Gene Symbol: cx43
Description: connexin 43
Alias: cx43a1, gja1, stopsel, stp, zfCx43.3, gap junction alpha-1 protein, etID309742.9, gap junction protein, alpha 1, shf, short fin protein, sof
Species: zebrafish
Products:     cx43

Top Publications

  1. Iovine M, Higgins E, Hindes A, Coblitz B, Johnson S. Mutations in connexin43 (GJA1) perturb bone growth in zebrafish fins. Dev Biol. 2005;278:208-19 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that the sof phenotype is caused by mutations in the connexin43 (cx43) gene...
  2. Brown A, Fisher S, Iovine M. Osteoblast maturation occurs in overlapping proximal-distal compartments during fin regeneration in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2922-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Gerhart S, Jefferis R, Iovine M. Cx40.8, a Cx43-like protein, forms gap junction channels inefficiently and may require Cx43 for its association at the plasma membrane. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3419-24 pubmed publisher
    In addition to having a Cx43 ortholog, the zebrafish genome also contains a Cx43-like gene, Cx40.8. Here, we investigate the expression of cx40.8 in zebrafish fins and the function of Cx40.8 in HeLa cells. We find that cx40...
  4. Hoptak Solga A, Klein K, DeRosa A, White T, Iovine M. Zebrafish short fin mutations in connexin43 lead to aberrant gap junctional intercellular communication. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3297-302 pubmed
    Mutations in the zebrafish connexin43 (cx43) gene cause the short fin phenotype, indicating that direct cell-cell communication contributes to bone length...
  5. Ablooglu A, Kang J, Handin R, Traver D, Shattil S. The zebrafish vitronectin receptor: characterization of integrin alphaV and beta3 expression patterns in early vertebrate development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2268-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, when beta3.1 expression profiles are compared to those of other potential alphaV partners (beta1, beta5, and beta8), pharyngeal dentitions appear to represent a unique expression field for alphaV and beta3.1. ..
  6. Chi N, Shaw R, Jungblut B, Huisken J, Ferrer T, Arnaout R, et al. Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e109 pubmed publisher
  7. Sims K, Eble D, Iovine M. Connexin43 regulates joint location in zebrafish fins. Dev Biol. 2009;327:410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in cx43 cause the short segment phenotype of short fin (sof(b123)) mutants, suggesting that direct cell-cell communication ..
  8. Ton Q, Kathryn Iovine M. Semaphorin3d mediates Cx43-dependent phenotypes during fin regeneration. Dev Biol. 2012;366:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Connexin proteins are the subunits of gap junction channels. Mutations in zebrafish cx43 cause the short fin (sof(b123)) phenotype which is characterized by short fins due to defects in length of the bony ..
  9. Hoptak Solga A, Nielsen S, Jain I, Thummel R, Hyde D, Iovine M. Connexin43 (GJA1) is required in the population of dividing cells during fin regeneration. Dev Biol. 2008;317:541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The sof(b123) mutant exhibits fins that are half the length of wild-type fins and have reduced levels of cx43 mRNA. We find that sof(b123) regenerating fins exhibit reduced levels of cell proliferation...

More Information


  1. Hatler J, Essner J, Johnson R. A gap junction connexin is required in the vertebrate left-right organizer. Dev Biol. 2009;336:183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Following morpholino knockdown of Cx43.4, asymmetric gene expression and global organ distribution are randomized, consistent with the expression of Cx43...
  2. Lin X, Gemel J, Glass A, Zemlin C, Beyer E, Veenstra R. Connexin40 and connexin43 determine gating properties of atrial gap junction channels. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:238-45 pubmed publisher
    While ventricular gap junctions contain only Cx43, atrial gap junctions contain both Cx40 and Cx43; yet the functional consequences of this co-expression remain poorly understood...
  3. Fadeev A, Krauss J, Frohnhöfer H, Irion U, Nüsslein Volhard C. Tight Junction Protein 1a regulates pigment cell organisation during zebrafish colour patterning. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Tjp1a is a novel regulator of cell shape changes during colour pattern formation and the first cytoplasmic protein implicated in this process. ..
  4. Jia G, Aggarwal A, Yohannes A, Gangahar D, Agrawal D. Cross-talk between angiotensin II and IGF-1-induced connexin 43 expression in human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:1695-702 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently reported that increased expression of connexin43 (Cx43) is involved in the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in human saphenous vein (SV)...
  5. Wiweger M, Zhao Z, van Merkesteyn R, Roehl H, Hogendoorn P. HSPG-deficient zebrafish uncovers dental aspect of multiple osteochondromas. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29734 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of the malformed and/or displaced teeth with abnormal enamel was declared by half of the respondents indicating that MO might indeed be also associated with dental problems. ..
  6. Watanabe M, Watanabe D, Kondo S. Polyamine sensitivity of gap junctions is required for skin pattern formation in zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2012;2:473 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to show that polyamine sensitivity has a physiologically relevant function and is related to skin pattern formation in animals. ..
  7. Yin V, Lepilina A, Smith A, Poss K. Regulation of zebrafish heart regeneration by miR-133. Dev Biol. 2012;365:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression analyses indicated that cell cycle factors mps1, cdc37, and PA2G4, and cell junction components cx43 and cldn5, are miR-133 targets during regeneration...
  8. Misu A, Yamanaka H, Aramaki T, Kondo S, Skerrett I, Iovine M, et al. Two Different Functions of Connexin43 Confer Two Different Bone Phenotypes in Zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:12601-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Positional cloning revealed that stp encodes Connexin43 (Cx43), a connexin that functions as a gap junction and hemichannel...
  9. Govindan J, Tun K, Iovine M. Cx43-Dependent Skeletal Phenotypes Are Mediated by Interactions between the Hapln1a-ECM and Sema3d during Fin Regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148202 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of fin length mutants has revealed that the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) coordinates cell proliferation (growth) and joint formation (patterning) during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration...
  10. Cheng S, Christie T, Valdimarsson G. Expression of connexin48.5, connexin44.1, and connexin43 during zebrafish (Danio rerio) lens development. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:709-15 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the mRNA expression patterns of zebrafish Cx48.5, Cx44.1, Cx43 during lens development...
  11. Panàkovà D, Werdich A, Macrae C. Wnt11 patterns a myocardial electrical gradient through regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel. Nature. 2010;466:874-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of cellular coupling through such mechanisms may be a general property of non-canonical Wnt signals. ..
  12. Watanabe M, Sawada R, Aramaki T, Skerrett I, Kondo S. The Physiological Characterization of Connexin41.8 and Connexin39.4, Which Are Involved in the Striped Pattern Formation of Zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:1053-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that functional differences in Cx41.8 and Cx39.4 relate to spot or labyrinth mutant phenotypes and also provide evidence that these two connexins interact in vivo and in vitro. ..
  13. Go W, Korzh V. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase Atp2b1a regulates bone mineralization in zebrafish. Bone. 2013;54:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..atp2b1a's expression in the pharyngeal epithelium is regulated by the homeodomain transcription factor dlx2b. ..
  14. Banerji R, Eble D, Iovine M, Skibbens R. Esco2 regulates cx43 expression during skeletal regeneration in the zebrafish fin. Dev Dyn. 2016;245:7-21 pubmed publisher
    ..esco2-knockdown significantly diminishes cx43/gja1 expression which encodes the gap junction connexin subunit required for cell-cell communication...
  15. Kanczuga Koda L, Koda M, Sulkowski S, Wincewicz A, Zalewski B, Sulkowska M. Gradual loss of functional gap junction within progression of colorectal cancer -- a shift from membranous CX32 and CX43 expression to cytoplasmic pattern during colorectal carcinogenesis. In Vivo. 2010;24:101-7 pubmed
    The aim of this study was the assessment of expression and location of CX32 and CX43 in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas as well as analysis of expression of these proteins in association with clinical and pathological features of ..
  16. Ramkisoensing A, Pijnappels D, Askar S, Passier R, Swildens J, Goumans M, et al. Human embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages in contrast to their adult counterparts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24164 pubmed publisher
    ..Human embryonic and fetal MSCs differentiate toward three different cardiac lineages, in contrast to adult MSCs. Cardiomyogenesis is determined by stimuli from the cellular microenvironment, where connexin43 may play an important role. ..
  17. Ernst C, Nagy C, Kim S, Yang J, Deng X, Hellstrom I, et al. Dysfunction of astrocyte connexins 30 and 43 in dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex of suicide completers. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found reduced expression of Cx30 and Cx43 in DLPFC of suicide completers...
  18. Zoidl G, Kremer M, Zoidl C, Bunse S, Dermietzel R. Molecular diversity of connexin and pannexin genes in the retina of the zebrafish Danio rerio. Cell Commun Adhes. 2008;15:169-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This result demonstrates the presence of two distinct gap junction type gene families and indicates a remarkable molecular and functional diversity of gap junction-mediated coupling in the fish retina. ..
  19. Dardis G, Tryon R, Ton Q, Johnson S, Iovine M. Cx43 suppresses evx1 expression to regulate joint initiation in the regenerating fin. Dev Dyn. 2017;246:691-699 pubmed publisher
    ..From our studies on the regenerating fin, we have evidence that the gap junction protein Cx43 suppresses joint formation by suppressing the expression of the evx1 transcription factor...
  20. Park D, Freitas T, Wallick C, Guyette C, Warn Cramer B. Molecular dynamics and in vitro analysis of Connexin43: A new 14-3-3 mode-1 interacting protein. Protein Sci. 2006;15:2344-55 pubmed
    The interaction of cellular proteins with the gap junction protein Connexin43 (Cx43) is thought to form a dynamic scaffolding complex that functions as a platform for the assembly of signaling, structural, and cytoskeletal proteins...
  21. Dermietzel R, Kremer M, Paputsoglu G, Stang A, Skerrett I, Gomes D, et al. Molecular and functional diversity of neural connexins in the retina. J Neurosci. 2000;20:8331-43 pubmed
    ..5 (zfCx27.5), zfCx44.1, and zfCx55.5, and the carp ortholog of mammalian Cx43 were cloned...
  22. Heinrich M, Oberbach A, Schlichting N, Stolzenburg J, Neuhaus J. Cytokine effects on gap junction communication and connexin expression in human bladder smooth muscle cells and suburothelial myofibroblasts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20792 pubmed publisher
    ..IL) 4, IL6, IL10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF?1) on GJIC, and Cx43 and Cx45 expression in cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC) and human suburothelial myofibroblasts (..
  23. Li M, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight junction reassembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17998-8003 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent study showed that gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) and desmosome protein plakophilin-2 are working synergistically to modulate the BTB integrity by regulating the ..
  24. Liu R, Denovan Wright E, Degrave A, Thisse C, Thisse B, Wright J. Differential expression of duplicated genes for brain-type fatty acid-binding proteins (fabp7a and fabp7b) during early development of the CNS in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:379-87 pubmed
    ..In addition to being expressed in the developing brain and retina, zebrafish fabp7b mRNA was also detected in the swim bladder and pharynx during the embryonic to larval transitory phase. ..
  25. Palpant N, Hofsteen P, Pabon L, Reinecke H, Murry C. Cardiac development in zebrafish and human embryonic stem cells is inhibited by exposure to tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0126259 pubmed publisher
    ..Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than E-cigarettes and exhibit a broader spectrum of cardiac developmental defects. ..
  26. Yang H, Lu X, Chen D, Yuan W, Yang L, He H, et al. Upregulated expression of connexin43 in spinal ligament fibroblasts derived from patients presenting ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:2267-74 pubmed publisher
    A case-control study was conducted. To investigate different expressions of connexin43 (Cx43) between spinal ligament fibroblasts from patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and non-OPLL patients and ..
  27. Völkers M, Dolatabadi N, Gude N, Most P, Sussman M, Hassel D. Orai1 deficiency leads to heart failure and skeletal myopathy in zebrafish. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify ORAI1 as an important regulator of cardiac and skeletal muscle function and provide evidence linking ORAI1-mediated calcium signaling to sarcomere integrity and cardiomyocyte function. ..
  28. Chatterjee B, Chin A, Valdimarsson G, Finis C, Sonntag J, Choi B, et al. Developmental regulation and expression of the zebrafish connexin43 gene. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:890-906 pubmed
    ..The conservation of protein sequence and developmental gene regulation would suggest that Cx43alpha1 gap junctions are likely to have conserved roles in vertebrate embryonic development. ..
  29. Morais R, Nóbrega R, Gómez González N, Schmidt R, Bogerd J, França L, et al. Thyroid hormone stimulates the proliferation of Sertoli cells and single type A spermatogonia in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) testis. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our studies suggest that T3 expands the population of SCs and A(und) involving Igf signaling and potentiates gonadotropin-stimulated testicular androgen production as well as androgen sensitivity. ..
  30. Sharma P, Abbasi C, Lazic S, Teng A, Wang D, Dubois N, et al. Evolutionarily conserved intercalated disc protein Tmem65 regulates cardiac conduction and connexin 43 function. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8391 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular analyses suggest that Tmem65 interaction with connexin 43 (Cx43) is required for correct localization of Cx43 to the intercalated disc, since Tmem65 deletion results in marked ..
  31. Henke K, Daane J, Hawkins M, Dooley C, Busch Nentwich E, Stemple D, et al. Genetic Screen for Postembryonic Development in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Dominant Mutations Affecting Adult Form. Genetics. 2017;207:609-623 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that dominant screens are a feasible and productive means to identify mutations that can further our understanding of gene function during postembryonic development and in disease. ..
  32. Schuster K, Leeke B, Meier M, Wang Y, Newman T, Burgess S, et al. A neural crest origin for cohesinopathy heart defects. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:7005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results give insight into the etiology of heart defects in the cohesinopathies, and raise the possibility that mild mutations in cohesin genes may be causative of a fraction of congenital heart disease in human populations. ..
  33. Holzer L, Cor A, Holzer G. Expression of gap junction proteins connexins 26, 30, and 43 in Dupuytren's disease. Acta Orthop. 2014;85:97-101 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the expression of 3 GJ proteins, connexins 26, 30, and 43 (Cx26, Cx30, and Cx43) in DD...
  34. Ton Q, Iovine M. Identification of an evx1-dependent joint-formation pathway during FIN regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81240 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior studies from our lab indicate that the gap junction protein Cx43 suppresses joint formation. Remarkably, changes in Cx43 activity alter the expression of joint markers...
  35. Thi Thu H, Haw Tien S, Loh S, Bok Yan J, Korzh V. Tbx2a is required for specification of endodermal pouches during development of the pharyngeal arches. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77171 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this work provides mechanistic insight into the role of TBX2 in human disorders affecting the face and neck...
  36. Chi N, Bussen M, Brand Arzamendi K, Ding C, Olgin J, Shaw R, et al. Cardiac conduction is required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14662-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these in vivo studies indicate that cardiac electrical forces are required to preserve cardiac chamber morphology and may act as a key epigenetic factor in cardiac remodeling...
  37. Esain V, Postlethwait J, Charnay P, Ghislain J. FGF-receptor signalling controls neural cell diversity in the zebrafish hindbrain by regulating olig2 and sox9. Development. 2010;137:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, for the first time in vivo, our results reveal a mechanism of FGF in the control of neural cell diversity. ..
  38. Haffter P, Odenthal J, Mullins M, Lin S, Farrell M, Vogelsang E, et al. Mutations affecting pigmentation and shape of the adult zebrafish. Dev Genes Evol. 1996;206:260-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in sandy produced embryos that failed to express tyrosinase activity. These are potentially useful for using tyrosinase as a marker for the generation of transgenic lines of zebrafish. ..
  39. Jiang Q, Liu D, Sun S, Hu J, Tan L, Wang Y, et al. Critical role of connexin43 in zebrafish late primitive and definitive hematopoiesis. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2010;36:945-51 pubmed publisher
    In vitro studies have suggested that connexin43 (cx43) expression is of particular importance during establishment and regeneration of the mammalian hematopoietic system...
  40. Iovine M, Gumpert A, Falk M, Mendelson T. Cx23, a connexin with only four extracellular-loop cysteines, forms functional gap junction channels and hemichannels. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:165-70 pubmed
    ..Functional assays reveal that the Cx23 gap junctions are capable of sharing neurobiotin, and further, that Cx23 connexins form hemichannels in vitro. ..
  41. Wang J, Wu Y, Zhao F, Wu Y, Dong W, Zhao J, et al. Fgf-signaling-dependent Sox9a and Atoh1a regulate otic neural development in zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2015;35:234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These newly uncovered roles for Atoh1and Sox9 in zebrafish otic development may be relevant to study in other species. ..
  42. Govindan J, Iovine M. Hapln1a is required for connexin43-dependent growth and patterning in the regenerating fin skeleton. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88574 pubmed publisher
    ..Connexins (cx) are the subunits of a gap junction channel. Mutations in zebrafish cx43 produces the short fin (sof (b123) ) phenotype and is characterized by short fins due to reduced segment length of ..
  43. Bhadra J, Iovine M. Hsp47 mediates Cx43-dependent skeletal growth and patterning in the regenerating fin. Mech Dev. 2015;138 Pt 3:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our examination of the fin length mutant short fin (sof (b123)) has revealed that the gap junction protein Cx43 is involved in skeletal morphogenesis by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting joint formation, thereby ..
  44. Cechmanek P, McFarlane S. Retinal pigment epithelium expansion around the neural retina occurs in two separate phases with distinct mechanisms. Dev Dyn. 2017;246:598-609 pubmed publisher
    ..RPE development to produce the monolayer epithelium that covers the back of the neural retina occurs in two distinct phases driven by distinct mechanisms. Developmental Dynamics 246:598-609, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  45. Chatterjee B, Li Y, Zdanowicz M, Sonntag J, Chin A, Kozlowski D, et al. Analysis of Cx43alpha1 promoter function in the developing zebrafish embryo. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:289-92 pubmed
    ..Overall these studies suggest that the sequence motifs and transcriptional regulation involved in the targeting Cx43alpha1 expression to neural crest cells are evolutionarily conserved in zebrafish and mouse embryos. ..