Gene Symbol: b2m
Description: beta-2-microglobulin
Alias: bwm, wu:fa94c05, wu:fb10a09, beta-2-microglobulin
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Ono H, Figueroa F, O hUigin C, Klein J. Cloning of the beta 2-microglobulin gene in the zebrafish. Immunogenetics. 1993;38:1-10 pubmed
    ..In mammals, the beta 2m-encoding gene (B2m) is found on a chromosome different from the Mhc proper...
  2. McCurley A, Callard G. Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:102 pubmed publisher
    ..gapdh), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), TATA-box binding protein (tbp), beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), elongation factor 1 alpha (elfa), and 18s ribosomal RNA (18s) during development (2 - 120 hr postfertilization, ..
  3. Casadei R, Pelleri M, Vitale L, Facchin F, Lenzi L, Canaider S, et al. Identification of housekeeping genes suitable for gene expression analysis in the zebrafish. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:271-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Statistical analysis was performed to identify genes with the lowest expression standard deviation in the studied panel. Our results showed that beta-actin 2 (bactin2) is the mRNA with the lowest variability of expression. ..
  4. Tang R, Dodd A, Lai D, McNabb W, Love D. Validation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR normalization. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2007;39:384-90 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the zebrafish GAPDH gene appears unsuitable as reference gene for both types of studies. ..
  5. Stückemann T, Wegleiter T, Stefan E, Nägele O, Tarbashevich K, Böck G, et al. Zebrafish Cxcr4a determines the proliferative response to Hedgehog signalling. Development. 2012;139:2711-20 pubmed publisher
  6. Betancor M, Almaida Pagán P, Sprague M, Hernández A, Tocher D. Roles of selenoprotein antioxidant protection in zebrafish, Danio rerio, subjected to dietary oxidative stress. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2015;41:705-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that oxidative stress protection associated with a high dietary intake of Se may not be solely mediated by transcriptional changes in teleost selenoprotein expression. ..
  7. Filiano A, Xu Y, Tustison N, Marsh R, Baker W, Smirnov I, et al. Unexpected role of interferon-? in regulating neuronal connectivity and social behaviour. Nature. 2016;535:425-9 pubmed
  8. Breves J, Serizier S, Goffin V, McCormick S, Karlstrom R. Prolactin regulates transcription of the ion uptake Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc) gene in zebrafish gill. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;369:98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PRL signaling through PRL receptors in the gill regulates the expression of ncc, thereby linking this pituitary hormone with an effector of Cl(-) uptake in zebrafish for the first time. ..
  9. Chou S, Hwang P, Gomez G, Fernando C, West M, Pollock L, et al. Fascin 2b is a component of stereocilia that lengthens actin-based protrusions. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14807 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of wild-type fascin 2b in hair cells was correlated with increased stereociliary length relative to controls. These findings indicate that fascin 2b plays a key role in shaping stereocilia. ..

More Information


  1. Choi W, Lee E, Choi T. Cloning and sequence analysis of the beta2-microglobulin transcript from flounder, Paralichthys olivaceous. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:1565-72 pubmed
    ..The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the evolutionary diversion of the beta2M protein among warm-blooded vertebrates and fish, and the separation between freshwater and seawater fish. ..
  2. Untergasser G, Martowicz A, Hermann M, Töchterle S, Meyer D. Distinct expression patterns of dickkopf genes during late embryonic development of Danio rerio. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:491-500 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, both dkk3 genes display a unique and distinct expression pattern in late embryonic development, pointing to a specific role during neuronal and pancreatic cell differentiation. ..
  3. Williams L, Lago B, McArthur A, Raphenya A, Pray N, Saleem N, et al. The transcription factor, Nuclear factor, erythroid 2 (Nfe2), is a regulator of the oxidative stress response during Danio rerio development. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;180:141-154 pubmed publisher
    ..None of these genes have been previously identified as targets of Nfe2 or the Nrf family. These results demonstrate that the zebrafish Nfe2 may be a regulator of both primitive erythropoiesis and the OSR during development. ..
  4. Cruz B, Brongar L, Popiolek P, Gonçalvez B, Figueiredo M, Amaral I, et al. Clock genes expression and locomotor activity are altered along the light-dark cycle in transgenic zebrafish overexpressing growth hormone. Transgenic Res. 2017;26:739-752 pubmed publisher
  5. Hozumi S, Hirabayashi R, Yoshizawa A, Ogata M, Ishitani T, Tsutsumi M, et al. DEAD-box protein Ddx46 is required for the development of the digestive organs and brain in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33675 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results suggest a model in which zebrafish Ddx46 is required for the development of the digestive organs and brain, possibly through the control of pre-mRNA splicing. ..
  6. Sant K, Hansen J, Williams L, Tran N, Goldstone J, Stegeman J, et al. The role of Nrf1 and Nrf2 in the regulation of glutathione and redox dynamics in the developing zebrafish embryo. Redox Biol. 2017;13:207-218 pubmed publisher
  7. Seberg H, Van Otterloo E, Loftus S, Liu H, Bonde G, Sompallae R, et al. TFAP2 paralogs regulate melanocyte differentiation in parallel with MITF. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006636 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they suggest that TFAP2A activity, like MITF activity, has the potential to modulate the phenotype of melanoma cells. ..
  8. Lu X, Xiang Y, Yang G, Zhang L, Wang H, Zhong S. Transcriptomic characterization of zebrafish larvae in response to mercury exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;192:40-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these findings provide useful insights to help further understand the transcriptional response and detoxification ability of zebrafish larvae following acute exposure to mercury. ..
  9. Houbrechts A, Delarue J, Gabriëls I, Sourbron J, Darras V. Permanent Deiodinase Type 2 Deficiency Strongly Perturbs Zebrafish Development, Growth, and Fertility. Endocrinology. 2016;157:3668-81 pubmed publisher
    ..As the first nonmammalian model with permanent Dio2 deficiency, these mutant zebrafish lines provide evidence that Dio2 is essential to assure normal development and to obtain a normal adult phenotype. ..
  10. Otten A, Theunissen T, Derhaag J, Lambrichs E, Boesten I, Winandy M, et al. Differences in Strength and Timing of the mtDNA Bottleneck between Zebrafish Germline and Non-germline Cells. Cell Rep. 2016;16:622-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Bottleneck differences between germline and non-germline cells, due to early differentiation of PGCs, may account for different distribution patterns of familial mutations. ..
  11. Salta E, Lau P, Sala Frigerio C, Coolen M, Bally Cuif L, De Strooper B. A self-organizing miR-132/Ctbp2 circuit regulates bimodal notch signals and glial progenitor fate choice during spinal cord maturation. Dev Cell. 2014;30:423-36 pubmed publisher
  12. Li Z, Zheng W, Wang Z, Zeng Z, Zhan H, Li C, et al. A transgenic zebrafish liver tumor model with inducible Myc expression reveals conserved Myc signatures with mammalian liver tumors. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:414-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our zebrafish model demonstrated the conserved role of Myc in promoting hepatocarcinogenesis in all vertebrate species. ..
  13. Komoike Y, Kawamura A, Shindo N, Sato C, Satoh J, Shiurba R, et al. Zebrafish Polycomb group gene ph2alpha is required for epiboly and tailbud formation acting downstream of FGF signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;328:858-66 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the data argue that ph2alpha is required for epiboly and tailbud formation, acting downstream of the FGF signaling pathway. ..
  14. Kjaer Sorensen K, Engholm D, Jepsen M, Morch M, Weyer K, Hefting L, et al. Papp-a2 modulates development of cranial cartilage and angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:5027-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data link pappalysin function in zebrafish to two different signaling pathways outside the IGF system. ..
  15. Leung K, Chen D, Chan K. Understanding copper sensitivity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) through the intracellular localization of copper transporters in a hepatocyte cell-line ZFL and the tissue expression profiles of copper transporters. Metallomics. 2014;6:1057-67 pubmed publisher
    ..ATOX1 transcript expression was also found to be significantly up-regulated with acute waterborne Cu, in contrast to the decreased expression found in other fish. A possible explanation for the Cu sensitivity in zebrafish is discussed. ..
  16. Tan S, Kee M, Mathuru A, Burkholder W, Jesuthasan S. A microfluidic device to sort cells based on dynamic response to a stimulus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78261 pubmed publisher
    ..The device can be adapted for other areas in biology where there is a need to sort and analyze cells based on their signaling responses...
  17. Chen Y, Zhu J, Chan K. Effects of cadmium on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and proto-oncogene expression in zebrafish liver cells. Aquat Toxicol. 2014;157:196-206 pubmed publisher
  18. Chen Z, Zhang N, Lu S, Tariq M, Wang J, Xia C. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the two distinct types of zebrafish β2-microglobulin. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2015;71:794-8 pubmed publisher
    ..01 Å(3) Da(-1) and solvent contents of 45 and 59% for Dare-β(2)m-I and Dare-β(2)m-II, respectively. These two β(2)m structures will provide relevant information for further studies of the structures of the MHC I complex. ..
  19. Liu H, Leslie E, Jia Z, Smith T, Eshete M, Butali A, et al. Irf6 directly regulates Klf17 in zebrafish periderm and Klf4 in murine oral epithelium, and dominant-negative KLF4 variants are present in patients with cleft lip and palate. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:766-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that rare NSCL/P risk variants can be found in members of the gene regulatory network governing periderm differentiation. ..
  20. Hiramitsu M, Shimada Y, Kuroyanagi J, Inoue T, Katagiri T, Zang L, et al. Eriocitrin ameliorates diet-induced hepatic steatosis with activation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3708 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, dietary eriocitrin ameliorates diet-induced hepatic steatosis with activation of mitochondrial biogenesis. ..
  21. Betancor M, Almaida Pagán P, Hernández A, Tocher D. Effects of dietary fatty acids on mitochondrial phospholipid compositions, oxidative status and mitochondrial gene expression of zebrafish at different ages. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2015;41:1187-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences found in the effect of diet composition on mitochondrial lipids between the two age groups could be indicating age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes. ..
  22. Cui Y, Liu W, Xie W, Yu W, Wang C, Chen H. Investigation of the Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Apoptosis and Cell Cycle in a Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Liver Cell Line. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:15673-82 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Cell cycle and cell proliferation were blocked in both the PFOA-IC(80) and PFOS-IC(80) groups, indicating that PFOA-IC(80) and PFOS-IC(50) enhanced apoptosis in ZFL cells. ..
  23. Siekierska A, Isrie M, Liu Y, Scheldeman C, Vanthillo N, Lagae L, et al. Gain-of-function FHF1 mutation causes early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with cerebellar atrophy. Neurology. 2016;86:2162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that gain-of-function FHF mutations can cause neurologic disorder, and expand the repertoire of genetic causes (FHF1) and mechanisms (altered Nav gating) underlying EOEE and cerebellar atrophy. ..
  24. Lopes F, Caldas S, Primel E, da Rosa C. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress. Zebrafish. 2017;14:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Although glyphosate concentrations did not alter AChE activity, this study demonstrated for the first time that this molecule affects ache expression in male zebrafish D. rerio. ..
  25. Sant K, Jacobs H, Borofski K, Moss J, Timme Laragy A. Embryonic exposures to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) disrupt pancreatic organogenesis in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Environ Pollut. 2017;220:807-817 pubmed publisher
  26. Vanhauwaert S, Van Peer G, Rihani A, Janssens E, Rondou P, Lefever S, et al. Expressed repeat elements improve RT-qPCR normalization across a wide range of zebrafish gene expression studies. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e109091 pubmed publisher
    ..Our applied strategy to find and evaluate candidate expressed repeat elements for RT-qPCR data normalization has high potential to be used also for other species. ..
  27. Nussbaum J, Liu L, Hasan S, Schaub M, McClendon A, Stainier D, et al. Homeostatic generation of reactive oxygen species protects the zebrafish liver from steatosis. Hepatology. 2013;58:1326-38 pubmed publisher
    ..De novo GMP synthesis influences the activation of the small GTPase Rac1, which controls hepatic lipid dynamics through ROS-mediated regulation of triglyceride hydrolase expression in hepatocytes. ..
  28. Dhanasiri A, Fernandes J, Kiron V. Liver transcriptome changes in zebrafish during acclimation to transport-associated stress. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65028 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study has revealed the complex molecular adjustments that occur in zebrafish when they are transported...
  29. Kuroyanagi J, Shimada Y, Zhang B, Ariyoshi M, Umemoto N, Nishimura Y, et al. Zinc finger MYND-type containing 8 promotes tumour angiogenesis via induction of vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:3409-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrated analysis of human and zebrafish transcriptomes, which identified ZMYND8, might be a powerful strategy to determine also other molecular targets for inhibiting prostate cancer progression. ..
  30. Macaulay L, Chernick M, Chen A, Hinton D, Bailey J, Kullman S, et al. Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2017;36:36-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results indicate that exposures to PBDE/OH-BDE mixtures adversely impact zebrafish maturation during metamorphosis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:36-48. © 2016 SETAC. ..
  31. Stiff T, Casar Tena T, O Driscoll M, Jeggo P, Philipp M. ATR promotes cilia signalling: links to developmental impacts. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:1574-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel role for ATR in cilia signalling distinct from its canonical function during replication and strengthen emerging links between cilia function and development. ..
  32. Santos da Rosa J, Alcântara Barcellos H, Fagundes M, Variani C, Rossini M, Kalichak F, et al. Muscarinic receptors mediate the endocrine-disrupting effects of an organophosphorus insecticide in zebrafish. Environ Toxicol. 2017;32:1964-1972 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears to be mediated via muscarinic receptors, since the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine blocked these effects. ..
  33. Hortopan G, Dinday M, Baraban S. Spontaneous seizures and altered gene expression in GABA signaling pathways in a mind bomb mutant zebrafish. J Neurosci. 2010;30:13718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This work may have important implications for neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with mutations in ubiquitin ligase activity. ..
  34. Cannon J, Haire R, Litman G. Identification of diversified genes that contain immunoglobulin-like variable regions in a protochordate. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:1200-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, multigenic families encoding diversified V regions exist in a species lacking an adaptive immune response. ..