bmp2b

Summary

Gene Symbol: bmp2b
Description: bone morphogenetic protein 2b
Alias: bmp-2, bmp2, bmp2-4, cb670, swr, zbmp-2, zbmp2, bone morphogenetic protein 2, etID309839.20, swirl
Species: zebrafish
Products:     bmp2b

Top Publications

  1. Patterson S, Bird N, Devoto S. BMP regulation of myogenesis in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:806-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic overexpression of Bmp2b increases expression of the muscle precursor marker pax3, and changes the time course of myoD expression...
  2. Bauer H, Lele Z, Rauch G, Geisler R, Hammerschmidt M. The type I serine/threonine kinase receptor Alk8/Lost-a-fin is required for Bmp2b/7 signal transduction during dorsoventral patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Development. 2001;128:849-58 pubmed
    ..A much stronger dorsalization, similar to that of bmp2b/swirl and bmp7/snailhouse mutants, however, is obtained by inhibiting both maternally and zygotically supplied alk8 gene ..
  3. Meng A, Moore B, Tang H, Yuan B, Lin S. A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. Development. 1999;126:1259-68 pubmed
    ..Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates. ..
  4. Jopling C, van Geemen D, den Hertog J. Shp2 knockdown and Noonan/LEOPARD mutant Shp2-induced gastrulation defects. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e225 pubmed
    ..The finding that defective Shp2 signaling induced cell movement defects as early as gastrulation may have implications for the monitoring and diagnosis of Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome...
  5. Flores M, Lam E, Crosier K, Crosier P. Osteogenic transcription factor Runx2 is a maternal determinant of dorsoventral patterning in zebrafish. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:346-52 pubmed publisher
  6. Belting H, Wendik B, Lunde K, Leichsenring M, Mössner R, Driever W, et al. Pou5f1 contributes to dorsoventral patterning by positive regulation of vox and modulation of fgf8a expression. Dev Biol. 2011;356:323-36 pubmed publisher
    ..A contribution of Pou5f1 to the control of bmp2b, bmp4 and vox expression has been suggested, however the mechanisms remained unclear and are investigated in ..
  7. Shimizu T, Yamanaka Y, Nojima H, Yabe T, Hibi M, Hirano T. A novel repressor-type homeobox gene, ved, is involved in dharma/bozozok-mediated dorsal organizer formation in zebrafish. Mech Dev. 2002;118:125-38 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ved is a target for the repressor Dha/Boz. Ved functions redundantly with vox/vega1 and vent/vega2 to restrict the organizer domain. ..
  8. Collery R, Link B. Dynamic smad-mediated BMP signaling revealed through transgenic zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:712-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Responsiveness to changes in BMP signaling was confirmed by observing fluorescence after activation in an hsp70:bmp2b transgenic background or by inhibition in an hsp70:nog3 background...
  9. Ho C, Houart C, Wilson S, Stainier D. A role for the extraembryonic yolk syncytial layer in patterning the zebrafish embryo suggested by properties of the hex gene. Curr Biol. 1999;9:1131-4 pubmed
    ..indicate that Hex functions as a transcriptional repressor and its overexpression led to the downregulation of bmp2b and wnt8 expression and the expansion of chordin expression...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Tucker J, Mintzer K, Mullins M. The BMP signaling gradient patterns dorsoventral tissues in a temporally progressive manner along the anteroposterior axis. Dev Cell. 2008;14:108-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a temporal cue regulates a cell's competence to respond to BMP signaling, allowing the acquisition of a cell's DV and AP identity simultaneously. ..
  2. Dee C, Gibson A, Rengifo A, Sun S, Patient R, Scotting P. A change in response to Bmp signalling precedes ectodermal fate choice. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51:79-84 pubmed
    ..Hence, we have shown a dynamic change in the molecular machinery underlying the Bmp response in the ectoderm during gastrulation stages of development. ..
  3. Dick A, Hild M, Bauer H, Imai Y, Maifeld H, Schier A, et al. Essential role of Bmp7 (snailhouse) and its prodomain in dorsoventral patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Development. 2000;127:343-54 pubmed
    ..At higher temperature, the phenotype of snh(ty68) mutant embryos is identical to that caused by the amorphic bmp2b mutation swirl swr(ta72) and similar to that caused by the smad5 mutation somitabun sbn(dtc24)...
  4. Miller Bertoglio V, Carmany Rampey A, Fürthauer M, Gonzalez E, Thisse C, Thisse B, et al. Maternal and zygotic activity of the zebrafish ogon locus antagonizes BMP signaling. Dev Biol. 1999;214:72-86 pubmed
    ..mercedes(tm305), ogon(m60), and short tail(b180) mutations produce ventralized phenotypes, including expanded bmp2b/4 expression domains...
  5. Wang W, Melville D, Montero Balaguer M, Hatzopoulos A, Knapik E. Tfap2a and Foxd3 regulate early steps in the development of the neural crest progenitor population. Dev Biol. 2011;360:173-85 pubmed publisher
  6. Fekany Lee K, Gonzalez E, Miller Bertoglio V, Solnica Krezel L. The homeobox gene bozozok promotes anterior neuroectoderm formation in zebrafish through negative regulation of BMP2/4 and Wnt pathways. Development. 2000;127:2333-45 pubmed
    ..The neural induction defect was correlated with decreased chordino expression and consequent increases in bmp2b/4 expression, and was suppressed by overexpression of BMP antagonists...
  7. Stickney H, Imai Y, Draper B, Moens C, Talbot W. Zebrafish bmp4 functions during late gastrulation to specify ventroposterior cell fates. Dev Biol. 2007;310:71-84 pubmed
    ..In addition, we present genetic evidence supporting a role for a morphogenetic BMP gradient in establishing mesodermal fates during the later phase of BMP signaling. ..
  8. Shin D, Shin C, Tucker J, Ober E, Rentzsch F, Poss K, et al. Bmp and Fgf signaling are essential for liver specification in zebrafish. Development. 2007;134:2041-50 pubmed
  9. Little S, Mullins M. Twisted gastrulation promotes BMP signaling in zebrafish dorsal-ventral axial patterning. Development. 2004;131:5825-35 pubmed
    ..of tsg1 combined with loss of function of the BMP agonist tolloid (mini fin) or heterozygosity for the ligand bmp2b (swirl) enhanced dorsalization, supporting a role for Tsg1 in specifying ventral cell fates as a BMP signaling ..
  10. Smith K, Chocron S, von der Hardt S, de Pater E, Soufan A, Bussmann J, et al. Rotation and asymmetric development of the zebrafish heart requires directed migration of cardiac progenitor cells. Dev Cell. 2008;14:287-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results support a model in which CPCs migrate toward a BMP source during development of the linear heart tube, providing a mechanism by which the left-right axis drives asymmetric development of the vertebrate heart. ..
  11. Nikaido M, Tada M, Takeda H, Kuroiwa A, Ueno N. In vivo analysis using variants of zebrafish BMPR-IA: range of action and involvement of BMP in ectoderm patterning. Development. 1999;126:181-90 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we propose that, in ectodermal patterning, BMP exerts a direct and cell-autonomous effect to fate uncommitted ectodermal cells to become epidermis. ..
  12. Smith A, Avaron F, Guay D, Padhi B, Akimenko M. Inhibition of BMP signaling during zebrafish fin regeneration disrupts fin growth and scleroblasts differentiation and function. Dev Biol. 2006;299:438-54 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that misexpression of Bone morphogenetic protein 2b (Bmp2b) induces ectopic bone formation within the regenerate...
  13. Ramel M, Lekven A. Repression of the vertebrate organizer by Wnt8 is mediated by Vent and Vox. Development. 2004;131:3991-4000 pubmed
    ..Additionally, we show that Wnt8 and Bmp2b co-regulate vent and vox in a dynamic fashion...
  14. Maegawa S, Varga M, Weinberg E. FGF signaling is required for {beta}-catenin-mediated induction of the zebrafish organizer. Development. 2006;133:3265-76 pubmed
  15. Wang Y, Qian L, Liu D, Yao L, Jiang Q, Yu Z, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 acts upstream of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2a to control embryonic cardiac contractility. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;74:290-303 pubmed
    ..these observations indicate that BMP-2 and MEF2A are key components of a pathway that controls the cardiac ventricular contractility and suggest that the BMP2-MEF2A pathway can offer new opportunities for the treatment of heart failure.
  16. Kishimoto Y, Lee K, Zon L, Hammerschmidt M, Schulte Merker S. The molecular nature of zebrafish swirl: BMP2 function is essential during early dorsoventral patterning. Development. 1997;124:4457-66 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the swirl phenotype is caused by mutations in the zebrafish bmp2 gene (zbmp2)...
  17. Zhang J, Qiu L, Kotzsch A, Weidauer S, Patterson L, Hammerschmidt M, et al. Crystal structure analysis reveals how the Chordin family member crossveinless 2 blocks BMP-2 receptor binding. Dev Cell. 2008;14:739-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo experiments reveal that the BMP-enhancing (pro-BMP) activity of CV-2 is independent of BMP-2 binding by VWC1, showing that pro- and anti-BMP activities are structurally separated in CV-2. ..
  18. Gonzalez E, Fekany Lee K, Carmany Rampey A, Erter C, Topczewski J, Wright C, et al. Head and trunk in zebrafish arise via coinhibition of BMP signaling by bozozok and chordino. Genes Dev. 2000;14:3087-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, a remarkably simple genetic mechanism, involving a coinhibition of BMP function by the partially overlapping bozozok and chordino pathways is used to specify vertebrate head and trunk. ..
  19. Laforest L, Brown C, Poleo G, Geraudie J, Tada M, Ekker M, et al. Involvement of the sonic hedgehog, patched 1 and bmp2 genes in patterning of the zebrafish dermal fin rays. Development. 1998;125:4175-84 pubmed
    ..Further observations indicate that the bmp2 gene, in addition to being expressed in the same cells of the basal layer of the epidermis as shh, is also ..
  20. Ramel M, Buckles G, Baker K, Lekven A. WNT8 and BMP2B co-regulate non-axial mesoderm patterning during zebrafish gastrulation. Dev Biol. 2005;287:237-48 pubmed
    ..To address this question, we have analyzed zebrafish embryos lacking Wnt8 and BMP2b. Zebrafish wnt8; swr (bmp2b) double mutants display a progressive loss of non-axial mesoderm and a concomitant ..
  21. Sidi S, Goutel C, Peyrieras N, Rosa F. Maternal induction of ventral fate by zebrafish radar. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:3315-20 pubmed
    ..They might further indicate that maternal TGF-betaRdr and WntCa(2+) pathways complementarily specify ventral cell fates, with the former triggering bmps expression and the latter indirectly repressing genes encoding BMP antagonists. ..
  22. Bauer H, Meier A, Hild M, Stachel S, Economides A, Hazelett D, et al. Follistatin and noggin are excluded from the zebrafish organizer. Dev Biol. 1998;204:488-507 pubmed
    ..The dorsolateral extent of this expression domain is regulated by Bmp2b, Chordino, and Follistatin itself...
  23. Leung A, Mendenhall E, Kwan T, Liang R, Eckfeldt C, Chen E, et al. Characterization of expanded intermediate cell mass in zebrafish chordin morphant embryos. Dev Biol. 2005;277:235-54 pubmed
    ..BMP4 (but not BMP2b or 7) and smad5 mRNA were ectopically expressed in the ChdMO ICM...
  24. Lyman Gingerich J, Westfall T, Slusarski D, Pelegri F. hecate, a zebrafish maternal effect gene, affects dorsal organizer induction and intracellular calcium transient frequency. Dev Biol. 2005;286:427-39 pubmed
  25. Chocron S, Verhoeven M, Rentzsch F, Hammerschmidt M, Bakkers J. Zebrafish Bmp4 regulates left-right asymmetry at two distinct developmental time points. Dev Biol. 2007;305:577-88 pubmed
    ..Using transgenic lines that ectopically express either noggin3 or bmp2b, we show a requirement for BMP signaling during early segmentation to repress southpaw expression in the right ..
  26. Chung W, Andersson O, Row R, Kimelman D, Stainier D. Suppression of Alk8-mediated Bmp signaling cell-autonomously induces pancreatic beta-cells in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide important unique insight into the intercellular signaling environment necessary for in vivo and in vitro generation of beta-cells. ..
  27. Bakkers J, Hild M, Kramer C, Furutani Seiki M, Hammerschmidt M. Zebrafish DeltaNp63 is a direct target of Bmp signaling and encodes a transcriptional repressor blocking neural specification in the ventral ectoderm. Dev Cell. 2002;2:617-27 pubmed
    ..Together, DeltaNp63 fulfills the criteria to be the neural repressor postulated by the "neural default model." ..
  28. Chung W, Shin C, Stainier D. Bmp2 signaling regulates the hepatic versus pancreatic fate decision. Dev Cell. 2008;15:738-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss- and gain-of-function analyses show that Bmp2b, expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm, signals through Alk8 to induce endodermal cells to become liver...
  29. Imai Y, Gates M, Melby A, Kimelman D, Schier A, Talbot W. The homeobox genes vox and vent are redundant repressors of dorsal fates in zebrafish. Development. 2001;128:2407-20 pubmed
  30. Yin C, Kikuchi K, Hochgreb T, Poss K, Stainier D. Hand2 regulates extracellular matrix remodeling essential for gut-looping morphogenesis in zebrafish. Dev Cell. 2010;18:973-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals an unexpected role for Hand2, a key regulator of cell specification and differentiation, in modulating ECM remodeling during organogenesis. ..
  31. von der Hardt S, Bakkers J, Inbal A, Carvalho L, Solnica Krezel L, Heisenberg C, et al. The Bmp gradient of the zebrafish gastrula guides migrating lateral cells by regulating cell-cell adhesion. Curr Biol. 2007;17:475-87 pubmed
  32. Shimizu T, Bae Y, Muraoka O, Hibi M. Interaction of Wnt and caudal-related genes in zebrafish posterior body formation. Dev Biol. 2005;279:125-41 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the cdx genes mediate Wnt signaling and play essential roles in the morphogenesis of the posterior body in zebrafish. ..
  33. Lee K, Marden J, Thompson M, MacLennan H, Kishimoto Y, Pratt S, et al. Cloning and genetic mapping of zebrafish BMP-2. Dev Genet. 1998;23:97-103 pubmed
    ..of the bmp2 gene has recently been shown to be responsible for the early dorsalized phenotype of the zebrafish swirl mutant [Kishimoto et al., 1997]...
  34. Dunworth W, Cardona Costa J, Bozkulak E, Kim J, Meadows S, Fischer J, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 signaling negatively modulates lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos. Circ Res. 2014;114:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to delineate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 signaling in lymphatic development. BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs...
  35. Jopling C, Hertog J. Essential role for Csk upstream of Fyn and Yes in zebrafish gastrulation. Mech Dev. 2007;124:129-36 pubmed
    ..The Csk knock down phenotype was rescued by simultaneous partial knock down of Fyn and Yes. We conclude that Csk acts upstream of Fyn and Yes to control vertebrate gastrulation cell movements. ..
  36. Fürthauer M, Thisse C, Thisse B. A role for FGF-8 in the dorsoventral patterning of the zebrafish gastrula. Development. 1997;124:4253-64 pubmed
    ..these factors in the ventral part of the embryo as early as blastula stage, suggesting that FGF-8 acts upstream of BMP2 and BMP4...
  37. Martinez Barbera J, Toresson H, Da Rocha S, Krauss S. Cloning and expression of three members of the zebrafish Bmp family: Bmp2a, Bmp2b and Bmp4. Gene. 1997;198:53-9 pubmed
    ..To study the evolution of Bmps, we isolated cDNAs for three members of the zebrafish Bmp gene family: Bmp2a, Bmp2b and Bmp4...
  38. Ramel M, Hill C. The ventral to dorsal BMP activity gradient in the early zebrafish embryo is determined by graded expression of BMP ligands. Dev Biol. 2013;378:170-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that BMP2B protein is also expressed in a gradient as early as blastula stages, but do not find any evidence of diffusion of ..
  39. Zhang Y, Lander A, Nie Q. Computational analysis of BMP gradients in dorsal-ventral patterning of the zebrafish embryo. J Theor Biol. 2007;248:579-89 pubmed
  40. Kawahara A, Wilm T, Solnica Krezel L, Dawid I. Antagonistic role of vega1 and bozozok/dharma homeobox genes in organizer formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:12121-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that boz/dha-dependent down-regulation of vega1 in the dorsal region is an early essential step in organizer formation in zebrafish. ..
  41. Carreira Barbosa F, Concha M, Takeuchi M, Ueno N, Wilson S, Tada M. Prickle 1 regulates cell movements during gastrulation and neuronal migration in zebrafish. Development. 2003;130:4037-46 pubmed
    ..In addition, Pk1 interacts with Tri to mediate posterior migration of branchiomotor neurons, probably independent of the noncanonical Wnt pathway. ..
  42. Shin D, Lee Y, Poss K, Stainier D. Restriction of hepatic competence by Fgf signaling. Development. 2011;138:1339-48 pubmed publisher
    ..hepatic inducing signals following heat-shock, we found that at late somitogenesis stages Wnt8a, but not Bmp2b, overexpression could induce liver gene expression in pancreatic and intestinal bulb cells...
  43. Little S, Mullins M. Bone morphogenetic protein heterodimers assemble heteromeric type I receptor complexes to pattern the dorsoventral axis. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:637-43 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions in the embryo, that these two type I receptor classes form a complex in a manner that depends on Bmp2 and Bmp7. We found that both Bmp2-7 heterodimers, as well as Bmp2 and Bmp7 homodimers, form in the embryo...
  44. Schilling T, Concordet J, Ingham P. Regulation of left-right asymmetries in the zebrafish by Shh and BMP4. Dev Biol. 1999;210:277-87 pubmed
    ..Thus, hh signals influence the development of multiple organ asymmetries in zebrafish and different organs appear to respond to a central cascade of midline signaling independently, which in the heart involves BMP4. ..
  45. Leung T, Bischof J, Söll I, Niessing D, Zhang D, Ma J, et al. bozozok directly represses bmp2b transcription and mediates the earliest dorsoventral asymmetry of bmp2b expression in zebrafish. Development. 2003;130:3639-49 pubmed
    ..Expression analysis of bmp2b indicates that Boz negatively regulates bmp2b in the prospective organizer...
  46. Nikaido M, Tada M, Saji T, Ueno N. Conservation of BMP signaling in zebrafish mesoderm patterning. Mech Dev. 1997;61:75-88 pubmed
    ..Taken together, one may conclude that the developmental mechanisms for mesodermal patterning regulated by BMPs are evolutionarily conserved between amphibians and teleosts. ..
  47. Ober E, Schulte Merker S. Signals from the yolk cell induce mesoderm, neuroectoderm, the trunk organizer, and the notochord in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 1999;215:167-81 pubmed
    ..This suggests the presence of a trunk organizer in fish. The dorsalized mutant swirl (zbmp-2b) shows expanded dorsal structures and missing ventral structures...
  48. Nguyen V, Trout J, Connors S, Andermann P, Weinberg E, Mullins M. Dorsal and intermediate neuronal cell types of the spinal cord are established by a BMP signaling pathway. Development. 2000;127:1209-20 pubmed
    ..through the use of mutants in the zebrafish that disrupt three different components of a Bmp signaling pathway: swirl/bmp2b, snailhouse/bmp7 and somitabun/smad5...
  49. Stock D. Zebrafish dentition in comparative context. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2007;308:523-49 pubmed
    ..Such studies may reveal the relative contribution to trends in dental evolution of biases in the generation of variation and sorting of this variation by selection or drift...
  50. Hammond K, Loynes H, Mowbray C, Runke G, Hammerschmidt M, Mullins M, et al. A late role for bmp2b in the morphogenesis of semicircular canal ducts in the zebrafish inner ear. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4368 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection of bmp2b or smad5 mRNA into homozygous mutant swirl (bmp2b(-/-)) embryos rescues the early patterning defects in these mutants and the fish survive to adulthood...
  51. Rohr K, Schulte Merker S, Tautz D. Zebrafish zic1 expression in brain and somites is affected by BMP and hedgehog signalling. Mech Dev. 1999;85:147-59 pubmed
    ..To address the question whether BMP2 signalling affects the extent of zic1 expression, we analysed swirl and chordino mutant embryos...
  52. Mullins M, Hammerschmidt M, Kane D, Odenthal J, Brand M, van Eeden F, et al. Genes establishing dorsoventral pattern formation in the zebrafish embryo: the ventral specifying genes. Development. 1996;123:81-93 pubmed
    ..The weakest phenotype is a reduction in the ventral tail fin, observed as a dominant phenotype of swirl, piggytail, and somitabun and a recessive phenotype of mini fin, lost-a-fin and some piggytail alleles...
  53. Hong S, Jang M, Brown J, McBride A, Feldman B. Embryonic mesoderm and endoderm induction requires the actions of non-embryonic Nodal-related ligands and Mxtx2. Development. 2011;138:787-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the induction of mesoderm and endoderm depends upon the combined actions of Mxtx2 and Nodal-related ligands from non-embryonic sources. ..
  54. Wiley D, Kim J, Hao J, Hong C, Bautch V, Jin S. Distinct signalling pathways regulate sprouting angiogenesis from the dorsal aorta and the axial vein. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:686-92 pubmed publisher
  55. Hild M, Dick A, Rauch G, Meier A, Bouwmeester T, Haffter P, et al. The smad5 mutation somitabun blocks Bmp2b signaling during early dorsoventral patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Development. 1999;126:2149-59 pubmed
    ..sbn mutant embryos are strongly dorsalized, similarly to mutants in Bmp2b, its putative upstream signal...
  56. Kramer C, Mayr T, Nowak M, Schumacher J, Runke G, Bauer H, et al. Maternally supplied Smad5 is required for ventral specification in zebrafish embryos prior to zygotic Bmp signaling. Dev Biol. 2002;250:263-79 pubmed
    ..a dominant negative mutation in Smad5, a transducer of ventralizing signaling by the bone morphogenetic proteins Bmp2b and Bmp7...
  57. Goutel C, Kishimoto Y, Schulte Merker S, Rosa F. The ventralizing activity of Radar, a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein, reveals complex bone morphogenetic protein interactions controlling dorso-ventral patterning in zebrafish. Mech Dev. 2000;99:15-27 pubmed
    ..We show that Radar ventralizes zebrafish embryos and induces the early expression of bmp2b and bmp4...
  58. Wagner D, Mullins M. Modulation of BMP activity in dorsal-ventral pattern formation by the chordin and ogon antagonists. Dev Biol. 2002;245:109-23 pubmed
    ..The dorsalized mutants swirl/bmp2b, snailhouse/bmp7, lost-a-fin/alk8, and mini fin/tolloid were each analyzed in double mutant combinations with the ..
  59. Wu M, Ramel M, Howell M, Hill C. SNW1 is a critical regulator of spatial BMP activity, neural plate border formation, and neural crest specification in vertebrate embryos. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000593 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that through its ability to regulate a specific domain of BMP activity in the vertebrate embryo, SNW1 is a critical regulator of neural plate border formation and thus neural crest specification...