crx

Summary

Gene Symbol: crx
Description: cone-rod homeobox
Alias: cone-rod homeobox protein
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Kawamura S, Takeshita K, Tsujimura T, Kasagi S, Matsumoto Y. Evolutionarily conserved and divergent regulatory sequences in the fish rod opsin promoter. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;141:391-9 pubmed
    ..conserved OTX (GATTA) and OTX-like (TATTA) sequences that can be recognized by the mammalian cone-rod homeobox (CRX) protein. However, binding of zebrafish crx to the OTX sequence has remained elusive...
  2. Vitorino M, Jusuf P, Maurus D, Kimura Y, Higashijima S, Harris W. Vsx2 in the zebrafish retina: restricted lineages through derepression. Neural Dev. 2009;4:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus suggest Vsx2-positive RPCs are fully multipotent retinal progenitors and that when Vsx2 is downregulated, Vsx2-negative progenitors escape Vsx2 repression and so are able to express factors that restrict lineage potential. ..
  3. Zhang Y, Yang Y, Trujillo C, Zhong W, Leung Y. The expression of irx7 in the inner nuclear layer of zebrafish retina is essential for a proper retinal development and lamination. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36145 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the expression of known TFs that can specify specific retinal cell type was also altered in Irx7-deficient retinas, thus the irx7 gene network is possibly a novel regulatory circuit for retinal development and lamination. ..
  4. Linder B, Dill H, Hirmer A, Brocher J, Lee G, Mathavan S, et al. Systemic splicing factor deficiency causes tissue-specific defects: a zebrafish model for retinitis pigmentosa. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:368-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, various routes affecting the tri-snRNP can elicit tissue-specific gene expression defects and lead to the RP phenotype. ..
  5. Rai K, Chidester S, Zavala C, Manos E, James S, Karpf A, et al. Dnmt2 functions in the cytoplasm to promote liver, brain, and retina development in zebrafish. Genes Dev. 2007;21:261-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, zebrafish Dnmt2 methylates an RNA species of approximately 80 bases, consistent with tRNA methylation. Thus, Dnmt2 promotes zebrafish development, likely through cytoplasmic RNA methylation. ..
  6. Ochocinska M, Hitchcock P. Dynamic expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neuroD in the rod and cone photoreceptor lineages in the retina of the embryonic and larval zebrafish. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:1-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, neuroD is coexpressed with the cone-rod-homeobox transcription factor (Crx) in putative cone progenitors and nascent cone photoreceptors, suggesting that, in the zebrafish retina, as in ..
  7. Pretorius P, Baye L, Nishimura D, Searby C, Bugge K, Yang B, et al. Identification and functional analysis of the vision-specific BBS3 (ARL6) long isoform. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000884 pubmed publisher
    ..Bbs3L-null mice lack key features of previously published Bbs-null mice, including obesity. These data demonstrate that the BBS3L transcript is required for proper retinal function and organization. ..
  8. Nelson S, Park L, Stenkamp D. Retinal homeobox 1 is required for retinal neurogenesis and photoreceptor differentiation in embryonic zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2009;328:24-39 pubmed publisher
  9. Yen H, Tayeh M, Mullins R, Stone E, Sheffield V, Slusarski D. Bardet-Biedl syndrome genes are important in retrograde intracellular trafficking and Kupffer's vesicle cilia function. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:667-77 pubmed
    ..These studies are the first to comprehensively compare the diverse group of BBS genes in parallel and demonstrate a common role in intracellular trafficking, indicating that BBS proteins are involved in general organelle trafficking. ..

More Information

Publications59

  1. Bernardos R, Barthel L, Meyers J, Raymond P. Late-stage neuronal progenitors in the retina are radial Müller glia that function as retinal stem cells. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7028-40 pubmed
    ..Müller glia-derived progenitors express Crx (cone rod homeobox) and are late retinal progenitors that generate the rod photoreceptor lineage in the ..
  2. Shen Y, Raymond P. Zebrafish cone-rod (crx) homeobox gene promotes retinogenesis. Dev Biol. 2004;269:237-51 pubmed
    The mammalian Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene is a divergent member of the Otx gene family known to be involved in differentiation and survival of retinal photoreceptors and photoentrainment of circadian rhythms...
  3. Suzuki S, Bleckert A, Williams P, Takechi M, Kawamura S, Wong R. Cone photoreceptor types in zebrafish are generated by symmetric terminal divisions of dedicated precursors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic expression of tr?2 after cone differentiation produces cones with mixed opsins. Temporal differences in the onset of tr?2 expression could explain why some species have mixed, and others have pure, cone types. ..
  4. Nelson S, Frey R, Wardwell S, Stenkamp D. The developmental sequence of gene expression within the rod photoreceptor lineage in embryonic zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2903-17 pubmed publisher
    ..expression was accompanied by sporadic upregulation of expression of the transcription factors NeuroD/nrd, rx1, crx, and Nr2e3/pnr...
  5. Forbes Osborne M, Wilson S, Morris A. Insulinoma-associated 1a (Insm1a) is required for photoreceptor differentiation in the zebrafish retina. Dev Biol. 2013;380:157-71 pubmed publisher
    ..upstream of the bHLH transcription factors ath5/atoh7 and neurod, and the photoreceptor specification genes crx and nr2e3. Finally, we show that insm1a is negatively regulated by Notch-Delta signaling...
  6. Taylor S, Alvarez Delfin K, Saade C, Thomas J, Thummel R, Fadool J, et al. The bHLH Transcription Factor NeuroD Governs Photoreceptor Genesis and Regeneration Through Delta-Notch Signaling. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:7496-515 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, during embryonic development, NeuroD governs photoreceptor maturation via mechanisms that are independent of Notch signaling. ..
  7. Wu S, de Borsetti N, Bain E, Bulow C, Gamse J. Mediator subunit 12 coordinates intrinsic and extrinsic control of epithalamic development. Dev Biol. 2014;385:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the Mediator complex is responsible for subtle but significant changes in transcriptional timing and amplitude that are essential for coordinating the development of neurons in the epithalamus. ..
  8. Zhang Y, Wang Y, Xu G, Song H, Wang W. [Influence of CRX gene on development of photoreceptors in zebrafish]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2008;44:448-54 pubmed
    To study the development and opsin expression of zebrafish photoreceptors after CRX gene knock-down. It was a experimental study. CRX-MOs was microinjected into the zygote of zebrafish...
  9. Almeida A, Boije H, Chow R, He J, Tham J, Suzuki S, et al. Spectrum of Fates: a new approach to the study of the developing zebrafish retina. Development. 2014;141:1971-80 pubmed publisher
  10. Meng F, Braasch I, Phillips J, Lin X, Titus T, Zhang C, et al. Evolution of the eye transcriptome under constant darkness in Sinocyclocheilus cavefish. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:1527-43 pubmed publisher
    ..factors shown to have direct roles in retinal development and maintenance, including cone-rod homeobox (crx) and Wnt pathway members...
  11. Babb S, Kotradi S, Shah B, Chiappini Williamson C, Bell L, Schmeiser G, et al. Zebrafish R-cadherin (Cdh4) controls visual system development and differentiation. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:930-45 pubmed
    ..Cdh4 is necessary for neural retina survival and differentiation, and required for normal retinotectal projection formation and tectal arborization. ..
  12. George A, Hayden S, Holzhausen L, Ma E, Suzuki S, Brockerhoff S. Synaptojanin 1 is required for endolysosomal trafficking of synaptic proteins in cone photoreceptor inner segments. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e84394 pubmed publisher
    ..This last pathway also appears exacerbated by darkness. Taken altogether, these findings show that SynJ1 is required in cones for normal endolysosomal trafficking of synaptic proteins. ..
  13. Li Y, Li G, Wang H, Du J, Yan J. Analysis of a gene regulatory cascade mediating circadian rhythm in zebrafish. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1002940 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study describes a systematic method to discover previously unidentified TFs involved in circadian physiology in complex organisms. ..
  14. Dhakal S, Stevens C, Sebbagh M, Weiss O, Frey R, Adamson S, et al. Abnormal retinal development in Cloche mutant zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:1439-1455 pubmed publisher
    ..The disorganized retinal phenotype of clo-/- embryos is consistent with a neural and glial developmental patterning role for the early ocular vasculature that is independent of its eventual function in gas exchange. ..
  15. Stenkamp D, Frey R, Mallory D, Shupe E. Embryonic retinal gene expression in sonic-you mutant zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2002;225:344-50 pubmed
    ..We also find that Hh signaling is important for retinal cell proliferation and retinal cell survival; together, these functions provide an explanation for progressive microphthalmia in the syu-/- mutant. ..
  16. Serifi I, Tzima E, Soupsana K, Karetsou Z, Beis D, Papamarcaki T. The zebrafish homologs of SET/I2PP2A oncoprotein: expression patterns and insights into their physiological roles during development. Biochem J. 2016;473:4609-4627 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that seta and setb are required during embryogenesis and play roles in the zebrafish sensory system development. ..
  17. Chung H, Chang C, Young H, Hu S, Tzou W, Hu C. Ethanol inhibits retinal and CNS differentiation due to failure of cell cycle exit via an apoptosis-independent pathway. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013;38:92-103 pubmed publisher
    ..ethanol treatment of embryos reduced expression of the mature neural and photoreceptor markers elavl3/huC, rho, and crx; in addition, expression of the neural and retinal progenitor markers ascl1b and pax6b was maintained at the ..
  18. Liu Q, Frey R, Babb Clendenon S, Liu B, Francl J, Wilson A, et al. Differential expression of photoreceptor-specific genes in the retina of a zebrafish cadherin2 mutant glass onion and zebrafish cadherin4 morphants. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84:163-75 pubmed
    ..of zebrafish photoreceptors, we have analyzed expression patterns of several photoreceptor-specific genes (crx, gnat1, gnat2, irbp, otx5, rod opsin, rx1, and uv opsin) and/or a cone photoreceptor marker (zpr-1) in the retina ..
  19. Eichenbaum J, Cinaroglu A, Eichenbaum K, Sadler K. A zebrafish retinal graded photochemical stress model. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2009;59:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenotypic and genetic changes observed from this model can serve as a basis for understanding the pathology of retinal oxidative and cellular stress. These changes may aid our understanding of aging and macular degeneration. ..
  20. Muralidharan P, Sarmah S, Marrs J. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement. Alcohol. 2015;49:149-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. ..
  21. Kashyap B, Frederickson L, Stenkamp D. Mechanisms for persistent microphthalmia following ethanol exposure during retinal neurogenesis in zebrafish embryos. Vis Neurosci. 2007;24:409-21 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ethanol exposure over the time of retinal neurogenesis resulted in persistent microphthalmia due to a combination of an overall developmental delay, lens abnormalities, and reduced retinal cell differentiation. ..
  22. Sotolongo Lopez M, Alvarez Delfin K, Saade C, Vera D, Fadool J. Genetic Dissection of Dual Roles for the Transcription Factor six7 in Photoreceptor Development and Patterning in Zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005968 pubmed publisher
  23. Mullally M, Albrecht C, Horton M, Laboissonniere L, Goetz J, Chowdhury R, et al. Expression Profiling of Developing Zebrafish Retinal Cells. Zebrafish. 2016;13:272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis of these profiles will reveal genes that can be mutated using genome editing techniques. Together these studies increase our knowledge of the genes driving development of different cell types in the zebrafish retina. ..
  24. Yokoi H, Yan Y, Miller M, Bremiller R, Catchen J, Johnson E, et al. Expression profiling of zebrafish sox9 mutants reveals that Sox9 is required for retinal differentiation. Dev Biol. 2009;329:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Results identified genes expressed in cartilage (col2a1a and col11a2), retina (calb2a, calb2b, crx, neurod, rs1, sox4a and vsx1) and pectoral fin bud (klf2b and EST AI722369) as candidate targets for Sox9...
  25. Otteson D, Tsujikawa M, Gunatilaka T, Malicki J, Zack D. Genomic organization of zebrafish cone-rod homeobox gene and exclusion as a candidate gene for retinal degeneration in niezerka and mikre oko. Mol Vis. 2005;11:986-95 pubmed
    To determine the genomic organization of the zebrafish crx gene and to evaluate if mutations in crx are responsible for the retinal degeneration phenotype in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) mutants niezerka (nie(m743)) and mikre oko (mok(..
  26. Viringipurampeer I, Shan X, Gregory Evans K, Zhang J, Mohammadi Z, Gregory Evans C. Rip3 knockdown rescues photoreceptor cell death in blind pde6c zebrafish. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:665-75 pubmed publisher
    ..As bystander cell death is an important feature of many retinal diseases, combinatorial approaches targeting different cell death pathways may evolve as an important general principle in treatment. ..
  27. Rai K, Jafri I, Chidester S, James S, Karpf A, Cairns B, et al. Dnmt3 and G9a cooperate for tissue-specific development in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4110-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model wherein specific DNMT-histone methyltransferase networks are utilized to silence critical regulators of cell fate in a tissue-specific manner. ..
  28. Uribe R, Gross J. Id2a influences neuron and glia formation in the zebrafish retina by modulating retinoblast cell cycle kinetics. Development. 2010;137:3763-74 pubmed publisher
  29. Yin J, Brocher J, Fischer U, Winkler C. Mutant Prpf31 causes pre-mRNA splicing defects and rod photoreceptor cell degeneration in a zebrafish model for Retinitis pigmentosa. Mol Neurodegener. 2011;6:56 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyzing the AD5 effects in our animal model in vivo, our data imply that aberrant splicing of distinct retinal transcripts contributes to the observed retina defects. ..
  30. Seritrakul P, Gross J. Tet-mediated DNA hydroxymethylation regulates retinal neurogenesis by modulating cell-extrinsic signaling pathways. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006987 pubmed publisher
  31. Li W, Zhou L, Li Z, Wang Y, Shi J, Yang Y, et al. Zebrafish Lbh-like Is Required for Otx2-mediated Photoreceptor Differentiation. Int J Biol Sci. 2015;11:688-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, knockdown of lbh-like increases the activity of Notch pathway and perturbs the balance among proliferation, differentiation and survival of photoreceptor precursors. ..
  32. Asaoka Y, Hata S, Namae M, Furutani Seiki M, Nishina H. The Hippo pathway controls a switch between retinal progenitor cell proliferation and photoreceptor cell differentiation in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97365 pubmed publisher
    ..yap (5SA)-expressing zebrafish embryos displayed decreased expression of transcription factors such as otx5 and crx, which orchestrate photoreceptor cell differentiation by activating the expression of rhodopsin and other ..
  33. Perkins B, Nicholas C, Baye L, Link B, Dowling J. dazed gene is necessary for late cell type development and retinal cell maintenance in the zebrafish retina. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:680-94 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our studies suggest a role for the dazed gene in rod and Muller cell development and overall retinal cell survival and maintenance. ..
  34. Boisset G, Schorderet D. Zebrafish hmx1 promotes retinogenesis. Exp Eye Res. 2012;105:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the key patterning genes tested so far were not regulated by hmx1. Altogether, these results suggest an important role for hmx1 in retinogenesis. ..
  35. Toyama R, Chen X, Jhawar N, Aamar E, Epstein J, Reany N, et al. Transcriptome analysis of the zebrafish pineal gland. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1813-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the multiple candidate genes suggested by these data, we note the identification of a tissue-specific form of the unc119 gene with a possible role in pineal development. ..
  36. Yang H, Zhou Y, Gu J, Xie S, Xu Y, Zhu G, et al. Deep mRNA sequencing analysis to capture the transcriptome landscape of zebrafish embryos and larvae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64058 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides ample information for further study about the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying vertebrate development. ..
  37. Zhang X, Hong Q, Yang L, Zhang M, Guo X, Chi X, et al. PCB1254 exposure contributes to the abnormalities of optomotor responses and influence of the photoreceptor cell development in zebrafish larvae. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015;118:133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..01% methanol were also prepared. OMR test was used to detect the visual behavior. The mRNA expression of the CRX, RHO, SWS1, and SWS2 was assessed by the Quantitative Real-Time PCR...
  38. O Quin K, Yoshizawa M, Doshi P, Jeffery W. Quantitative genetic analysis of retinal degeneration in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57281 pubmed publisher
    ..The regions we identify serve as a starting point for future studies on the genetics of retinal degeneration and eye disease using the evolutionary mutant model Astyanax. ..
  39. Stenkamp D, Frey R. Extraretinal and retinal hedgehog signaling sequentially regulate retinal differentiation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2003;258:349-63 pubmed
  40. Zhang L, CHO J, Ptak D, Leung Y. The role of egr1 in early zebrafish retinogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56108 pubmed publisher
    ..This abnormal and prolonged expression of ptf1a during retinogenesis might affect the differentiation of ACs and HCs in the Egr1-knockdown retinas. ..
  41. Valdivia L, Lamb D, Horner W, Wierzbicki C, Tafessu A, Williams A, et al. Antagonism between Gdf6a and retinoic acid pathways controls timing of retinal neurogenesis and growth of the eye in zebrafish. Development. 2016;143:1087-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results support a model in which dorsally expressed gdf6a limits RA pathway activity to control the transition from proliferation to differentiation in the growing eye. ..
  42. Nadauld L, Chidester S, Shelton D, Rai K, Broadbent T, Sandoval I, et al. Dual roles for adenomatous polyposis coli in regulating retinoic acid biosynthesis and Wnt during ocular development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13409-14 pubmed
  43. Rey S, Boltaña S, Vargas R, Roher N, MacKenzie S. Combining animal personalities with transcriptomics resolves individual variation within a wild-type zebrafish population and identifies underpinning molecular differences in brain function. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:6100-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences can be mapped to distinct regions of the brain and provide a foundation towards understanding the coordination of underpinning adaptive molecular events within populations. ..
  44. Sandoval I, Manos E, Van Wagoner R, Delacruz R, Edes K, Winge D, et al. Juxtaposition of chemical and mutation-induced developmental defects in zebrafish reveal a copper-chelating activity for kalihinol F. Chem Biol. 2013;20:753-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support this mechanism of action for kalihinol F and the utility of zebrafish as an effective system for identifying therapeutic and target pathways. ..
  45. Chen J, Huang C, Zheng L, Simonich M, Bai C, Tanguay R, et al. Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) neurobehavioral toxicity in embryonic zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011;33:721-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates the morphological and behavioral sensitivity of the developing zebrafish to TMT and establishes a platform for future identification of the affected pathways and chemical modulators of TMT toxicity. ..
  46. Liu Q, Londraville R, Marrs J, Wilson A, Mbimba T, Murakami T, et al. Cadherin-6 function in zebrafish retinal development. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:1107-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that cadherin-6 plays an important role in the normal formation of the zebrafish retina. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008. ..
  47. Riera M, Burguera D, Garcia Fern ndez J, Gonz lez Duarte R. CERKL knockdown causes retinal degeneration in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64048 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we propose that this zebrafish model is a powerful tool to unveil CERKL contribution to human retinal degeneration...
  48. Chen Y, Londraville R, Brickner S, El Shaar L, Fankhauser K, Dearth C, et al. Protocadherin-17 function in Zebrafish retinal development. Dev Neurobiol. 2013;73:259-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection of a vivo-protocadherin-17 MO into one eye of embryonic zebrafish resulted in similar eye defects. Our results suggest that protocadherin-17 plays an important role in the normal formation of the zebrafish retina. ..
  49. Pretorius P, Aldahmesh M, Alkuraya F, Sheffield V, Slusarski D. Functional analysis of BBS3 A89V that results in non-syndromic retinal degeneration. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:1625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data aid in our understanding of why patients with the BBS3 A89V missense mutation only present with isolated retinitis pigmentosa. ..
  50. Wei X, Bugni T, Harper M, Sandoval I, Manos E, Swift J, et al. Evaluation of pyridoacridine alkaloids in a zebrafish phenotypic assay. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:1769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 1-6 were evaluated in a zebrafish phenotype-based assay. Amphimedine (4) was the only compound that caused a phenotype in zebrafish embryos at 30 muM. No phenotype other than death was observed for compounds 1-3, 5, 6. ..