Gene Symbol: amh
Description: anti-Mullerian hormone
Alias: muellerian-inhibiting factor
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Dranow D, Tucker R, Draper B. Germ cells are required to maintain a stable sexual phenotype in adult zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2013;376:43-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also confirm that signals from the somatic gonad in turn ensure that the sex appropriate gamete is produced. ..
  2. Rodriguez Mari A, Canestro C, Bremiller R, Nguyen Johnson A, Asakawa K, Kawakami K, et al. Sex reversal in zebrafish fancl mutants is caused by Tp53-mediated germ cell apoptosis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001034 pubmed publisher
    ..not maintain expression of the ovary gene cyp19a1a and did not down-regulate expression of the early testis gene amh; consequently, gonads masculinized and became testes...
  3. Von Hofsten J, Olsson P. Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: involvement of FTZ-F1 genes. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:63 pubmed
    ..The role of FTZ-F1 and other candidates for zebrafish sex determination and differentiation is in focus of this review. ..
  4. Schulz R, Bogerd J, Male R, Ball J, Fenske M, Olsen L, et al. Estrogen-induced alterations in amh and dmrt1 expression signal for disruption in male sexual development in the zebrafish. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:6305-10 pubmed
    Dmrt1 and amh are genes involved in vertebrate sex differentiation...
  5. Siegfried K, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Germ line control of female sex determination in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2008;324:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of the ovary specific gene cyp19a1a fails to be maintained whereas the testis genes sox9a and amh remain expressed...
  6. von Hofsten J, Larsson A, Olsson P. Novel steroidogenic factor-1 homolog (ff1d) is coexpressed with anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:595-604 pubmed
    ..SF-1 is crucial in mammalian steroidogenesis and in sex determination by regulating the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH). In fish, AMH has not been described previously. In this study, we cloned a partial zebrafish AMH...
  7. Wang X, Orban L. Anti-Müllerian hormone and 11 beta-hydroxylase show reciprocal expression to that of aromatase in the transforming gonad of zebrafish males. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1329-38 pubmed
    ..were identified from a vas::egfp transgenic line and used for gene expression analysis of anti-Müllerian hormone (amh), ovarian aromatase (cyp19a1a) and 11 beta-hydroxylase (cyp11b, also known as P450(11 beta)) by real-time ..
  8. García López A, De Jonge H, Nóbrega R, de Waal P, van Dijk W, Hemrika W, et al. Studies in zebrafish reveal unusual cellular expression patterns of gonadotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acids in the testis and unexpected functional differentiation of the gonadotropins. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2349-60 pubmed publisher
  9. Rodriguez Mari A, Wilson C, Titus T, Canestro C, Bremiller R, Yan Y, et al. Roles of brca2 (fancd1) in oocyte nuclear architecture, gametogenesis, gonad tumors, and genome stability in zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001357 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this work verified zebrafish as a model for the role of Brca2 in human disease and uncovered a novel function of Brca2 in vertebrate oocyte nuclear architecture. ..

More Information


  1. Rodriguez Mari A, Yan Y, Bremiller R, Wilson C, Canestro C, Postlethwait J. Characterization and expression pattern of zebrafish Anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) relative to sox9a, sox9b, and cyp19a1a, during gonad development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:655-67 pubmed
    The role of Anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) during gonad development has been studied extensively in mammals, but is less well understood in other vertebrates...
  2. Skaar K, Nóbrega R, Magaraki A, Olsen L, Schulz R, Male R. Proteolytically activated, recombinant anti-mullerian hormone inhibits androgen secretion, proliferation, and differentiation of spermatogonia in adult zebrafish testis organ cultures. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3527-40 pubmed publisher
    Anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) is in mammals known as a TGF? type of glycoprotein processed to yield a bioactive C-terminal homodimer that directs regression of Müllerian ducts in the male fetus and regulates steroidogenesis and early ..
  3. Nobrega R, Greebe C, van de Kant H, Bogerd J, de França L, Schulz R. Spermatogonial stem cell niche and spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2010;5: pubmed publisher
    ..This might be attributed to the testicular microenvironment created after busulfan depletion in the recipients, which may have caused an imbalance between factors regulating self-renewal or differentiation of the transplanted SSCs. ..
  4. Assis L, Crespo D, Morais R, França L, Bogerd J, Schulz R. INSL3 stimulates spermatogonial differentiation in testis of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Cell Tissue Res. 2016;363:579-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), in addition to inhibiting spermatogonial differentiation and androgen release, inhibits the Fsh (follicle-..
  5. Chen W, Liu L, Ge W. Expression analysis of growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9/gdf9), anti-müllerian hormone (Amh/amh) and aromatase (Cyp19a1a/cyp19a1a) during gonadal differentiation of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Biol Reprod. 2017;96:401-413 pubmed publisher
    In the zebrafish, no sex-determining gene has been identified, while some sex-related genes, such as cyp19a1a and amh, show sexually dimorphic expression. Interestingly, most of these genes are expressed in the somatic cells...
  6. Dai X, Shu Y, Lou Q, Tian Q, Zhai G, Song J, et al. Tdrd12 Is Essential for Germ Cell Development and Maintenance in Zebrafish. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrated that zebrafish Tdrd12 is essential for germ cell development and maintenance. ..
  7. Uren Webster T, Lewis C, Filby A, Paull G, Santos E. Mechanisms of toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the reproductive health of male zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol. 2010;99:360-9 pubmed publisher
  8. Chen J, Wang X, Ge X, Wang D, Wang T, Zhang L, et al. Chronic perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS) exposure produces estrogenic effects in zebrafish. Environ Pollut. 2016;218:702-708 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, chronic PFOS exposure disrupts sex hormone level and related gene expression and impairs gonadal development, which may contribute to the previously reported PFOS reproductive toxicity. ..
  9. Kl ver N, Pfennig F, Pala I, Storch K, Schlieder M, Froschauer A, et al. Differential expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) and anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type II (amhrII) in the teleost medaka. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:271-81 pubmed publisher
    In mammals, the anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) is responsible for the regression of the Müllerian ducts; therefore, Amh is an important factor of male sex differentiation...
  10. Webster K, Schach U, Ordaz A, Steinfeld J, Draper B, Siegfried K. Dmrt1 is necessary for male sexual development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2017;422:33-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Dmrt1 is necessary for normal transcriptional regulation of the amh (anti-Müllerian hormone) and foxl2 (forkhead box L2) genes, which are thought to be important for male or female ..
  11. Chen S, Bogerd J, Schoonen N, Martijn J, de Waal P, Schulz R. A progestin (17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one) stimulates early stages of spermatogenesis in zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;185:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, transcripts of two Sertoli cell-derived genes anti-müllerian hormone (amh) and gonadal soma-derived growth factor (gsdf) were up-regulated, as were three genes of the insulin-like growth ..
  12. Lin H, Lee S, Wu J, Duann Y, Chen J. Development of Cre-loxP technology in zebrafish to study the regulation of fish reproduction. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2013;39:1525-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, this transgenic zebrafish model system provides a method to produce infertile fish and may be useful for application to genetically modified fish...
  13. Rodr guez Mar A, Ca estro C, Bremiller R, Catchen J, Yan Y, Postlethwait J. Retinoic acid metabolic genes, meiosis, and gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73951 pubmed publisher
  14. Vignet C, Larcher T, Davail B, Joassard L, Le Menach K, Guionnet T, et al. Fish Reproduction Is Disrupted upon Lifelong Exposure to Environmental PAHs Fractions Revealing Different Modes of Action. Toxics. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Taken altogether, these results indicate that PAHs can indeed disrupt fish reproduction and that different fractions trigger different pathways resulting in different effects. ..
  15. Silva A, Almeida D, Nornberg B, Pereira J, Pires D, Corcini C, et al. Reproductive parameters of double transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) males overexpressing both the growth hormone (GH) and its receptor (GHR). Transgenic Res. 2017;26:123-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression analyses revealed that Anti-Müllerian Hormone gene (amh) appeared to be primarily responsible for this recovery...
  16. Sharma P, Tang S, Mayer G, Patino R. Effects of thyroid endocrine manipulation on sex-related gene expression and population sex ratios in Zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;235:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..25dpf) and late (45dpf) testicular differentiation for transcript abundance analysis of selected male (dmrt1, amh, ar) and female (cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, esr2b) sex-related genes by quantitative RT-PCR, and fold-changes relative ..
  17. Pala I, Klüver N, Thorsteinsdottir S, Schartl M, Coelho M. Expression pattern of anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) in the hybrid fish complex of Squalius alburnoides. Gene. 2008;410:249-58 pubmed publisher
    ..role in teleost sex determination, and more particularly in male gonad development, the anti-Müllerian hormone, amh was a good initial candidate. Here we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of the amh ortholog in S...
  18. Morais R, Nóbrega R, Gómez González N, Schmidt R, Bogerd J, França L, et al. Thyroid hormone stimulates the proliferation of Sertoli cells and single type A spermatogonia in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) testis. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our studies suggest that T3 expands the population of SCs and A(und) involving Igf signaling and potentiates gonadotropin-stimulated testicular androgen production as well as androgen sensitivity. ..
  19. Gill J, Lowe L, Nguyen J, Liu P, Blake T, Venkatesh B, et al. Enforced expression of Simian virus 40 large T-antigen leads to testicular germ cell tumors in zebrafish. Zebrafish. 2010;7:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, enforced expression of the zebrafish stem cell leukemia (scl) gene in the zebrafish testes also generated TGCTs in transgenic fish. These results demonstrate the feasibility of studying TGCTs in a model organism. ..
  20. Pradhan A, Khalaf H, Ochsner S, Sreenivasan R, Koskinen J, Karlsson M, et al. Activation of NF-?B protein prevents the transition from juvenile ovary to testis and promotes ovarian development in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:37926-38 pubmed publisher
    ..shown to interact with steroidogenic factor-1 in mammals, leading to the suppression of anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh) gene expression...
  21. Villamizar N, Ribas L, Piferrer F, Vera L, Sanchez Vazquez F. Impact of daily thermocycles on hatching rhythms, larval performance and sex differentiation of zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52153 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and 4.6 fold higher than at 28°C, respectively); while anti-müllerian hormone (amh) expression in males increased in testis at 24°C (3.6 fold higher compared to TC) and particularly at 28°C (14...
  22. Sun D, Zhang Y, Wang C, Hua X, Zhang X, Yan J. Sox9-related signaling controls zebrafish juvenile ovary-testis transformation. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e930 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads to follicle disassembly, oocyte degeneration, follicle cell-cyp19a1a-amh conversions, and, eventually, formation of the testis cord...
  23. Tang H, Chen Y, Liu Y, Yin Y, Li G, Guo Y, et al. New Insights Into the Role of Estrogens in Male Fertility Based on Findings in Aromatase-Deficient Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3042-3054 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that estrogens are not needed to achieve and maintain normal fertility in male zebrafish. This finding challenges the traditional view that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility. ..
  24. Santos E, Workman V, Paull G, Filby A, Van Look K, Kille P, et al. Molecular basis of sex and reproductive status in breeding zebrafish. Physiol Genomics. 2007;30:111-22 pubmed
    ..In summary, we have identified molecular processes associated with (gonadal) sex specificity in breeding zebrafish and established a strong relationship between individual ovarian transcriptomes and reproductive status in females. ..
  25. Quintaneiro C, Patricio D, Novais S, Soares A, Monteiro M. Endocrine and physiological effects of linuron and S-metolachlor in zebrafish developing embryos. Sci Total Environ. 2017;586:390-400 pubmed publisher
    ..These results contributed to elucidate modes of action of linuron and S-metolachlor in zebrafish embryo model. Furthermore, gene expression patterns obtained are indicative of endocrine disruption action of these herbicides. ..
  26. Reyhanian Caspillo N, Volkova K, Hallgren S, Olsson P, Porsch Hällström I. Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17?-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014;164:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment. ..
  27. Baudiffier D, Hinfray N, Ravaud C, Creusot N, Chadili E, Porcher J, et al. Effect of in vivo chronic exposure to clotrimazole on zebrafish testis function. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:2747-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrated that clotrimazole is able to affect testicular physiology and raised further concern about the impact of clotrimazole on reproduction. ..
  28. Pradhan A, Olsson P. Inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis disrupts spermatogenesis and fecundity in zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;217-218:81-91 pubmed publisher
  29. Hartung O, Forbes M, Marlow F. Zebrafish vasa is required for germ-cell differentiation and maintenance. Mol Reprod Dev. 2014;81:946-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide insight into the function of zebrafish vasa during female meiosis, differentiation, and maintenance of germ-line stem cells. ..
  30. Svensson J, Mustafa A, Fick J, Schmitz M, Brunström B. Developmental exposure to progestins causes male bias and precocious puberty in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2016;177:316-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcript levels of the gonadal genes amh, CYP11B and CYP19a1a indicated that the masculinizing effect of levonorgestrel occurred very rapidly...
  31. Li X, Guo J, Li X, Zhou H, Zhang S, Liu X, et al. Behavioural effect of low-dose BPA on male zebrafish: Tuning of male mating competition and female mating preference during courtship process. Chemosphere. 2017;169:40-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, our results shed light on the potential behavioural and physiological effect of low-dose BPA exposure on courtship behaviours of zebrafish, which could exert profound consequences on natural zebrafish populations. ..
  32. Chen S, Zhang H, Wang F, Zhang W, Peng G. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;433:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. ..
  33. Morais R, Crespo D, Nóbrega R, Lemos M, van de Kant H, De Franca L, et al. Antagonistic regulation of spermatogonial differentiation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by Igf3 and Amh. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;454:112-124 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we study if and how two Sertoli cell-derived Fsh-responsive growth factors, anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh; inhibiting steroidogenesis and germ cell differentiation) and insulin-like growth factor 3 (Igf3; stimulating germ ..
  34. Crespo D, Assis L, Furmanek T, Bogerd J, Schulz R. Expression profiling identifies Sertoli and Leydig cell genes as Fsh targets in adult zebrafish testis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;437:237-251 pubmed publisher
  35. Presslauer C, Nagasawa K, Dahle D, Babiak J, Fernandes J, Babiak I. Induced autoimmunity against gonadal proteins affects gonadal development in juvenile zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114209 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the highly variable results between treatments and individuals suggest significant optimization should be performed to achieve the full potential of this technology. ..
  36. Zhang Z, Lau S, Zhang L, Ge W. Disruption of Zebrafish Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (fshr) But Not Luteinizing Hormone Receptor (lhcgr) Gene by TALEN Leads to Failed Follicle Activation in Females Followed by Sexual Reversal to Males. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3747-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither Fshr nor Lhcgr deficiency could phenocopy the deficiency of their cognate ligands FSH and LH, which is likely due to the fact that Fshr can be activated by both FSH and LH in the zebrafish. ..
  37. Yin Y, Tang H, Liu Y, Chen Y, Li G, Liu X, et al. Targeted Disruption of Aromatase Reveals Dual Functions of cyp19a1a During Sex Differentiation in Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3030-3041 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results revealed dual functions of the cyp19a1a gene during sex differentiation: cyp19a1a is not only indispensable for female sex differentiation but also required for male sex differentiation. ..
  38. Safian D, Morais R, Bogerd J, Schulz R. Igf Binding Proteins Protect Undifferentiated Spermatogonia in the Zebrafish Testis Against Excessive Differentiation. Endocrinology. 2016;157:4423-4433 pubmed
    ..Clearly decreased nanos2 transcript levels are in agreement with this finding, and reduced amh expression may have facilitated spermatogonial differentiation...
  39. Lin Q, Mei J, Li Z, Zhang X, Zhou L, Gui J. Distinct and Cooperative Roles of amh and dmrt1 in Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Male Germ Cells in Zebrafish. Genetics. 2017;207:1007-1022 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the roles of amh and dmrt1 in male germ cell development by generating their mutants with Crispr/Cas9 technology in ..
  40. Sun D, Chen Q, He N, Diao P, Jia L, Duan S. Effect of environmentally-relevant concentrations of nonylphenol on sexual differentiation in zebrafish: a multi-generational study. Sci Rep. 2017;7:42907 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, NP could affect sexual differentiation and gene transcriptional expression in the F1 generation. The tolerance of contaminant in the offsprings was improved at low concentration. ..
  41. Nóbrega R, Morais R, Crespo D, de Waal P, de França L, Schulz R, et al. Fsh Stimulates Spermatogonial Proliferation and Differentiation in Zebrafish via Igf3. Endocrinology. 2015;156:3804-17 pubmed publisher
  42. Leerberg D, Sano K, Draper B. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006993 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development. ..
  43. Jiang N, Jin X, He J, Yin Z. The roles of follistatin 1 in regulation of zebrafish fecundity and sexual differentiation. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:54 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the present study contributes to our understanding of the paracrine roles of fst1 as well as normal oocyte maturation and gonadal differentiation. ..
  44. Laing L, Viana J, Dempster E, Trznadel M, Trunkfield L, Uren Webster T, et al. Bisphenol A causes reproductive toxicity, decreases dnmt1 transcription, and reduces global DNA methylation in breeding zebrafish (Danio rerio). Epigenetics. 2016;11:526-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence of the mechanisms of action of BPA in a model vertebrate and advocate for its reduction in the environment. ..
  45. Di Rosa V, López Olmeda J, Burguillo A, Frigato E, Bertolucci C, Piferrer F, et al. Daily Rhythms of the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Function in Zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157716 pubmed publisher
    ..In gonads, the expression of aromatase (cyp19a1a, ovarian aromatase) and the antimüllerian hormone (amh, testis) was rhythmic, with almost opposite acrophases: ZT 5:13 h (in the light phase) and ZT 15:39 h (at night), ..