Gene Symbol: cyp19a1a
Description: cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a
Alias: CYP19a1, P450aromA, ar1, cyp19, cyp19a, cypXIX, etID309862.18, zgc:136541, aromatase, P-450AROM, cytochrome P-450AROM, cytochrome P450 19A1a, cytochrome P450, 19a, estrogen synthase, estrogen synthetase
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Hinfray N, Palluel O, Turies C, Cousin C, Porcher J, Brion F. Brain and gonadal aromatase as potential targets of endocrine disrupting chemicals in a model species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Toxicol. 2006;21:332-7 pubmed
    Many chemicals in the aquatic environment are able to adversely affect in vitro brain and ovarian aromatase expression/activity. However, it remains to be determined if these substances elicit in vivo effect in fish...
  2. Tong S, Hsu H, Chung B. Zebrafish monosex population reveals female dominance in sex determination and earliest events of gonad differentiation. Dev Biol. 2010;344:849-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genetic selection scheme matches the prediction that female-dominant genetic factors are required to determine zebrafish sex...
  3. Andersen L, Goto Kazeto R, Trant J, Nash J, Korsgaard B, Bjerregaard P. Short-term exposure to low concentrations of the synthetic androgen methyltestosterone affects vitellogenin and steroid levels in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2006;76:343-52 pubmed
    ..vitellogenin (VTG) concentration, estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT) content, brain aromatase activity and gene expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 in the testis. Exposure to the lowest MT concentration (4...
  4. Von Hofsten J, Olsson P. Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: involvement of FTZ-F1 genes. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:63 pubmed
    ..The Cyp19 gene product aromatase converts testosterone into 17 beta-estradiol, and when inhibited leads to male to female sex reversal...
  5. Goto Kazeto R, Kight K, Zohar Y, Place A, Trant J. Localization and expression of aromatase mRNA in adult zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2004;139:72-84 pubmed
    ..control of many behavioral and physiological aspects of reproduction therefore the expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is of vital interest...
  6. Tong S, Chung B. Analysis of zebrafish cyp19 promoters. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;86:381-6 pubmed
    Cyp19 encodes P450 aromatase, the key enzyme catalyzing the conversion of androgens into estrogens. Estrogens play a crucial role in the anatomical, functional and behavioral characteristics of sexually dimorphic development...
  7. Chiang E, Yan Y, Guiguen Y, Postlethwait J, Chung Bc -. Two Cyp19 (P450 aromatase) genes on duplicated zebrafish chromosomes are expressed in ovary or brain. Mol Biol Evol. 2001;18:542-50 pubmed
    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (Cyp19) is an enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of estrogens, thereby controlling various physiological functions of estrogens. We isolated two cyp19 cDNAs, termed cyp19a and cyp19b, respectively, from zebrafish...
  8. Rodriguez Mari A, Yan Y, Bremiller R, Wilson C, Canestro C, Postlethwait J. Characterization and expression pattern of zebrafish Anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) relative to sox9a, sox9b, and cyp19a1a, during gonad development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:655-67 pubmed
    ..expression of Amh, which initiates the regression of the Mullerian ducts and inhibits the expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens...
  9. Rodriguez Mari A, Wilson C, Titus T, Canestro C, Bremiller R, Yan Y, et al. Roles of brca2 (fancd1) in oocyte nuclear architecture, gametogenesis, gonad tumors, and genome stability in zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001357 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this work verified zebrafish as a model for the role of Brca2 in human disease and uncovered a novel function of Brca2 in vertebrate oocyte nuclear architecture. ..

More Information


  1. Siegfried K, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Germ line control of female sex determination in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2008;324:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In germ line deficient animals the expression of the ovary specific gene cyp19a1a fails to be maintained whereas the testis genes sox9a and amh remain expressed...
  2. Villeneuve L, Wang R, Bencic D, Biales A, Martinovic D, Lazorchak J, et al. Altered gene expression in the brain and ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole: microarray analysis and hypothesis generation. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:1767-82 pubmed publisher
    ..EACs) with different modes of action, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 25 or 100 microg/L of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for 24, 48, or 96 h...
  3. Rodriguez Mari A, Canestro C, Bremiller R, Nguyen Johnson A, Asakawa K, Kawakami K, et al. Sex reversal in zebrafish fancl mutants is caused by Tp53-mediated germ cell apoptosis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001034 pubmed publisher
    ..oocytes surviving through meiosis, somatic cells of mutant gonads did not maintain expression of the ovary gene cyp19a1a and did not down-regulate expression of the early testis gene amh; consequently, gonads masculinized and became ..
  4. Sawyer S, Gerstner K, Callard G. Real-time PCR analysis of cytochrome P450 aromatase expression in zebrafish: gene specific tissue distribution, sex differences, developmental programming, and estrogen regulation. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2006;147:108-17 pubmed
    ..and reproducible real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for quantifying and comparing P450aromB and P450aromA expression in unfertilized eggs, embryos/larvae, and dissected tissues of adult fish...
  5. Wang X, Orban L. Anti-Müllerian hormone and 11 beta-hydroxylase show reciprocal expression to that of aromatase in the transforming gonad of zebrafish males. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1329-38 pubmed
    ..from a vas::egfp transgenic line and used for gene expression analysis of anti-Müllerian hormone (amh), ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1a) and 11 beta-hydroxylase (cyp11b, also known as P450(11 beta)) by real-time polymerase chain reaction ..
  6. Chen S, Zhang H, Wang F, Zhang W, Peng G. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;433:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. ..
  7. Olson J, Ingle J, Ma C, Pelleymounter L, Schaid D, Pankratz V, et al. A comprehensive examination of CYP19 variation and risk of breast cancer using two haplotype-tagging approaches. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;102:237-47 pubmed
    ..Androgens are converted to estrogens by the aromatase enzyme, which is encoded by the CYP19 gene...
  8. Dang Y, Wang J, Giesy J, Liu C. Responses of the zebrafish hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis PCR array to prochloraz are dependent on timing of sampling. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;175:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlations among parameters in samples collected at the two times indicated the effects might be due to different concentrations of E2 in plasma due to exposure to PCZ. ..
  9. Zucchi S, Mirbahai L, Castiglioni S, Fent K. Transcriptional and physiological responses induced by binary mixtures of drospirenone and progesterone in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48:3523-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Effects of DRS and P4 were additive for most of the investigated parameters and occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations. They may translate to adverse reproductive effects in fish. ..
  10. Morthorst J, Lister A, Bjerregaard P, Van der Kraak G. Ibuprofen reduces zebrafish PGE(2) levels but steroid hormone levels and reproductive parameters are not affected. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;157:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that ibuprofen reduces PGE(2) levels in male and female zebrafish but has no consistent effects on other investigated reproductive parameters. ..
  11. Blüthgen N, Sumpter J, Odermatt A, Fent K. Effects of low concentrations of the antiprogestin mifepristone (RU486) in adults and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio): 2. Gene expression analysis and in vitro activity. Aquat Toxicol. 2013;144-145:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..including 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (hsd17b3), 3 ?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd3b), P450 aromatase A (cyp19a) and 11?-hydroxylase (cyp11b). P4 resulted in similar transcriptional alterations as MIF...
  12. Jin Y, Chen R, Sun L, Wang W, Zhou L, Liu W, et al. Enantioselective induction of estrogen-responsive gene expression by permethrin enantiomers in embryo-larval zebrafish. Chemosphere. 2009;74:1238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings add to a growing body of evidence concerning enantioselectivity in the toxicity, endocrine-disrupting activity, and environmental biodegradation of chiral pesticides. ..
  13. Jørgensen A, Morthorst J, Andersen O, Rasmussen L, Bjerregaard P. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008;6:25 pubmed publisher, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of ar, sox9a, dmrt1, fig alpha, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the expected sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation period...
  14. Forlano P, Bass A. Seasonal plasticity of brain aromatase mRNA expression in glia: divergence across sex and vocal phenotypes. J Neurobiol. 2005;65:37-49 pubmed
    Although teleost fishes have the highest levels of brain aromatase (estrogen synthase) compared to other vertebrates, little is known of its regulation and function in specific brain areas...
  15. Lister A, Regan C, Van Zwol J, Van der Kraak G. Inhibition of egg production in zebrafish by fluoxetine and municipal effluents: a mechanistic evaluation. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;95:320-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative real-time PCR analysis determined that ovarian aromatase, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHr) gene expression were ..
  16. Dai X, Shu Y, Lou Q, Tian Q, Zhai G, Song J, et al. Tdrd12 Is Essential for Germ Cell Development and Maintenance in Zebrafish. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrated that zebrafish Tdrd12 is essential for germ cell development and maintenance. ..
  17. Ji K, Liu X, Lee S, Kang S, Kho Y, Giesy J, et al. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on hormones and genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis, and reproduction of zebrafish. J Hazard Mater. 2013;254-255:242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that ibuprofen could modulate hormone production and related gene transcription of the HPG axis in a sex-dependent way, which could cause adverse effects on reproduction and the development of offspring. ..
  18. Villamizar N, Ribas L, Piferrer F, Vera L, Sanchez Vazquez F. Impact of daily thermocycles on hatching rhythms, larval performance and sex differentiation of zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52153 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovarian aromatase (cyp19a) expression in females was highest in TC and CT (6.5 and 4...
  19. Zhao F, Wei P, Wang J, Yu M, Zhang X, Tian H, et al. Estrogenic effects associated with bisphenol a exposure in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) is associated with changes of endogenous 17?-estradiol and gene specific DNA methylation levels. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;252:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..levels; increases of E2 levels could be partly explained by the up-regulated expression of gonadal aromatase, mRNA levels of which were found to be negatively related to the methylation levels of both its promoter and one ..
  20. Huang W, Yang P, Lv Z, Wu C, Gui J, Lou B. Cloning, expression pattern and promoter functional analysis of cyp19a1a gene in miiuy croaker. Gene. 2017;627:271-277 pubmed publisher
    Gonadal-specific aromatase encoded by cyp19a1a is the important enzyme controlling estrogen biosynthesis in teleosts. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of cyp19a1a was cloned and characterized from miiuy croaker Miichthys miiuy...
  21. Tang H, Chen Y, Liu Y, Yin Y, Li G, Guo Y, et al. New Insights Into the Role of Estrogens in Male Fertility Based on Findings in Aromatase-Deficient Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3042-3054 pubmed publisher
    It has been demonstrated that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Aromatase (encoded by CYP19) catalyzes the final step of estradiol biosynthesis...
  22. Pradhan A, Khalaf H, Ochsner S, Sreenivasan R, Koskinen J, Karlsson M, et al. Activation of NF-?B protein prevents the transition from juvenile ovary to testis and promotes ovarian development in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37926-38 pubmed publisher
  23. Kwon B, Shin H, Moon H, Ji K, Kim K. Effects of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate exposure on endocrine systems and reproduction of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Pollut. 2016;214:568-574 pubmed publisher
    ..In male fish, plasma concentrations of 17?-estradiol were significantly increased along with up-regulation of cyp19a. Exposure to TBEOP at 118 ?g/L led to a significant decrease in average egg production...
  24. Jia Z, Liu D, Sheng C, Casida J, Wang C, Song P, et al. Acute toxicity, bioconcentration, elimination and antioxidant effects of fluralaner in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Environ Pollut. 2018;232:183-190 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, the activities of CAT and CarE, and most mRNA expression level of CYPs showed fast response to the sub-lethal concentration of fluralaner, which could be used as a biomarker relevant to the toxicity. ..
  25. Das D, Nath P, Pal S, Hajra S, Ghosh P, Maitra S. Expression of two insulin receptor subtypes, insra and insrb, in zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovary and involvement of insulin action in ovarian function. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;239:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..20β-hsd), MIS receptor (mPRα), insulin-like growth factor 3 (igf3) and IGF1 receptor (igf1rb), but not cyp19a expression in MV oocytes...
  26. Siegenthaler P, Zhao Y, Zhang K, Fent K. Reproductive and transcriptional effects of the antiandrogenic progestin chlormadinone acetate in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Pollut. 2017;223:346-356 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed effects were weaker than those of other very potent progestins, which is probably related to the lack of interaction of CMA with the zebrafish progesterone receptor. ..
  27. Webster K, Schach U, Ordaz A, Steinfeld J, Draper B, Siegfried K. Dmrt1 is necessary for male sexual development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2017;422:33-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the strong sex-ratio bias caused by dmrt1 reduction-of-function points to potential mechanisms through which sex chromosomes may evolve. ..
  28. Presslauer C, Nagasawa K, Dahle D, Babiak J, Fernandes J, Babiak I. Induced autoimmunity against gonadal proteins affects gonadal development in juvenile zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114209 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the highly variable results between treatments and individuals suggest significant optimization should be performed to achieve the full potential of this technology. ..
  29. Li X, Guo J, Li X, Zhou H, Zhang S, Liu X, et al. Behavioural effect of low-dose BPA on male zebrafish: Tuning of male mating competition and female mating preference during courtship process. Chemosphere. 2017;169:40-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, our results shed light on the potential behavioural and physiological effect of low-dose BPA exposure on courtship behaviours of zebrafish, which could exert profound consequences on natural zebrafish populations. ..
  30. Dranow D, Hu K, Bird A, Lawry S, Adams M, Sanchez A, et al. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006323 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in ..
  31. Lima D, Castro L, Coelho I, Lacerda R, Gesto M, Soares J, et al. Effects of Tributyltin and Other Retinoid Receptor Agonists in Reproductive-Related Endpoints in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2015;78:747-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant downregulation was observed in brain mRNA levels of aromatase b (CYP19a1b) in females and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARg) in both males and females, ..
  32. Tong S, Chiang E, Hsiao P, Chung B. Phylogeny, expression and enzyme activity of zebrafish cyp19 (P450 aromatase) genes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;79:299-303 pubmed
    The cyp19 encodes P450 aromatase, the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of estrogens from androgens. Estrogens affect the dimorphic, anatomical, functional and behavioral aspects of development of both males and females...
  33. Dranow D, Tucker R, Draper B. Germ cells are required to maintain a stable sexual phenotype in adult zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2013;376:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also confirm that signals from the somatic gonad in turn ensure that the sex appropriate gamete is produced. ..
  34. Chen W, Liu L, Ge W. Expression analysis of growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9/gdf9), anti-müllerian hormone (Amh/amh) and aromatase (Cyp19a1a/cyp19a1a) during gonadal differentiation of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Biol Reprod. 2017;96:401-413 pubmed publisher
    In the zebrafish, no sex-determining gene has been identified, while some sex-related genes, such as cyp19a1a and amh, show sexually dimorphic expression. Interestingly, most of these genes are expressed in the somatic cells...
  35. Wang J, Cao X, Huang Y, Tang X. Developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption of naphthenic acids on the early life stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Appl Toxicol. 2015;35:1493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription of genes involved cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19a and CYP19b), estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2), and vitellogenin (VTG) was analyzed to ..
  36. Liang Y, Huang G, Lin Z, Li J, Yang J, Zhong L, et al. Reproductive effects of synthetic progestin norgestrel in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2018;190:17-24 pubmed publisher
  37. Brown A, Bickley L, Le Page G, Hosken D, Paull G, Hamilton P, et al. Are toxicological responses in laboratory (inbred) zebrafish representative of those in outbred (wild) populations? - A case study with an endocrine disrupting chemical. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:4166-72 pubmed publisher
    ..of Leydig cells and maintenance of the expression (rather than down-regulation occurring in inbreds) of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) and insulin-like growth factor (igf1)...
  38. Hoffmann J, Oris J. Altered gene expression: a mechanism for reproductive toxicity in zebrafish exposed to benzo[a]pyrene. Aquat Toxicol. 2006;78:332-40 pubmed
    ..follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)), steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1, CYP17, CYP19A1, CYP19A2 and 20beta-HSD), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and vitellogenin...
  39. Chen J, Wang X, Ge X, Wang D, Wang T, Zhang L, et al. Chronic perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) exposure produces estrogenic effects in zebrafish. Environ Pollut. 2016;218:702-708 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, chronic PFOS exposure disrupts sex hormone level and related gene expression and impairs gonadal development, which may contribute to the previously reported PFOS reproductive toxicity. ..
  40. Zucchi S, Oggier D, Fent K. Global gene expression profile induced by the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Pollut. 2011;159:3086-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis showed tissue-specific gene profiles and revealed that EHMC slightly affects the transcription of genes involved in hormonal pathways including vtg1, esr1, esr2b, ar, cyp19b and hsd17?3. ..
  41. Uren Webster T, Laing L, Florance H, Santos E. Effects of glyphosate and its formulation, roundup, on reproduction in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48:1271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcript profiling of the gonads revealed 10 mg/L Roundup and glyphosate induced changes in the expression of cyp19a1 and esr1 in the ovary and hsd3b2, cat, and sod1 in the testis...
  42. Yu R, Chu D, Tan T, Li V, Chan A, Giesy J, et al. Leptin-mediated modulation of steroidogenic gene expression in hypoxic zebrafish embryos: implications for the disruption of sex steroids. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:9112-9 pubmed publisher pituitary influence, resulted in the up-regulation of cyp11a, cyp17, and 3?-hsd and the down-regulation of cyp19a. Similar gene expression patterns were observed for embryos exposed to 10 mM cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a chemical ..
  43. Bai J, Gong W, Wang C, Gao Y, Hong W, Chen S. Dynamic methylation pattern of cyp19a1a core promoter during zebrafish ovarian folliculogenesis. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2016;42:947-54 pubmed publisher
    In vertebrates, the aromatase coded by the cyp19a1a gene can catalyze the conversion from androgens to estrogens. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms of cyp19a1a gene expression are a critical research field in reproductive endocrinology...
  44. Wang Y, Wu S, Chen J, Zhang C, Xu Z, Li G, et al. Single and joint toxicity assessment of four currently used pesticides to zebrafish (Danio rerio) using traditional and molecular endpoints. Chemosphere. 2018;192:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of P53, Tnf, TR?, Tsh and Cyp19a exhibited greater changes upon exposure to combined pesticides compared with individual pesticides...
  45. Heiden T, Struble C, Rise M, Hessner M, Hutz R, Carvan M. Molecular targets of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) within the zebrafish ovary: insights into TCDD-induced endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity. Reprod Toxicol. 2008;25:47-57 pubmed
    ..Data presented here provide further insight into the mechanisms by which TCDD disrupts follicular development and reproduction in fish, and can be used to formulate new hypotheses regarding previously documented ovarian toxicity. ..
  46. Hinfray N, Baudiffier D, Leal M, Porcher J, Aït Aïssa S, Le Gac F, et al. Characterization of testicular expression of P450 17?-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase in zebrafish and its perturbation by the pharmaceutical fungicide clotrimazole. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;174:309-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel data deserve further studies on the effect of azole fungicides on gonadal steroidogenesis. ..
  47. Du G, Hu J, Huang H, Qin Y, Han X, Wu D, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects hormone receptor activity, steroidogenesis, and expression of endocrine-related genes in vitro and in vivo. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..gene (hhex and pax8) expression in a concentration-dependent manner, decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene (CYP17, CYP19a, CYP19b) expression, and changed the expression pattern of estrogen receptor production genes (esr1, esr2b) after ..
  48. Chen J, Tanguay R, Tal T, Gai Z, Ma X, Bai C, et al. Early life perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) exposure impairs zebrafish organogenesis. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;150:124-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, early life stage exposure to PFOS perturbs various molecular pathways potentially resulting in observed defects in swim bladder and gut development. ..
  49. Leerberg D, Sano K, Draper B. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006993 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development. ..
  50. Svensson J, Mustafa A, Fick J, Schmitz M, Brunström B. Developmental exposure to progestins causes male bias and precocious puberty in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2016;177:316-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcript levels of the gonadal genes amh, CYP11B and CYP19a1a indicated that the masculinizing effect of levonorgestrel occurred very rapidly...
  51. Rossier N, Chew G, Zhang K, Riva F, Fent K. Activity of binary mixtures of drospirenone with progesterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol in vitro and in vivo. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;174:109-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The receptor-based responses did not correspond well to the transcriptional responses in embryos which are much more complex due to the interplay between hormonal pathways, receptor crosstalk, and hormonal feedback loops. ..
  52. Liu W, Chen C, Chen L, Wang L, Li J, Chen Y, et al. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22819 pubmed publisher
    ..Major contributors to PC1 (gnrh2, gnrhr3, ar, lhr, hmgra, hmgrb and cyp19a) were positively correlated with the number of post-vitellogenic oocytes, while PC1 (gnrh2, lhβ, erβ, fshr, ..
  53. Laing L, Viana J, Dempster E, Trznadel M, Trunkfield L, Uren Webster T, et al. Bisphenol A causes reproductive toxicity, decreases dnmt1 transcription, and reduces global DNA methylation in breeding zebrafish (Danio rerio). Epigenetics. 2016;11:526-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence of the mechanisms of action of BPA in a model vertebrate and advocate for its reduction in the environment. ..
  54. Yu L, Liu C, Chen Q, Zhou B. Endocrine disruption and reproduction impairment in zebrafish after long-term exposure to DE-71. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:1354-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of female zebrafish to DE-71 resulted in lower estradiol production and downregulation of cytochrome P450 aromatase mRNA...
  55. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S, et al. The effects of progesterone on transcriptional expression profiles of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes during the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2015;128:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, P4 resulted in a significant induction of Cyp19a1a and Cyp11b mRNA expression while it caused a significant inhibition of Hsd11b2 mRNA expression above 6 ng L(-1)...
  56. Tan T, Yu R, Wu R, Kong R. Overexpression and Knockdown of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Disrupt the Expression of Steroidogenic Enzyme Genes and Early Embryonic Development in Zebrafish. Gene Regul Syst Bio. 2017;11:1177625017713193 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight of the genes, CYP11a, CYP11b2, 3?-HSD, HMGCR, CYP17a1, 17?-HSD2, CYP19a, and CYP19b, were found to be differentially upregulated at 24 and 48 hpf following zHIF-1?-?ODD ..
  57. Blüthgen N, Zucchi S, Fent K. Effects of the UV filter benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone) at low concentrations in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;263:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Forthcoming studies should show whether this translates to additional physiological effects. ..
  58. Shi J, Jiao Z, Zheng S, Li M, Zhang J, Feng Y, et al. Long-term effects of bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hormonal balance and genes of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio), and the impact on offspring. Chemosphere. 2015;128:252-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A potential consequence of adverse effects in the offspring by BPAF deserves further investigation. ..
  59. Zhang X, Gao L, Yang K, Tian H, Wang W, Ru S. Monocrotophos pesticide modulates the expression of sexual differentiation genes and causes phenotypic feminization in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;157:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..doublesex/mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) expression, indirectly leading to elevated gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) gene expression, which should promote phenotypic feminization...
  60. Cosme M, Lister A, Van der Kraak G. Inhibition of spawning in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Adverse outcome pathways of quinacrine and ethinylestradiol. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;219:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..of cortical alveolus, vitellogenic and mature follicle stages), steroidogenesis (reduced expression of aromatase), maturation (reduced luteinizing hormone receptor expression) and ovulation (reduced expression of cytosolic ..
  61. Hartung O, Forbes M, Marlow F. Zebrafish vasa is required for germ-cell differentiation and maintenance. Mol Reprod Dev. 2014;81:946-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide insight into the function of zebrafish vasa during female meiosis, differentiation, and maintenance of germ-line stem cells. ..
  62. Lau E, Zhang Z, Qin M, Ge W. Knockout of Zebrafish Ovarian Aromatase Gene (cyp19a1a) by TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 Leads to All-male Offspring Due to Failed Ovarian Differentiation. Sci Rep. 2016;6:37357 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite its complexity and plasticity, the process of ovarian differentiation is believed to involve gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) in nearly all species studied...
  63. Jiang N, Jin X, He J, Yin Z. The roles of follistatin 1 in regulation of zebrafish fecundity and sexual differentiation. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:54 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the present study contributes to our understanding of the paracrine roles of fst1 as well as normal oocyte maturation and gonadal differentiation. ..
  64. Yang Q, Yang X, Liu J, Ren W, Chen Y, Shen S. Effects of BPF on steroid hormone homeostasis and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of zebrafish. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:21311-21322 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations suggest that BPF leads to adverse effects on the endocrine system of teleost fish, and that these effects were more prominent in males than in females. ..
  65. Han J, Wang Q, Wang X, Li Y, Wen S, Liu S, et al. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;150:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. ..
  66. Ma Y, Cao C, Wang Q, Gui W, Zhu G. Effects of azocyclotin on gene transcription and steroid metabolome of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis, and their consequences on reproduction in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2016;179:55-64 pubmed publisher the expression of key genes associated with reproductive endocrine pathways in the pituitary (lh?), gonad (cyp19a1a, cyp17a1 and 17?-hsd3), and liver (vtg1, vtg2, cyp1a1, comt, ugt1a and gstp1) were correlated with significant ..
  67. Filby A, Paull G, Bartlett E, Van Look K, Tyler C. Physiological and health consequences of social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Physiol Behav. 2010;101:576-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The wide-ranging physiological differences seen between dominant and subordinate zebrafish as a consequence of their social status suggest negative health impacts for subordinates after prolonged durations in those hierarchies. ..
  68. Collard H, Ji K, Lee S, Liu X, Kang S, Kho Y, et al. Toxicity and endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and two freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) after chronic exposure to mefenamic acid. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;94:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the genes of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, transcriptions of gnrh, gnrhr, cyp19a, and cyp19b increased, supporting estrogenic potential of MFA...
  69. Pradhan A, Asnake S, Kharlyngdoh J, Modig C, Olsson P. In silico and biological analysis of anti-androgen activity of the brominated flame retardants ATE, BATE and DPTE in zebrafish. Chem Biol Interact. 2015;233:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes involved in steroidogenesis were also down-regulated by these BFRs. In view of this, the impact of these BFRs on humans and wildlife needs further analysis. ..
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    ..In terms of the sexual differentiation genes, the transcriptional expression of cyp19a1a and esr1 genes were upregulated in 20 μg·L-1 of NP in the F1 generation...
  71. Kanungo J, Cuevas E, Guo X, Lopez A, Ramírez Lee M, Trickler W, et al. Nicotine alters the expression of molecular markers of endocrine disruption in zebrafish. Neurosci Lett. 2012;526:133-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the validated endocrine disruption (ED) biomarkers, vitellogenin (vtg 1 and vtg 2) and cytochrome p450 aromatase (cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b) at the transcriptional level...
  72. Sohn J, Kim S, Koschorreck J, Kho Y, Choi K. Alteration of sex hormone levels and steroidogenic pathway by several low molecular weight phthalates and their metabolites in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and/or human adrenal cell (H295R) line. J Hazard Mater. 2016;320:45-54 pubmed publisher
    ..All test compounds significantly up-regulated cyp19a gene expression, and down-regulated star and 3β hsd genes in the male fish...
  73. Han X, Lei E, Lam M, Wu R. A whole life cycle assessment on effects of waterborne PBDEs on gene expression profile along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis and in the liver of zebrafish. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;63:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In male fish, up-regulation of GnRH in brain, FSH? and LH? in pituitary, FSH-receptor, LH-receptor, and CYP19a in testis was clearly evident, while down-regulation of CYP11a and 3?-HSD was found in testis. In female fish, a 2...
  74. Wirbisky S, Weber G, Sepúlveda M, Lin T, Jannasch A, Freeman J. An embryonic atrazine exposure results in reproductive dysfunction in adult zebrafish and morphological alterations in their offspring. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21337 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence to support atrazine as an EDC causing reproductive dysfunction and molecular alterations in adults exposed only during embryogenesis and morphological alterations in their offspring. ..
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    ..testicular differentiation for transcript abundance analysis of selected male (dmrt1, amh, ar) and female (cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, esr2b) sex-related genes by quantitative RT-PCR, and fold-changes relative to control values were ..
  76. Cao F, Zhu L, Li H, Yu S, Wang C, Qiu L. Reproductive toxicity of azoxystrobin to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Pollut. 2016;219:1109-1121 pubmed publisher
    ..lhb, fshr and lhr), steroid hormone receptors (era, er2b and ar), steroidogenic enzymes (cyp11a, cyp11b, cyp17, cyp19a, cyp19b, hsd3b and hsd17b) in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and vitellogenin (vtg1 and vtg2) in the ..
  77. Du G, Huang H, Hu J, Qin Y, Wu D, Song L, et al. Endocrine-related effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in zebrafish, H295R steroidogenesis and receptor reporter gene assays. Chemosphere. 2013;91:1099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings indicated the potential endocrine-related effects of PFOA and provided novel information for human risk assessment. ..
  78. Xu Q, Wu D, Dang Y, Yu L, Liu C, Wang J. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after waterborne exposure to TBOEP. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;182:163-171 pubmed publisher
  79. Silva A, Almeida D, Nornberg B, Pereira J, Pires D, Corcini C, et al. Reproductive parameters of double transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) males overexpressing both the growth hormone (GH) and its receptor (GHR). Transgenic Res. 2017;26:123-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is clear that GH-transgenesis technology should take into account the need to obtain adequate levels of circulating hormone in order to achieve maximum growth with minimal negative side effects. ..
  80. Hua J, Han J, Guo Y, Zhou B. The progestin levonorgestrel affects sex differentiation in zebrafish at environmentally relevant concentrations. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;166:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Down-regulation of the mRNA expression of aromatase (e.g...
  81. Zhu L, Qi S, Cao F, Mu X, Yang Y, Wang C. Quizalofop-P-ethyl exposure increases estrogen axis activity in male and slightly decreases estrogen axis activity in female zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2017;183:76-84 pubmed publisher
  82. Lee S, Jung D, Kho Y, Ji K, Kim P, Ahn B, et al. Ecotoxicological assessment of cimetidine and determination of its potential for endocrine disruption using three test organisms: Daphnia magna, Moina macrocopa, and Danio rerio. Chemosphere. 2015;135:208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocrine disruption effects were also observed in early life stage exposure. Up-regulation of erβ at 17d, and cyp19a and vtg at 40 d post fertilization were detected at 100 mg L(-1), and co-occurrence of ovary and putative testis ..
  83. Zhang Q, Li Y, Liu Z, Chen Q. Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;177:417-24 pubmed publisher