS) is required for both germ line formation and oocyte differentiation. While the murine VAS homologue is required for spermatogenesis, it is dispensable for germ line formation...
  12. Bontems F, Stein A, Marlow F, Lyautey J, Gupta T, Mullins M, et al. Bucky ball organizes germ plasm assembly in zebrafish. Curr Biol. 2009;19:414-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Because we discovered buc homologs in many vertebrate genomes, including mammals, these results identify buc as the first gene necessary and sufficient for germ plasm organization in vertebrates. ..
  13. Krøvel A, Olsen L. Expression of a vas::EGFP transgene in primordial germ cells of the zebrafish. Mech Dev. 2002;116:141-50 pubmed
    In zebrafish, maternally produced vasa (vas) transcripts become targeted to the cleavage planes of early embryos and subsequently incorporated into the primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
  14. Rodriguez Mari A, Canestro C, Bremiller R, Nguyen Johnson A, Asakawa K, Kawakami K, et al. Sex reversal in zebrafish fancl mutants is caused by Tp53-mediated germ cell apoptosis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001034 pubmed publisher
  15. Olsen L, Aasland R, Fjose A. A vasa-like gene in zebrafish identifies putative primordial germ cells. Mech Dev. 1997;66:95-105 pubmed
    The vasa gene is essential for germline formation in Drosophila. Vasa-related genes have been isolated from several organisms including nematode, frog and mammals...
  16. White Y, Woods D, Wood A. A transgenic zebrafish model of targeted oocyte ablation and de novo oogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1929-37 pubmed publisher
  17. Pelegri F. Maternal factors in zebrafish development. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:535-54 pubmed
  18. Kishimoto Y, Koshida S, Furutani Seiki M, Kondoh H. Zebrafish maternal-effect mutations causing cytokinesis defect without affecting mitosis or equatorial vasa deposition. Mech Dev. 2004;121:79-89 pubmed
    ..in all acytokinetic embryos, daughter nuclei after mitosis are arranged in spatially normal positions, and maternal vasa mRNAs accumulate in the prospective planes of the first and second cell cleavages in the total absence of ..
  19. Hashimoto Y, Maegawa S, Nagai T, Yamaha E, Suzuki H, Yasuda K, et al. Localized maternal factors are required for zebrafish germ cell formation. Dev Biol. 2004;268:152-61 pubmed
    ..We also found novel localization patterns for zDazl and brul mRNAs along the cleavage planes. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that localized cytoplasmic factors are indispensable for germ cell establishment in zebrafish. ..
  20. Wong T, Saito T, Crodian J, Collodi P. Zebrafish germline chimeras produced by transplantation of ovarian germ cells into sterile host larvae. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:1190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovarian germ cells were obtained from 3-mo-old adult Tg(vasa:DsRed2-vasa);Tg(bactin:EGFP) double transgenic zebrafish by discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation...
  21. Siegfried K, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Germ line control of female sex determination in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2008;324:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we show that testis specification is sufficient for masculinization of the fish pointing to a direct role of hormone signaling from the gonad in directing sex differentiation of non-gonadal tissues. ..
  22. Wong T, Tesfamichael A, Collodi P. Production of zebrafish offspring from cultured female germline stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62660 pubmed publisher
    ..and continued to express ziwi for more than 6 weeks along with the germ cell markers nanos3, dnd, dazl and vasa. A key component of the cell culture system was the use of a feeder cell line that was initiated from ovaries of a ..
  23. Yabe T, Ge X, Lindeman R, Nair S, Runke G, Mullins M, et al. The maternal-effect gene cellular island encodes aurora B kinase and is essential for furrow formation in the early zebrafish embryo. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000518 pubmed publisher
    ..In accordance with the requirement for cei/aurB in furrow induction in the early cleavage embryo, germ plasm recruitment to the forming furrow is also affected in embryos lacking normal cei/aurB function. ..
  24. Fuentes R, Fernandez J. Ooplasmic segregation in the zebrafish zygote and early embryo: pattern of ooplasmic movements and transport pathways. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2172-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Actin-dependent intermittent pulsations provoked high-speed back-and-forth movements of cytoplasm that may contribute to redistribution of organelles and maternal determinants...
  25. Urven L, Yabe T, Pelegri F. A role for non-muscle myosin II function in furrow maturation in the early zebrafish embryo. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4342-52 pubmed
    ..Our studies support a role for myosin function in furrow maturation that is independent of furrow ingression and which is essential for the recruitment of furrow components and the remodeling of the cytoskeleton during cytokinesis. ..
  26. Köprunner M, Thisse C, Thisse B, Raz E. A zebrafish nanos-related gene is essential for the development of primordial germ cells. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2877-85 pubmed
    ..Reducing the level of Nanos1 in zebrafish embryos revealed an essential role for the protein in ensuring proper migration and survival of PGCs in this vertebrate model organism. ..
  27. Cao M, Yang Y, Xu H, Duan J, Cheng N, Wang J, et al. Germ cell specific expression of Vasa in rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2012;162:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vasa, a member of DEAD family is well documented as germ cell marker in the animal kingdom...
  28. Leal M, Cardoso E, Nóbrega R, Batlouni S, Bogerd J, Franca L, et al. Histological and stereological evaluation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) spermatogenesis with an emphasis on spermatogonial generations. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the events taking place during puberty in the germinal epithelium of mammals seem to recapitulate the "life history" of each individual spermatogenic cyst in zebrafish. ..
  29. Doitsidou M, Reichman Fried M, Stebler J, Köprunner M, Dörries J, Meyer D, et al. Guidance of primordial germ cell migration by the chemokine SDF-1. Cell. 2002;111:647-59 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the PGCs can be attracted toward an ectopic source of the chemokine, strongly suggesting that this molecule provides a key directional cue for the PGCs. ..
  30. Draper B, McCallum C, Moens C. nanos1 is required to maintain oocyte production in adult zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2007;305:589-98 pubmed
    ..This progressive loss of fertility in homozygous females is not a phenotype that has been described previously in the zebrafish and underlines the value of a reverse genetics approach in this model system. ..
  31. Braat A, Speksnijder J, Zivkovic D. Germ line development in fishes. Int J Dev Biol. 1999;43:745-60 pubmed
    ..The identification of the Drosophila vasa homolog gene of zebrafish now allows comparison of these morphological data with vasa RNA expression patterns in ..
  32. Hartung O, Forbes M, Marlow F. Zebrafish vasa is required for germ-cell differentiation and maintenance. Mol Reprod Dev. 2014;81:946-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Vasa is a universal marker of the germ line in animals, yet mutations disrupting vasa cause sexually dimorphic infertility, with impaired development of the ovary in some animals and the testis in others...
  33. Riesco M, Robles V. Cryopreservation Causes Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Zebrafish Genital Ridges. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67614 pubmed publisher
    ..indicated that cryopreservation produced a decrease in most of the zebrafish studied transcripts (cxcr4b, pou5f1, vasa and sox2) and upregulation of heat shock proteins (hsp70, hsp90)...
  34. Li Q, Fujii W, Naito K, Yoshizaki G. Application of dead end-knockout zebrafish as recipients of germ cell transplantation. Mol Reprod Dev. 2017;84:1100-1111 pubmed publisher
    ..clutch being homozygous mutant (dnd-knockout) male, and lacking germ cells (as confirmed by expression analyses of vasa)...
  35. Nobrega R, Greebe C, van de Kant H, Bogerd J, de França L, Schulz R. Spermatogonial stem cell niche and spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2010;5: pubmed publisher
    ..was also confirmed by analyzing the topographical distribution of type A undifferentiated spermatogonia in normal, vasa::egfp and fli::egfp zebrafish testes...
  36. Nagasawa K, Fernandes J, Yoshizaki G, Miwa M, Babiak I. Identification and migration of primordial germ cells in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar: characterization of vasa, dead end, and lymphocyte antigen 75 genes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2013;80:118-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to identify salmon PGCs, we cloned the full-length cDNA of vasa, dead end (dnd), and lymphocyte antigen 75 (ly75/CD205) genes as germ cell marker candidates, and analyzed their ..
  37. Peng X, Dong M, Ma L, Jia X, Mao J, Jin C, et al. A point mutation of zebrafish c-cbl gene in the ring finger domain produces a phenotype mimicking human myeloproliferative disease. Leukemia. 2015;29:2355-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study may shed new light on the pathogenesis of MPN and provide a useful in vivo vertebrate model of this syndrome for screening drugs. ..
  38. Nakkrasae L, Damrongphol P. A vasa-like gene in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:835-42 pubmed
    A molecular marker for germ cells of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was studied. A vasa-like gene, Mrvlg, from the ovary was isolated and characterized by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ..
  39. Parichy D, Rawls J, Pratt S, Whitfield T, Johnson S. Zebrafish sparse corresponds to an orthologue of c-kit and is required for the morphogenesis of a subpopulation of melanocytes, but is not essential for hematopoiesis or primordial germ cell development. Development. 1999;126:3425-36 pubmed
    ..These unexpected differences may reflect evolutionary divergence in c-kit functions following gene duplication events in teleosts. ..
  40. Dai L, Ma W, Li J, Xu Y, Li W, Zhao Y, et al. Cloning and characterization of a novel oocyte-specific gene zorg in zebrafish. Theriogenology. 2009;71:441-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the protein expressed from the zebrafish zorg gene has roles in the formation of the female germ cells and in early embryonic development in zebrafish. ..
  41. Fan L, Moon J, Wong T, Crodian J, Collodi P. Zebrafish primordial germ cell cultures derived from vasa::RFP transgenic embryos. Stem Cells Dev. 2008;17:585-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic embryos that express the red fluorescent protein (RFP) under the control of the PGC-specific vasa promoter were used, making it possible to isolate pure populations of PGCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (..
  42. Ge X, Grotjahn D, Welch E, Lyman Gingerich J, Holguin C, Dimitrova E, et al. Hecate/Grip2a acts to reorganize the cytoskeleton in the symmetry-breaking event of embryonic axis induction. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004422 pubmed publisher
    ..The slight asymmetry achieved by this directed process is subsequently amplified by a general cortical animally-directed transport mechanism that is neither dependent on hecate function nor restricted to the prospective dorsal axis. ..
  43. Lindeman L, Winata C, Aanes H, Mathavan S, Alestrom P, Collas P. Chromatin states of developmentally-regulated genes revealed by DNA and histone methylation patterns in zebrafish embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..modification profiles of promoters of developmentally-regulated genes (pou5f1, sox2, sox3, klf4, nnr, otx1b, nes, vasa), as well as tert and bactin2, in zebrafish embryos at the mid-late blastula transition, shortly after embryonic ..
  44. Huang H, Houwing S, Kaaij L, Meppelink A, Redl S, Gauci S, et al. Tdrd1 acts as a molecular scaffold for Piwi proteins and piRNA targets in zebrafish. EMBO J. 2011;30:3298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that Tdrd1 acts as a molecular scaffold for Piwi proteins, bound through specific tudor domain-sDMA interactions, piRNAs and piRNA targets. ..
  45. Lau E, Zhang Z, Qin M, Ge W. Knockout of Zebrafish Ovarian Aromatase Gene (cyp19a1a) by TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 Leads to All-male Offspring Due to Failed Ovarian Differentiation. Sci Rep. 2016;6:37357 pubmed publisher
  46. Miranda Rodríguez J, Salas Vidal E, Lomeli H, Zurita M, Schnabel D. RhoA/ROCK pathway activity is essential for the correct localization of the germ plasm mRNAs in zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 2017;421:27-42 pubmed publisher
    Zebrafish germ plasm is composed of mRNAs such as vasa and nanos and of proteins such as Bucky ball, all of which localize symmetrically in four aggregates at the distal region of the first two cleavage furrows...
  47. Strasser M, Mackenzie N, Dumstrei K, Nakkrasae L, Stebler J, Raz E. Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:58 pubmed publisher
    ..germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others...
  48. Wibrand K, Olsen L. Linker histone H1M transcripts mark the developing germ line in zebrafish. Mech Dev. 2002;117:249-52 pubmed
    ..To search for new germ cell factors in the zebrafish, we have used subtractive cDNA cloning. Here we report that linker histone H1M transcripts mark the germ line from the early gastrulation up to 18 h post-fertilisation. ..
  49. Kurita K, Sakai N. Functionally distinctive testicular cell lines of zebrafish to support male germ cell development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;67:430-8 pubmed
    ..activity and transcription both of their specific genes, sox9a and Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1, and of the vas gene of germ cells were analyzed in the lines. Six lines exhibited these three characteristics of Sertoli cells...
  50. Fang X, Thornton C, Scheffler B, Willett K. Benzo[a]pyrene decreases global and gene specific DNA methylation during zebrafish development. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;36:40-50 pubmed publisher
    ..8% and promoter methylation in vasa by 17%. Consequently, vasa expression was significantly increased by 33%...
  51. Nóbrega R, Morais R, Crespo D, de Waal P, de França L, Schulz R, et al. Fsh Stimulates Spermatogonial Proliferation and Differentiation in Zebrafish via Igf3. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3804-17 pubmed publisher
  52. Yu F, Zhong H, Liu G, Liu S, Zhang Z, Zhou Y, et al. Characterization of vasa in the gonads of different ploidy fish. Gene. 2015;574:337-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Vasa is an essential gene for germ cell development belonging to the DEAD-box family. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the expression characteristics of vasa in diploids, triploids, and tetraploids...
  53. Tong S, Hsu H, Chung B. Zebrafish monosex population reveals female dominance in sex determination and earliest events of gonad differentiation. Dev Biol. 2010;344:849-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genetic selection scheme matches the prediction that female-dominant genetic factors are required to determine zebrafish sex...
  54. Xu H, Kardash E, Chen S, Raz E, Lin F. G?? signaling controls the polarization of zebrafish primordial germ cells by regulating Rac activity. Development. 2012;139:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that during PGC migration in vivo, G?? signaling regulates Rac activity to control cell polarity, which is required for the responsiveness to chemokine signaling. ..
  55. Itou J, Oishi I, Kawakami H, Glass T, Richter J, Johnson A, et al. Migration of cardiomyocytes is essential for heart regeneration in zebrafish. Development. 2012;139:4133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that the migration of cardiomyocytes into the injury site is regulated independently of proliferation, and that coordination of both processes is necessary for heart regeneration. ..
  56. Wei K, Liu I. Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans modulate migration and survival in zebrafish primordial germ cells. Theriogenology. 2014;81:1275-85.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..vicinal HS-GAGs, as observed in the whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR of the PGC marker gene vasa. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling indicated significantly increased apoptosis in PGCs ..
  57. Skaar K, Nóbrega R, Magaraki A, Olsen L, Schulz R, Male R. Proteolytically activated, recombinant anti-mullerian hormone inhibits androgen secretion, proliferation, and differentiation of spermatogonia in adult zebrafish testis organ cultures. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3527-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, zebrafish Amh is processed to become bioactive and has independent functions in inhibiting both steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis...
  58. Sun D, Zhang Y, Wang C, Hua X, Zhang X, Yan J. Sox9-related signaling controls zebrafish juvenile ovary-testis transformation. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e930 pubmed publisher
  59. Sun H, Li D, Chen S, Liu Y, Liao X, Deng W, et al. Zili inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling by interacting with Smad4. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows that zili plays a role in early embryogenesis beyond germ line as a novel negative regulator of TGF-beta signaling, extending the function of Piwi proteins in vertebrates. ..
  60. Baker B, Yee J, Meyer D, Yang D, Baker T. Histological and Transcriptomic Changes in Male Zebrafish Testes Due to Early Life Exposure to Low Level 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin. Zebrafish. 2016;13:413-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These data will inform future investigations to elucidate the mechanism of adult-onset and transgenerational infertility due to TCDD exposure in zebrafish. ..
  61. Chen S, Zhang H, Wang F, Zhang W, Peng G. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;433:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. ..
  62. Mishima Y, Tomari Y. Codon Usage and 3' UTR Length Determine Maternal mRNA Stability in Zebrafish. Mol Cell. 2016;61:874-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus highlights the codon-mediated mRNA decay as a conserved regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. ..
  63. Bouwmeester M, Ruiter S, Lommelaars T, Sippel J, Hodemaekers H, van den Brandhof E, et al. Zebrafish embryos as a screen for DNA methylation modifications after compound exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016;291:84-96 pubmed publisher
    ..methylation was examined in the promoter regions of three selected genes vasa, vtg1 and cyp19a2, of which vasa (ddx4) was the most responsive...
  64. Dranow D, Hu K, Bird A, Lawry S, Adams M, Sanchez A, et al. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006323 pubmed publisher
  65. Ye H, Yue H, Yang X, Li C, Wei Q. Identification and sexually dimorphic expression of vasa isoforms in Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus), and functional analysis of vasa 3'-untranslated region. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;366:203-18 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vasa is a highly conserved germ cell marker across animal phyla, and widely used to label primordial germ cells...
  66. Hinfray N, Nobrega R, Caulier M, Baudiffier D, Maillot Marechal E, Chadili E, et al. Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 in the zebrafish testis are differentially affected by oestradiol. J Endocrinol. 2013;216:375-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to elucidate the functionality of steroidogenic enzymes in germ cells and their potential role in testicular physiology. ..
  67. Mo S, Song P, Lv D, Chen Y, Zhou W, Gong W, et al. Zebrafish z-otu, a novel Otu and Tudor domain-containing gene, is expressed in early stages of oogenesis and embryogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1732:1-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, z-otu might link the ubiquitin signaling pathway to early oogenesis and maintaining the totipotency of embryonic cell. ..
  68. Liu Q, Spitsbergen J, Cariou R, Huang C, Jiang N, Goetz G, et al. Histopathologic alterations associated with global gene expression due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure in juvenile zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e100910 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, lesions in nasal epithelium and evidence of endocrine disruption based on alternatively spliced vasa transcripts are two novel and significant results of this study...
  69. Wong T, Tesfamichael A, Collodi P. Identification of promoter elements responsible for gonad-specific expression of zebrafish Deadend and its application to ovarian germ cell derivation. Int J Dev Biol. 2013;57:767-72 pubmed publisher
    ..results demonstrated that the drug-selected ovarian germ cells continued to express germ-cell markers nanos3, vasa and dnd...
  70. Presslauer C, Nagasawa K, Dahle D, Babiak J, Fernandes J, Babiak I. Induced autoimmunity against gonadal proteins affects gonadal development in juvenile zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114209 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the highly variable results between treatments and individuals suggest significant optimization should be performed to achieve the full potential of this technology. ..
  71. Wong T, Collodi P. Dorsomorphin promotes survival and germline competence of zebrafish spermatogonial stem cells in culture. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71332 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of dorsomorphin, the spermatogonia continued to express the germ-cell markers dazl, dnd, nanos3, vasa and piwil1 and the spermatogonial markers plzf and sox17 for at least six weeks in culture...