Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: ctnnb1
Description: catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1
Alias: ctnnb, id:ibd2058, wu:fb73e10, wu:fi81c06, wu:fk25h01, catenin beta-1, beta-catenin
- Baas D, Caussanel Boude S, Guiraud A, Calhabeu F, Delaune E, Pilot F, et al. CKIP-1 regulates mammalian and zebrafish myoblast fusion. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3790-800 pubmed publisher..These results establish CKIP-1 as a regulator of cortical actin that recruits the Arp2/3 complex at the plasma membrane essential for muscle precursor elongation and fusion. ..
- Jiang Y, Luo W, Howe P. Dab2 stabilizes Axin and attenuates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by preventing protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-Axin interactions. Oncogene. 2009;28:2999-3007 pubmed publisher..We conclude that Dab2 stabilizes Axin and attenuates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by preventing PP1 from binding Axin. ..
- Martin E, Grealy M. Plakoglobin expression and localization in zebrafish embryo development. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:797-8 pubmed..At 24- and 72-hpf, separate patterns were seen for plakoglobin and beta-catenin. These data indicate that plakoglobin localization in the heart region shifts from adherens junctions to desmosomes during heart chamber development. ..
- Her G, Cheng C, Hong J, Sundaram G, Wu J. Imbalance in liver homeostasis leading to hyperplasia by overexpressing either one of the Bcl-2-related genes, zfBLP1 and zfMcl-1a. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:515-23 pubmed
- Li M, Hu X, Zhu J, Zhu C, Zhu S, Liu X, et al. Overexpression of miR-19b impairs cardiac development in zebrafish by targeting ctnnb1. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014;33:1988-2002 pubmed publisher..that overexpression of miR-19b induces the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway by directly targeting ctnnb1. Interestingly, the deformed cardiac phenotype was partially rescued by treatment with the GSK3? inhibitor lithium ..
- Varga M, Maegawa S, Bellipanni G, Weinberg E. Chordin expression, mediated by Nodal and FGF signaling, is restricted by redundant function of two beta-catenins in the zebrafish embryo. Mech Dev. 2007;124:775-91 pubmed
- Lee Y, Kim Y, Yun J, Lee C. Valproic acid decreases the proliferation of telencephalic cells in zebrafish larvae. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013;39:91-9 pubmed publisher..These results may be due to the restoration of cell proliferation during the recovery period after VPA treatment. ..
- Wincent E, Stegeman J, JÃ¶nsson M. Combination effects of AHR agonists and Wnt/Î²-catenin modulators in zebrafish embryos: Implications for physiological and toxicological AHR functions. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015;284:163-79 pubmed publisher..We propose that the AHR has a physiological role in regulating Î²-catenin during development, and that this is one point of intersection linking toxicological and physiological AHR-governed processes. ..
- Brunet T, Bouclet A, Ahmadi P, Mitrossilis D, Driquez B, Brunet A, et al. Evolutionary conservation of early mesoderm specification by mechanotransduction in Bilateria. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2821 pubmed publisher..This suggests mesoderm mechanical induction dating back to at least the last bilaterian common ancestor more than 570 million years ago, the period during which mesoderm is thought to have emerged...
- Liu J, Zhang D, Xie X, Ouyang G, Liu X, Sun Y, et al. Eaf1 and Eaf2 negatively regulate canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Development. 2013;140:1067-78 pubmed publisher..In summary, our evidence points to a novel role for Eaf1 and Eaf2 in inhibiting canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which might form the mechanistic basis for Eaf1 and Eaf2 tumor suppressor activity. ..
- Rui Y, Xu Z, Xiong B, Cao Y, Lin S, Zhang M, et al. A beta-catenin-independent dorsalization pathway activated by Axin/JNK signaling and antagonized by aida. Dev Cell. 2007;13:268-82 pubmed..We have thus identified a dorsalization pathway that is exerted by Axin/JNK signaling and its inhibitor Aida during vertebrate embryogenesis. ..
- Kang N, Won M, Rhee M, Ro H. Siah ubiquitin ligases modulate nodal signaling during zebrafish embryonic development. Mol Cells. 2014;37:389-98 pubmed publisher..Additionally, since the embryos injected with Siah morpholinos mimicked the atv overexpression phenotype at least in part, our data support a model in which Siah is involved in mesendoderm patterning via modulating Nodal signaling. ..
- Yue C, Ji C, Zhang H, Zhang L, Tong J, Jiang Y, et al. Protective effects of folic acid on PM2.5-induced cardiac developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos by targeting AhR and Wnt/?-catenin signal pathways. Environ Toxicol. 2017;32:2316-2322 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, our study suggested that FA supplementation protected against PM2.5 cardiac development toxicity by targeting AhR and Wnt/?-catenin signal pathways. ..
- Marin O, Bustos V, Cesaro L, Meggio F, Pagano M, Antonelli M, et al. A noncanonical sequence phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 in beta-catenin may play a role in casein kinase 1 targeting of important signaling proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10193-200 pubmed..There is a strong correlation of beta-catenin mutations found in thyroid tumors with the motifs recognized by CK1 in this protein. ..
- Schneider I, Houston D, Rebagliati M, Slusarski D. Calcium fluxes in dorsal forerunner cells antagonize beta-catenin and alter left-right patterning. Development. 2008;135:75-84 pubmed..As in zebrafish, manipulation of Ca(2+) release results in ectopic nuclear beta-catenin and altered laterality. Overall, our data support a conserved early Ca(2+) requirement in DFC-like cell function in zebrafish and Xenopus. ..
- Kuusela S, Wang H, Wasik A, Suleiman H, Lehtonen S. Tankyrase inhibition aggravates kidney injury in the absence of CD2AP. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2302 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, the data reveal that careful contemplation is required when targeting Wnt/Î²-catenin pathway to treat proteinuric kidney diseases associated with impaired CD2AP. ..
- Xie X, Liu J, Hu B, Xiao W. Zebrafish foxo3b negatively regulates canonical Wnt signaling to affect early embryogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24469 pubmed publisher..Our studies provide an in vivo model for illustrating function of FOXO transcription factors in embryogenesis. ..
- Sesé B, Barrero M, Fabregat M, Sander V, Izpisua Belmonte J. SMYD2 is induced during cell differentiation and participates in early development. Int J Dev Biol. 2013;57:357-64 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these findings suggest that SMYD2 plays a critical role at early stages of development and in human ES cell differentiation. ..
- Pelegri F. Maternal factors in zebrafish development. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:535-54 pubmed
- Tallafuss A, Trepman A, Eisen J. DeltaA mRNA and protein distribution in the zebrafish nervous system. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:3226-36 pubmed publisher..In the adult brain, dla mRNA and Dla protein are expressed in proliferative zones normally associated with stem cells. ..
- Montero J, Carvalho L, Wilsch Bräuninger M, Kilian B, Mustafa C, Heisenberg C. Shield formation at the onset of zebrafish gastrulation. Development. 2005;132:1187-98 pubmed
- Chen M, Philipp M, Wang J, Premont R, Garrison T, Caron M, et al. G Protein-coupled receptor kinases phosphorylate LRP6 in the Wnt pathway. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35040-8 pubmed publisher..Expression of GRK5 rescues the diminished beta-catenin and axin2 response caused by GRK5 depletion. Thus, our findings identify GRK5/6 as novel kinases for the single transmembrane receptor LRP6 during Wnt signaling. ..
- Komiya Y, Mandrekar N, Sato A, Dawid I, Habas R. Custos controls Î²-catenin to regulate head development during vertebrate embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13099-104 pubmed publisher..Our studies suggest a role for Custos in fine-tuning canonical Wnt signal transduction during embryogenesis, adding an additional layer of regulatory control in the Wnt-Î²-catenin signal transduction cascade. ..
- Wada H, Ghysen A, Asakawa K, Abe G, Ishitani T, Kawakami K. Wnt/Dkk negative feedback regulates sensory organ size in zebrafish. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1559-65 pubmed publisher..This study establishes Wnt/Dkk as a novel mechanism to determine the final size of an organ. ..
- Li J, Yue Y, Zhao Q. Retinoic Acid Signaling Is Essential for Valvulogenesis by Affecting Endocardial Cushions Formation in Zebrafish Embryos. Zebrafish. 2016;13:9-18 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our results suggest that RA signaling plays essential roles in zebrafish cardiac valvulogenesis. ..
- Cernaro V, Sfacteria A, Rifici C, MacrÃ¬ F, Maricchiolo G, Lacquaniti A, et al. Renoprotective effect of erythropoietin in zebrafish after administration of gentamicin: an immunohistochemical study for Î²-catenin and c-kit expression. J Nephrol. 2017;30:385-391 pubmed publisher..The expression of c-kit and Î²-catenin suggests that erythropoietin may exert a role in regeneration reducing the extent of tubular damage from the outset after gentamicin administration. ..
- Trinh L, Stainier D. Fibronectin regulates epithelial organization during myocardial migration in zebrafish. Dev Cell. 2004;6:371-82 pubmed..These data suggest that myocardial migration is dependent on epithelial integrity. ..
- Nam M, Kim G, Yun S, Jang J, Kim Y, Choi E, et al. Harmless effects of argon plasma on caudal fin regeneration and embryogenesis of zebrafish: novel biological approaches for safe medical applications of bioplasma. Exp Mol Med. 2017;49:e355 pubmed publisher..Therefore, our biosafety evaluation tools that use living model systems can be used to provide an experimental guideline to determine the clinically safe dosage of Ar-PJ. ..
- Bo L, Liu Z, Zhong Y, Huang J, Chen B, Wang H, et al. Iron deficiency anemia's effect on bone formation in zebrafish mutant. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;475:271-6 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that iron deficiency anemia affects bone formation, potentially through the BMPs signaling pathway in zebrafish. ..
- Schwarz Romond T, Asbrand C, Bakkers J, Kuhl M, Schaeffer H, Huelsken J, et al. The ankyrin repeat protein Diversin recruits Casein kinase Iepsilon to the beta-catenin degradation complex and acts in both canonical Wnt and Wnt/JNK signaling. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2073-84 pubmed..Our data show that Diversin is an essential component of the Wnt-signaling pathway and acts as a molecular switch, which suppresses Wnt signals mediated by the canonical beta-catenin pathway and stimulates signaling via JNK. ..
- Meyers J, Hu L, Moses A, Kaboli K, Papandrea A, Raymond P. ?-catenin/Wnt signaling controls progenitor fate in the developing and regenerating zebrafish retina. Neural Dev. 2012;7:30 pubmed publisher..This suggests that the ?-catenin/Wnt cascade is part of the shared molecular circuitry that maintains retinal stem cells for both homeostatic growth and epimorphic regeneration. ..
- Zhou X, Siu W, Zhang C, Liu C, Cheng L, Kwok H, et al. Whole extracts of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and Radix Cyathulae promote angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro and in zebrafish in vivo. Exp Ther Med. 2017;13:1032-1038 pubmed publisher..It is concluded that the whole extracts of RAB and RC induced angiogenesis in HUVECs in vitro and in zebrafish in vivo via increasing cell migration. ..
- Gorsuch R, Lahne M, Yarka C, Petravick M, Li J, Hyde D. Sox2 regulates Müller glia reprogramming and proliferation in the regenerating zebrafish retina via Lin28 and Ascl1a. Exp Eye Res. 2017;161:174-192 pubmed publisher..Finally, loss of Sox2 expression prevented complete regeneration of cone photoreceptors. This study is the first to identify a functional role for Sox2 during Müller glial-based regeneration of the vertebrate retina. ..
- Cerda J, Reidenbach S, Prätzel S, Franke W. Cadherin-catenin complexes during zebrafish oogenesis: heterotypic junctions between oocytes and follicle cells. Biol Reprod. 1999;61:692-704 pubmed..These findings suggest possible roles of these junctional proteins during early embryogenesis. ..
- Wu S, Shin J, Sepich D, Solnica Krezel L. Chemokine GPCR signaling inhibits ?-catenin during zebrafish axis formation. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001403 pubmed publisher..Our study delineates a novel negative, Gsk3?-independent control mechanism of ?-catenin and implicates Ccr7 as a long-hypothesized GPCR regulating vertebrate axis formation. ..
- Brembeck F, Schwarz Romond T, Bakkers J, Wilhelm S, Hammerschmidt M, Birchmeier W. Essential role of BCL9-2 in the switch between beta-catenin's adhesive and transcriptional functions. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2225-30 pubmed..During zebrafish embryogenesis, BCL9-2 acts in the Wnt8-signaling pathway and regulates mesoderm patterning. ..
- Harrington M, Chalasani K, Brewster R. Cellular mechanisms of posterior neural tube morphogenesis in the zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:747-62 pubmed publisher..Overall, these mechanisms resemble those previously described in anterior regions, suggesting that, in contrast to amniotes, neurulation is a fairly uniform process in zebrafish. ..
- Goessling W, North T, Lord A, Ceol C, Lee S, Weidinger G, et al. APC mutant zebrafish uncover a changing temporal requirement for wnt signaling in liver development. Dev Biol. 2008;320:161-74 pubmed publisher..These studies reveal an important and time-dependent role for wnt signaling during liver development and regeneration. ..
- Evason K, Francisco M, Juric V, Balakrishnan S, Lopez Pazmino M, Gordan J, et al. Identification of Chemical Inhibitors of Î²-Catenin-Driven Liver Tumorigenesis in Zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005305 pubmed publisher..In support of this proposal, we found that amitriptyline decreased tumor burden in a mouse HCC model. Our studies implicate JNK inhibitors and antidepressants as potential therapeutics for Î²-catenin-induced liver tumors. ..
- Cadwalader E, Condic M, Yost H. 2-O-sulfotransferase regulates Wnt signaling, cell adhesion and cell cycle during zebrafish epiboly. Development. 2012;139:1296-305 pubmed publisher..Together, these results indicate that 2-OST functions within the Wnt pathway, downstream of Wnt ligand signaling and upstream of Gsk3? and ?-catenin intracellular localization and function. ..
- Kapsimali M, Caneparo L, Houart C, Wilson S. Inhibition of Wnt/Axin/beta-catenin pathway activity promotes ventral CNS midline tissue to adopt hypothalamic rather than floorplate identity. Development. 2004;131:5923-33 pubmed
- Hao J, Ao A, Zhou L, Murphy C, Frist A, Keel J, et al. Selective small molecule targeting Î²-catenin function discovered by in vivo chemical genetic screen. Cell Rep. 2013;4:898-904 pubmed publisher..Finally, windorphen robustly and selectively kills cancer cells that harbor Wnt-activating mutations, supporting the therapeutic potential of this Wnt inhibitor class. ..
- Chollett D, Perez K, KING HEIDEN T. Embryonic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin impairs prey capture by zebrafish larvae. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:784-90 pubmed..Furthermore, the present work provides additional evidence that behavioral end points are often more sensitive than morphological ones and should be included when assessing the sublethal toxicity of environmental contaminants. ..
- Horne Badovinac S, Lin D, Waldron S, Schwarz M, Mbamalu G, Pawson T, et al. Positional cloning of heart and soul reveals multiple roles for PKC lambda in zebrafish organogenesis. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1492-502 pubmed..Furthermore, our studies identify the first genetic locus regulating the orientation of cell division in vertebrates. ..
- Carl M, Bianco I, Bajoghli B, Aghaallaei N, Czerny T, Wilson S. Wnt/Axin1/beta-catenin signaling regulates asymmetric nodal activation, elaboration, and concordance of CNS asymmetries. Neuron. 2007;55:393-405 pubmed..We identify a second role for the Wnt pathway in the left/right regulation of LPM Nodal pathway gene expression, and finally, we show that at later stages Axin1 is required for the elaboration of concordant neuroanatomical asymmetries. ..
- Leung T, Söll I, Arnold S, Kemler R, Driever W. Direct binding of Lef1 to sites in the boz promoter may mediate pre-midblastula-transition activation of boz expression. Dev Dyn. 2003;228:424-32 pubmed..Thus, the early onset of boz expression may be crucial for organizer establishment in the presence of ubiquitous maternal activators of ventralizing genes. ..
- Jülich D, Geisler R, Holley S. Integrinalpha5 and delta/notch signaling have complementary spatiotemporal requirements during zebrafish somitogenesis. Dev Cell. 2005;8:575-86 pubmed..Our data suggest that notch- and integrinalpha5-dependent cell polarization and Fibronectin matrix assembly occur concomitantly and interdependently during border morphogenesis. ..
- Shi G, Cui Q, Pan Y, Sheng N, Sun S, Guo Y, et al. 6:2 Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate, a PFOS alternative, induces embryotoxicity and disrupts cardiac development in zebrafish embryos. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;185:67-75 pubmed publisher..Thus, exposure to F-53B impaired the development of zebrafish embryos and disrupted cardiac development, which might be mediated by effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and decrease of erythrocyte numbers. ..
- De Rienzo G, Bishop J, Mao Y, Pan L, Ma T, Moens C, et al. Disc1 regulates both ?-catenin-mediated and noncanonical Wnt signaling during vertebrate embryogenesis. FASEB J. 2011;25:4184-97 pubmed publisher..This is the first demonstration that Disc1 modulates the noncanonical Wnt pathway and suggests a previously unconsidered mechanism by which Disc1 may contribute to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. ..
- Ro H, Dawid I. Modulation of Tcf3 repressor complex composition regulates cdx4 expression in zebrafish. EMBO J. 2011;30:2894-907 pubmed publisher..We propose that the modulation of Tcf3 repressor function by E4f1 assures precise and robust regulation of cdx4 expression in the caudal domain of the embryo. ..
- Osborn D, Roccasecca R, McMurray F, Hernandez Hernandez V, Mukherjee S, Barroso I, et al. Loss of FTO antagonises Wnt signaling and leads to developmental defects associated with ciliopathies. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e87662 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, we present the first evidence that FTO plays a role in development and cilia formation/function. ..
- Valenti F, Ibetti J, Komiya Y, Baxter M, Lucchese A, Derstine L, et al. The increase in maternal expression of axin1 and axin2 contribute to the zebrafish mutant ichabod ventralized phenotype. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116:418-30 pubmed publisher..Finally, we present evidence that Î²-catenin1 cannot revert the ich phenotype because it may be under the control of a GSK3Î²-independent mechanism that required Axin's RGS domain function. ..
- Shimizu N, Ishitani S, Sato A, Shibuya H, Ishitani T. Hipk2 and PP1c cooperate to maintain Dvl protein levels required for Wnt signal transduction. Cell Rep. 2014;8:1391-404 pubmed publisher..This regulation may be a negative feedback mechanism that fine-tunes Wnt/Î²-catenin signaling. ..
- Eroglu B, Wang G, Tu N, Sun X, Mivechi N. Critical role of Brg1 member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex during neurogenesis and neural crest induction in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2722-35 pubmed..This is exhibited by the aberrant brain patterning, a reduction in the sensory neurons, and craniofacial defects. These results further elucidate the critical role for Brg1 in neurogenesis, neural crest induction, and differentiation. ..
- Van Raay T, Fortino N, Miller B, Ma H, Lau G, Li C, et al. Naked1 antagonizes Wnt signaling by preventing nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18650 pubmed publisher..Given the conserved nature of Nkd1, our results shed light on the negative feedback regulation of Wnt signaling through the Nkd1-mediated negative control of nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin. ..
- Klaus A, Saga Y, Taketo M, Tzahor E, Birchmeier W. Distinct roles of Wnt/beta-catenin and Bmp signaling during early cardiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18531-6 pubmed
- Verstraeten B, van Hengel J, Huysseune A. Beta-Catenin and Plakoglobin Expression during Zebrafish Tooth Development and Replacement. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148114 pubmed publisher..Nuclear Î²-catenin is an indication of an activated Wnt pathway, therefore suggesting a possible role for Wnt signalling during zebrafish tooth development and replacement. ..
- Zhai G, Song J, Shu T, Yan J, Jin X, He J, et al. LRH-1 senses signaling from phosphatidylcholine to regulate the expansion growth of digestive organs via synergy with Wnt/Î²-catenin signaling in zebrafish. J Genet Genomics. 2017;44:307-317 pubmed publisher..These data provide evidence for the crosstalk between the PC/LRH-1 and Wnt/Î²-catenin signaling pathways during the expansion growth of endoderm organs. ..
- Schall K, Holoyda K, Isani M, Schlieve C, Salisbury T, Khuu T, et al. Intestinal adaptation in proximal and distal segments: Two epithelial responses diverge after intestinal separation. Surgery. 2017;161:1016-1027 pubmed publisher..Igf1r inhibition abrogates the increase in distal Sox9a expression that otherwise occurs in short bowel syndrome. Mechanoluminal flow is an important stimulus for intestinal adaptation. ..
- Sonawane M, Carpio Y, Geisler R, Schwarz H, Maischein H, Nuesslein Volhard C. Zebrafish penner/lethal giant larvae 2 functions in hemidesmosome formation, maintenance of cellular morphology and growth regulation in the developing basal epidermis. Development. 2005;132:3255-65 pubmed..Here, we have unravelled an essential function of lgl2 during development of the epidermis in vertebrates. ..
- Schall K, Thornton M, Isani M, Holoyda K, Hou X, Lien C, et al. Short bowel syndrome results in increased gene expression associated with proliferation, inflammation, bile acid synthesis and immune system activation: RNA sequencing a zebrafish SBS model. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:23 pubmed publisher..Gene expression of ctnnb1, ccnb1, ccnd1, cyp7a1a, dkk3, ifng1-2, igf2a, il1b, lef1, nos2b, saa1, stat3, tnfa and wnt5a were confirmed to be ..
- Xing Y, Takemaru K, Liu J, Berndt J, Zheng J, Moon R, et al. Crystal structure of a full-length beta-catenin. Structure. 2008;16:478-87 pubmed publisher..Our crystallographic and NMR studies also suggest that the unstructured N-terminal and C-terminal tails interact with the ordered armadillo repeat domain in a dynamic and variable manner. ..
- He Y, Cai C, Sun S, Wang X, Li W, Li H. Effect of JNK inhibitor SP600125 on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Oncotarget. 2016;7:51640-51650 pubmed publisher..Together, our findings provide novel insights into the function of JNK and show that JNK inhibition blocks hair cell regeneration by controlling the Wnt signalling pathway. ..
- Wehner D, Tsarouchas T, Michael A, Haase C, Weidinger G, Reimer M, et al. Wnt signaling controls pro-regenerative Collagen XII in functional spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Nat Commun. 2017;8:126 pubmed publisher..Here, the authors show that Wnt/?-catenin signaling in fibroblast-like cells at a lesion activates axon re-growth via deposition of Collagen XII. ..
- Herpin A, Rohr S, Riedel D, Kluever N, Raz E, Schartl M. Specification of primordial germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes). BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:3 pubmed..Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea that in medaka the inheritance of maternally provided asymmetrically-localized cytoplasmic determinants directs cells to assume the germ line fate similar to zebrafish PGCs. ..
- Hüsken U, Carl M. The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway establishes neuroanatomical asymmetries and their laterality. Mech Dev. 2013;130:330-5 pubmed publisher..The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has turned out to play a pivotal role in the regulation of brain laterality and asymmetry and acts reiteratively during embryonic development. ..